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1.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EU LifeCycle Project was launched in 2017 to combine, harmonise, and analyse data from more than 250,000 participants across Europe and Australia, involving cohorts participating in the EU-funded LifeCycle Project. The purpose of this cohort description is to provide a detailed overview over the major measures within mental health domains that are available in 17 European and Australian cohorts participating in the LifeCycle Project. METHODS: Data on cognitive, behavioural and psychological development has been collected on participants from birth until adulthood through questionnaire and medical data. We developed an inventory of the available data by mapping individual instruments, domain types, and age groups, providing the basis for statistical harmonization across mental health measures. RESULTS: The mental health data in LifeCycle contain longitudinal and cross-sectional data for ages 0-18+ years, covering domains across a wide range of behavioural and psychopathology indicators and outcomes (including executive function, depression, ADHD and cognition). These data span a unique combination of qualitative data collected through behavioural/cognitive/mental health questionnaires and examination, as well as data from biological samples and indices in the form of brain imaging (MRI, foetal ultrasound) and DNA methylation data. Harmonized variables on a subset of mental health domains have been developed, providing statistical equivalence of measures required for longitudinal meta-analyses across instruments and cohorts. CONCLUSION: Mental health data harmonized through the LifeCycle project can be used to study life course trajectories and exposure-outcome models that examine early life risk factors for mental illness and develop predictive markers for later-life disease.

2.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685423

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is essential for placental development, whose SNPs have shown increased susceptibility to pregnancy-related diseases, such as preeclampsia. Our aim was to investigate the association between preeclampsia and three PPARγ SNPs (Pro12Ala, C1431T, and C681G), which together with nine clinical factors were used to build a pragmatic model for preeclampsia prediction. Data were collected from 1648 women from the EDEN cohort, of which 35 women had preeclamptic pregnancies, and the remaining 1613 women had normal pregnancies. Univariate analysis comparing preeclamptic patients to the control resulted in the SNP C1431T being the only factor significantly associated with preeclampsia (p < 0.05), with a confidence interval of 95% and odds ratio ranging from 4.90 to 8.75. On the other hand, three methods of multivariate feature selection highlighted seven features that could be potential predictors of preeclampsia: maternal C1431T and C681G variants, obesity, body mass index, number of pregnancies, primiparity, cigarette use, and education. These seven features were further used as input into eight different machine-learning algorithms to create predictive models, whose performances were evaluated based on metrics of accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The boost tree-based model performed the best, with respective accuracy and AUC values of 0.971 ± 0.002 and 0.991 ± 0.001 in the training set and 0.951 and 0.701 in the testing set. A flowchart based on the boost tree model was constructed to depict the procedure for preeclampsia prediction. This final decision tree showed that the C1431T variant of PPARγ is significantly associated with susceptibility to preeclampsia. We believe that this final decision tree could be applied in the clinical prediction of preeclampsia in the very early stages of pregnancy.

3.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 5: 100114, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557823

RESUMO

Background: The monitoring of head circumference (HC) is essential to early detect any conditions affecting its growth in early childhood. A positive secular trend and regional specificities in HC suggested the need to provide updated national HC reference growth charts. Methods: We extracted all growth data collected from 42 primary-care physicians from across the French metropolitan territory who used the same electronic medical-records software. We selected HC measurements up to age five years for all children who were born after 1990 with birth weight > 2500 g. We derived new HC growth charts by using Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape, then externally validated them until 30 months of age by comparison with the national population-based Étude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE) birth cohort and compared them to previous French and WHO growth charts. Findings: With 973,869 HC measurements from 157,762 children, new calibrated HC growth charts from birth to age five years were generated. The new HC growth charts showed good external fit by comparison with the ELFE birth cohort. As compared with the new HC growth charts, the previous French and WHO growth charts mean HC z-scores were, respectively, -0.4 and -0.6 SD for girls and -0.2 and -0.6 SD for boys. Interpretation: We produced and validated national calibrated HC growth charts by using a novel big-data approach applied to data routinely collected in clinical practice. Comparison with previous French and WHO growth charts confirmed a positive secular trend since the 1960s and regional specificities. Funding: The French Ministry of Health; Laboratoires Guigoz-General Pediatrics section of the French Society of Pediatrics-Paediatric Epidemiological Research Group; the French Association of Ambulatory Pediatrics; and educational grant from the Regional Health Agency of Ile-de-France.

4.
Environ Int ; 157: 106853, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500361

RESUMO

Developing children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We hypothesized that early life exposure to PFASs is associated with poor metabolic health in children. We studied the association between prenatal and postnatal PFASs mixture exposure and cardiometabolic health in children, and the role of inflammatory proteins. In 1,101 mothers-child pairs from the Human Early Life Exposome project, we measured the concentrations of PFAS in blood collected in pregnancy and at 8 years (range = 6-12 years). We applied Bayesian Kernel Machine regression (BKMR) to estimate the associations between exposure to PFAS mixture and the cardiometabolic factors as age and sex- specific z-scores of waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), and concentrations of triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol. We measured thirty six inflammatory biomarkers in child plasma and examined the underlying role of inflammatory status for the exposure-outcome association by integrating the three panels into a network. Exposure to the PFAS mixture was positively associated with HDL-C and systolic BP, and negatively associated with WC, LDL-C and TG. When we examined the independent effects of the individual chemicals in the mixture, prenatal PFHxS was negatively associated with HDL-C and prenatal PFNA was positively associated with WC and these were opposing directions from the overall mixture. Further, the network consisted of five distinct communities connected with positive and negative correlations. The selected inflammatory biomarkers were positively, while the postnatal PFAS were negatively related with the included cardiometabolic factors, and only prenatal PFOA was positively related with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and WC. Our study supports that prenatal, rather than postnatal, PFAS exposure might contribute to an unfavorable lipidemic profile and adiposity in childhood.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez
5.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118024, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523531

RESUMO

In utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as synthetic phenols, may alter DNA methylation in different tissues, including placenta - a critical organ for fetal development. We studied associations between prenatal urinary biomarker concentrations of synthetic phenols and placental DNA methylation. Our study involved 202 mother-son pairs from the French EDEN cohort. Nine phenols were measured in spot urine samples collected between 22 and 29 gestational weeks. We performed DNA methylation analysis of the fetal side of placental tissues using the IlluminaHM450 BeadChips. We evaluated methylation changes of individual CpGs in an adjusted epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and identified differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We performed mediation analysis to test whether placental tissue heterogeneity mediated the association between urinary phenol concentrations and DNA methylation. We identified 46 significant DMRs (≥5 CpGs) associated with triclosan (37 DMRs), 2,4-dichlorophenol (3), benzophenone-3 (3), methyl- (2) and propylparaben (1). All but 2 DMRs were positively associated with phenol concentrations. Out of the 46 identified DMRs, 7 (6 for triclosan) encompassed imprinted genes (APC, FOXG1, GNAS, GNASAS, MIR886, PEG10, SGCE), which represented a significant enrichment. Other identified DMRs encompassed genes encoding proteins responsible for cell signaling, transmembrane transport, cell adhesion, inflammatory, apoptotic and immunological response, genes encoding transcription factors, histones, tumor suppressors, genes involved in tumorigenesis and several cancer risk biomarkers. Mediation analysis suggested that placental cell heterogeneity may partly explain these associations. This is the first study describing the genome-wide modifications of placental DNA methylation associated with pregnancy exposure to synthetic phenols or their precursors. Our results suggest that cell heterogeneity might mediate the effects of triclosan exposure on placental DNA methylation. Additionally, the enrichment of imprinted genes within the DMRs suggests mechanisms by which certain exposures, mainly to triclosan, could affect fetal development.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenóis/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
6.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503987

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Severe fetal malnutrition has been related to an increased risk of respiratory diseases later in life, but evidence for the association of a suboptimal diet during pregnancy with respiratory outcomes in childhood is conflicting. We aimed to examine whether a pro-inflammatory or low-quality maternal diet during pregnancy was associated with child's respiratory health. METHODS: We performed an individual participant meta-analysis among 18 326 mother-child pairs from seven European birth cohorts. Maternal pro-inflammatory and low-quality diet were estimated by energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DIITM) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores. Preschool wheezing and school-age asthma were measured by questionnaires and lung function by spirometry. RESULTS: After adjustment for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, we observed that a higher maternal E-DII score (a more pro-inflammatory diet) during pregnancy was associated only with a lower FVC in children (Z-score difference (95% confidence interval (CI)): -0.05 (-0.08, -0.02), per IQR increase). No linear associations of the maternal E-DII or DASH score with child's wheezing or asthma were observed. When exploratively examining the extremes, a very low DASH score (<10th percentile) (a very low dietary quality) was associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing and a low FEV1/FVC (z-score <-1.64) (OR (95% CI) 1.20 (1.06, 1.36), 1.40 (1.06, 1.85), compared to ≥10th percentile), with corresponding population attributable risk fractions of 1.7% and 3.3%. CONCLUSION: Main results from this individual participant data meta-analysis do not support the hypothesis that maternal pro-inflammatory or low-quality diet in pregnancy are related to respiratory diseases in childhood.

7.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 50(10): 102216, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as phthalates that are widely used in our daily life (food wrapping, cosmetics, toys, medical devices, polyvinyl chloride flooring, and building materials) might be related to raised blood pressure and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Phthalates might induce a pro-inflammatory response and increased oxidative stress and may be a cause of pregnancy induced hypertension. METHODS: We evaluated the association between maternal exposure to phthalates during pregnancy and pregnancy induced hypertension. 604 pregnant women were included and eleven phthalate metabolites were quantified in spot maternal urine samples collected between the 23rd and 28th week of gestation in a French EDEN mother-child cohort. The associations were assessed by applying multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Twenty nine (4,8%) mothers developed pregnancy induced hypertension. Two low molecular weight phthalate metabolites: Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and Mono-n­butyl phthalate (MBP) were positively associated with pregnancy induced hypertension in crude (Odds Ratio: 1.43, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.04-1.96, p-value = 0.02 and 1.48, 1.10-2.01, p-value =0.01) and in adjusted (1.47, 1.01-2.14, p-value = 0.04 and 1.66, 1.11-2.47, p-value = 0.01) models respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that prenatal exposure to some phthalates, including MEP and MBP, might play a role in pregnancy induced hypertension.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444818

RESUMO

An exposure to sweetened and fatty foods early in life may be involved in high liking later in life. The objective is to investigate the association between dietary exposure to carbohydrate, sugars and fat in infancy, with liking for sweetness, fattiness and fattiness-and-sweetness sensations at 8-to-12-year-old. Analyses were conducted on 759 French children from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Carbohydrate, sugar or fat intake, being a consumer of added sugars or added fats were assessed at 8 and 12 months using 3-day food records. The liking score (0-10) for the different sensations was assessed through an online child-completed questionnaire. Associations were tested by linear regressions adjusted for main confounders and the interaction with sex was tested. None of the early dietary exposure variables was related to fattiness liking. Carbohydrate intake at 8 months was positively but weakly associated with liking for sweetness-and-fattiness. In girls only, carbohydrate intake at 12 months was positively associated with liking for sweetness. Globally, no marked associations were observed between infant dietary exposure to sweet and fat and liking for sweetness and fattiness in young children. The positive link in girls between early carbohydrate exposure and later liking for sweetness needs to be confirmed in further studies.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Paladar , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sensação , Edulcorantes
9.
Epigenetics ; : 1-16, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461807

RESUMO

The preconception period represents an important window for foetal and epigenetic programming. Some micronutrients (B vitamins, choline, betaine, methionine) implicated in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) are essential for major epigenetic processes that take place in early pregnancy. However, few studies have evaluated the implication of the micronutrients in placental DNA methylation. We investigated whether intake of OCM nutrients in the year before pregnancy was associated with placental DNA methylation in the EDEN mother-child cohort. Maternal dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Three dietary patterns, 'varied and balanced diet,' 'vegetarian tendency,' and 'bread and starchy food,' were used to characterize maternal OCM dietary intake. The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to measure placental DNA methylation of 573 women included in the analyses. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns with global DNA methylation. Then, we conducted an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and investigated differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with each dietary pattern. We found no significant association between the three dietary patterns and global DNA methylation or individual CpG sites. DMR analyses highlighted associations between the 'varied and balanced' or 'vegetarian tendency' pattern and DMRs located at genes previously implicated in functions essential for embryonic development, such as neurodevelopment. The 'bread and starchy food' pattern was associated with regions related to genes whose functions involve various metabolic and cell synthesis-related processes. In mainly well-nourished French women without major deficiencies, OCM intake before pregnancy was not associated with major variation in DNA methylation.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5095, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429407

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) contributes to poor birth outcomes, in part through disrupted placental functions, which may be reflected in the placental epigenome. Here we present a meta-analysis of the associations between MSDP and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) and between DNAm and birth outcomes within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium (N = 1700, 344 with MSDP). We identify 443 CpGs that are associated with MSDP, of which 142 associated with birth outcomes, 40 associated with gene expression, and 13 CpGs are associated with all three. Only two CpGs have consistent associations from a prior meta-analysis of cord blood DNAm, demonstrating substantial tissue-specific responses to MSDP. The placental MSDP-associated CpGs are enriched for environmental response genes, growth-factor signaling, and inflammation, which play important roles in placental function. We demonstrate links between placental DNAm, MSDP and poor birth outcomes, which may better inform the mechanisms through which MSDP impacts placental function and fetal growth.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Gravidez , Tabaco
11.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 35(6): 748-757, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the limited evidence, accelerated early postnatal growth (EPG) is commonly believed to benefit neurodevelopment for term-born infants, especially those small for gestational age. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the existence of critical time windows in the association of EPG with neurodevelopment, considering birth size groups. STUDY DESIGN: In the French ELFE birth cohort, 12,854 term-born neonates were classified as small, appropriate or large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, LGA, respectively). Parents reported their child's development by using the Child Development Inventory (CDI-score) at age 12 months and the MacArthur-Bates Development Inventory (MAB-score; 100 score units) assessing language ability at age 24 months. Predictions of individual weight, body mass index (BMI), length, and head circumference (HC) from birth to age 24 months were obtained from repeated measurements fitted with the Jenss-Bayley mixed-effects model. For each infant, conditional gains (CG) in these growth parameters were generated at four-time points (3, 6, 12 and 24 months) representing specific variations in growth parameters during 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-24 months, independent of previous measures. Using multivariable linear regression models, we provided the estimate differences of the neurodevelopmental scores according to variation of each growth parameter CG, by birth size group. RESULTS: For SGA infants, the MAB-score differed by 5.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.2, 11.8), 6.7 (95% CI -0.1, 13.3), and 9.7 (95% CI 1.9, 17.5) score units when CG in BMI, weight, and HC at 3 months varied from -2 to 1 standard deviation, respectively. For all infants, MAB-score was linearly and positively associated with length conditional gains at 12 months, with stronger magnitude for SGA infants. Results for the CDI-score were overall consistent with those for MAB-score. CONCLUSIONS: For term-born SGA infants, moderate catch-up in HC, BMI and weight within the first 3 months of life may benefit later neurodevelopment, which could guide clinicians to monitor EPG.

12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 166, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple omics technologies are increasingly applied to detect early, subtle molecular responses to environmental stressors for future disease risk prevention. However, there is an urgent need for further evaluation of stability and variability of omics profiles in healthy individuals, especially during childhood. METHODS: We aimed to estimate intra-, inter-individual and cohort variability of multi-omics profiles (blood DNA methylation, gene expression, miRNA, proteins and serum and urine metabolites) measured 6 months apart in 156 healthy children from five European countries. We further performed a multi-omics network analysis to establish clusters of co-varying omics features and assessed the contribution of key variables (including biological traits and sample collection parameters) to omics variability. RESULTS: All omics displayed a large range of intra- and inter-individual variability depending on each omics feature, although all presented a highest median intra-individual variability. DNA methylation was the most stable profile (median 37.6% inter-individual variability) while gene expression was the least stable (6.6%). Among the least stable features, we identified 1% cross-omics co-variation between CpGs and metabolites (e.g. glucose and CpGs related to obesity and type 2 diabetes). Explanatory variables, including age and body mass index (BMI), explained up to 9% of serum metabolite variability. CONCLUSIONS: Methylation and targeted serum metabolomics are the most reliable omics to implement in single time-point measurements in large cross-sectional studies. In the case of metabolomics, sample collection and individual traits (e.g. BMI) are important parameters to control for improved comparability, at the study design or analysis stage. This study will be valuable for the design and interpretation of epidemiological studies that aim to link omics signatures to disease, environmental exposures, or both.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , MicroRNAs , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Humanos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117404, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077897

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies mostly focus on single environmental exposures. This study aims to systematically assess associations between a wide range of prenatal and childhood environmental exposures and cognition. The study sample included data of 1298 mother-child pairs, children were 6-11 years-old, from six European birth cohorts. We measured 87 exposures during pregnancy and 122 cross-sectionally during childhood, including air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals and life styles. The measured cognitive domains were fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test, CPM), attention (Attention Network Test, ANT) and working memory (N-Back task). We used two statistical approaches to assess associations between exposure and child cognition: the exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering each exposure independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm (DSA) considering all exposures simultaneously to build a final multiexposure model. Based on this multiexposure model that included the exposure variables selected by ExWAS and DSA models, child organic food intake was associated with higher fluid intelligence (CPM) scores (beta = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.87) and higher working memory (N-Back) scores (0.23; 0.05, 0.41), and child fast food intake (-1.25; -2.10, -0.40), house crowding (-0.39; -0.62, -0.16), and child environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (-0.89; -1.42, -0.35), were all associated with lower CPM scores. Indoor PM2.5 exposure was associated with lower N-Back scores (-0.09; -0.16, -0.02). Additional associations in the unexpected direction were found: Higher prenatal mercury levels, maternal alcohol consumption and child higher perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) levels were associated with better cognitive performance; and higher green exposure during pregnancy with lower cognitive performance. This first comprehensive and systematic study of many prenatal and childhood environmental risk factors suggests that unfavourable child nutrition, family crowdedness and child indoor air pollution and ETS exposures adversely and cross-sectionally associate with cognitive function. Unexpected associations were also observed and maybe due to confounding and reverse causality.


Assuntos
Expossoma , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11863, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103551

RESUMO

Studies in children have reported associations of screen time and background TV on language skills as measured by their parents. However, few large, longitudinal studies have examined language skills assessed by trained psychologists, which is less prone to social desirability. We assessed screen time and exposure to TV during family meals at ages 2, 3 and 5-6 years in 1562 children from the French EDEN cohort. Language skills were evaluated by parents at 2 years (Communicative Development Inventory, CDI) and by trained psychologists at 3 (NEPSY and ELOLA batteries) and 5-6 years (verbal IQ). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were assessed by linear regression adjusted for important confounders. Overall, daily screen time was not associated with language scores, except in cross-sectional at age 2 years, where higher CDI scores were observed for intermediate screen time. Exposure to TV during family meals was consistently associated with lower language scores: TV always on (vs never) at age 2 years was associated with lower verbal IQ (- 3.2 [95% IC: - 6.0, - 0.3] points), independent of daily screen time and baseline language score. In conclusion, public health policies should better account for the context of screen watching, not only its amount.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Mães , Tempo de Tela , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino
16.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e153, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131614

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent pediatric chronic liver disease. Experimental studies suggest effects of air pollution and traffic exposure on liver injury. We present the first large-scale human study to evaluate associations of prenatal and childhood air pollution and traffic exposure with liver injury. Methods: Study population included 1,102 children from the Human Early Life Exposome project. Established liver injury biomarkers, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and cytokeratin-18, were measured in serum between ages 6-10 years. Air pollutant exposures included nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter <10 µm (PM10), and <2.5 µm. Traffic measures included traffic density on nearest road, traffic load in 100-m buffer, and inverse distance to nearest road. Exposure assignments were made to residential address during pregnancy (prenatal) and residential and school addresses in year preceding follow-up (childhood). Childhood indoor air pollutant exposures were also examined. Generalized additive models were fitted adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and overweight/obese status were examined. Results: Prenatal and childhood exposures to air pollution and traffic were not associated with child liver injury biomarkers. There was a significant interaction between prenatal ambient PM10 and overweight/obese status for alanine aminotransferase, with stronger associations among children who were overweight/obese. There was no evidence of interaction with sex. Conclusion: This study found no evidence for associations between prenatal or childhood air pollution or traffic exposure with liver injury biomarkers in children. Findings suggest PM10 associations maybe higher in children who are overweight/obese, consistent with the multiple-hits hypothesis for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis.

17.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(11): e12803, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In several systematic reviews, rapid weight gain in early life has been related to increased risk of later obesity. In line with this finding, the "early protein hypothesis" suggests that reducing early protein intake is a potential lever for obesity prevention. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the variability of protein content of infant formula used in France over the period 2003-2012 is significantly associated with early growth in children. METHODS: A pooled sample of infants from the EDEN (Etude des Déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant) mother-child cohort (born in 2003-2006) and the ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance) birth cohort (born in 2011) (ntotal  = 5846) was used. Protein content of the infant formula received at 4 months was classified into five groups. Associations between protein content (or breastfed status) at 4 months and weight-, length- and BMI-for-age z-scores at 6, 12 and 18 months were analysed by multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: This analysis showed a positive association between protein content and weight-, length- and BMI-for-age z-scores at 6 months and only for weight-for-age at 12 months. At 6 months, as compared with the intermediate protein-content group (2.1-2.5 g/100 kcal), infants receiving very-high protein content (>2.8 g/100 kcal) had higher BMI-for-age z-score and those from the very-low protein-content group (<2.0 g/100 kcal) had lower BMI-for-age z-score. Exclusively breastfed infants had lower length and weight z-scores than formula-fed infants at any age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a positive association, under real conditions of use, between protein contents in infant formula still on the market and weight-, length- and BMI-for-age z-scores from 6 to 18 months.

18.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(8): 1802-1810, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early adiposity rebound (AR) has been associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in adulthood. However, little is known about early predictors of age at AR. We aimed to study the role of perinatal factors and genetic susceptibility to obesity in the kinetics of AR. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) curves were modelled by using mixed-effects cubic models, and age at AR was estimated for 1415 children of the EDEN mother-child cohort study. A combined obesity risk-allele score was calculated from genotypes for 27 variants identified by genome-wide association studies of adult BMI. Perinatal factors of interest were maternal age at delivery, parental education, parental BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and newborn characteristics (sex, prematurity, and birth weight). We used a hierarchical level approach with multivariable linear regression model to investigate the association between these factors, obesity risk-allele score, and age at AR. RESULTS: A higher genetic susceptibility to obesity score was associated with an earlier age at AR. At the most distal level of the hierarchical model, maternal and paternal educational levels were positively associated with age at AR. Children born to parents with higher BMI were more likely to exhibit earlier age at AR. In addition, higher gestational weight gain was related to earlier age at AR. For children born small for gestational age, the average age at AR was 88 [±39] days lower than for children born appropriate for gestational age and 91 [±56] days lower than for children born large for gestational age. CONCLUSION: The timing of AR seems to be an early childhood manifestation of the genetic susceptibility to adult obesity. We further identified low birth weight and gestational weight gain as novel predictors of early AR, highlighting the role of the intrauterine environment in the kinetics of adiposity.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9044, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907290

RESUMO

Refractive errors are common, especially in children and adolescents, leading to global health issues, academic implications and economic costs. Circadian rhythm and sleep habits may play a role. The study included 1130 children from the EDEN birth-cohort. Data were collected through parental questionnaires at age 2 and 5 for sleep duration and timing, and at age 5 for refractive error. At 5 years, 20.4% were prescribed glasses (2% for myopia, 11.9% for hyperopia and 6.8% for unknown reason). Children slept on average (SD) 11h05/night (± 30 min) and 10h49/night (± 48 min) at age 2 and 5, respectively. Average bedtime and midsleep was 8.36 pm (± 30 min), 2.06 am (± 36 min), and 8.54 pm (± 30 min), 2.06 am (± 24 min) at age 2 and 5, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed between sleep duration at age 2 and eyeglass prescription at age 5. Later midsleep and bedtime at age 2 were associated with an increased risk of eyeglass prescription at age 5. Associations became borderline significant after adjustment for confounding factors. Sleep duration and timing at age 2 were associated with subsequent refractive errors in preschoolers from general population. Sleep hygiene might be a target for refractive errors prevention.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(5): 565-580, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884544

RESUMO

The Horizon2020 LifeCycle Project is a cross-cohort collaboration which brings together data from multiple birth cohorts from across Europe and Australia to facilitate studies on the influence of early-life exposures on later health outcomes. A major product of this collaboration has been the establishment of a FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable) data resource known as the EU Child Cohort Network. Here we focus on the EU Child Cohort Network's core variables. These are a set of basic variables, derivable by the majority of participating cohorts and frequently used as covariates or exposures in lifecourse research. First, we describe the process by which the list of core variables was established. Second, we explain the protocol according to which these variables were harmonised in order to make them interoperable. Third, we describe the catalogue developed to ensure that the network's data are findable and reusable. Finally, we describe the core data, including the proportion of variables harmonised by each cohort and the number of children for whom harmonised core data are available. EU Child Cohort Network data will be analysed using a federated analysis platform, removing the need to physically transfer data and thus making the data more accessible to researchers. The network will add value to participating cohorts by increasing statistical power and exposure heterogeneity, as well as facilitating cross-cohort comparisons, cross-validation and replication. Our aim is to motivate other cohorts to join the network and encourage the use of the EU Child Cohort Network by the wider research community.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Disseminação de Informação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Saúde Pública
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