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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18164, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518567

RESUMO

Communicating cardiovascular risk based on individual vascular age (VA) is a well acknowledged concept in patient education and disease prevention. VA may be derived functionally, e.g. by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), or morphologically, e.g. by assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether both approaches produce similar results. Within the context of the German subset of the EUROASPIRE IV survey, 501 patients with coronary heart disease underwent (a) oscillometric PWV measurement at the aortic, carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle site (PWVao, PWVcf, PWVba) and derivation of the aortic augmentation index (AIao); (b) bilateral cIMT assessment by high-resolution ultrasound at three sites (common, bulb, internal). Respective VA was calculated using published equations. According to VA derived from PWV, most patients exhibited values below chronological age indicating a counterintuitive healthier-than-anticipated vascular status: for VAPWVao in 68% of patients; for VAAIao in 52% of patients. By contrast, VA derived from cIMT delivered opposite results: e.g. according to VAtotal-cIMT accelerated vascular aging in 75% of patients. To strengthen the concept of VA, further efforts are needed to better standardise the current approaches to estimate VA and, thereby, to improve comparability and clinical utility.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444369

RESUMO

We aimed to systematically identify and evaluate all studies of good quality that compared the occurrence of mental disorders in the self-employed versus employees. Adhering to the Cochrane guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and searched three major medical databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase), complemented by hand search. We included 26 (three longitudinal and 23 cross-sectional) population-based studies of good quality (using a validated quality assessment tool), with data from 3,128,877 participants in total. The longest of these studies, a Swedish national register evaluation with 25 years follow-up, showed a higher incidence of mental illness among the self-employed compared to white-collar workers, but a lower incidence compared to blue-collar workers. In the second longitudinal study from Sweden the self-employed had a lower incidence of mental illness compared to both blue- and white-collar workers over 15 years, whereas the third longitudinal study (South Korea) did not find a difference regarding the incidence of depressive symptoms over 6 years. Results from the cross-sectional studies showed associations between self-employment and poor general mental health and stress, but were inconsistent regarding other mental outcomes. Most studies from South Korea found a higher prevalence of mental disorders among the self-employed compared to employees, whereas the results of cross-sectional studies from outside Asia were less consistent. In conclusion, we found evidence from population-based studies for a link between self-employment and increased risk of mental illness. Further longitudinal studies are needed examining the potential risk for the development of mental disorders in specific subtypes of the self-employed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
3.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(9): 924-934, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402874

RESUMO

AIMS: Prevention of heart failure relies on the early identification and control of risk factors. We aimed to identify the frequency and characteristics of individuals at risk of heart failure in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report cross-sectional data from the prospective Characteristics and Course of Heart Failure Stages A-B and Determinants of Progression (STAAB) cohort study investigating a representative sample of residents of Würzburg, Germany. Sampling was stratified 1:1 for sex and 10:27:27:27:10 for age groups of 30-39/40-49/50-59/60-69/70-79 years. Heart failure precursor stages were defined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association: stage A (risk factors for heart failure), stage B (asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction). The main results were internally validated in the second half of the participants. The derivation sample comprised 2473 participants (51% women) with a distribution of 10%/28%/25%/27%/10% in respective age groups. Stages A and B were prevalent in 42% and 17% of subjects, respectively. Of stage B subjects, 31% had no risk factor qualifying for stage A (group 'B-not-A'). Compared to individuals in stage B with A criteria, B-not-A were younger, more often women, and had left ventricular dilation as the predominant B qualifying criterion (all P < 0.001). These results were confirmed in the validation sample (n = 2492). CONCLUSION: We identified a hitherto undescribed group of asymptomatic individuals with cardiac dysfunction predisposing to heart failure, who lacked established heart failure risk factors and therefore would have been missed by conventional primary prevention. Further studies need to replicate this finding in independent cohorts and characterise their genetic and -omic profile and the inception of clinically overt heart failure in subjects of group B-not-A.

4.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the most commonly used measure describing pumping efficiency, but it is heavily dependent on loading conditions and therefore not well-suited to study pathophysiologic changes. The novel concept of echocardiography-derived myocardial work (MyW) overcomes this disadvantage as it is based on LV pressure-strain loops. We tracked the in-hospital changes of indices of MyW in patients admitted for acute heart failure (AHF) in relation to their recompensation status and explored the prognostic utility of MyW indices METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 126 patients admitted for AHF (mean 73 ± 12 years, 37% female, 40% with a reduced LVEF [<40%]), providing pairs of echocardiograms obtained both on hospital admission and prior to discharge. The following MyW indices were derived: global constructive and wasted work (GCW, GWW), global work index (GWI), and global work efficiency. In patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction with decreasing N-terminal prohormone B-natriuretic peptide levels during hospitalization, the GCW and GWI improved significantly, whereas the GWW remained unchanged. In patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction, the GCW and GWI were unchanged; however, in patients with no decrease or eventual increase in N-terminal prohormone B-natriuretic peptide, we observed an increase in GWW. In all patients with AHF, higher values of GWW were associated with a higher risk of death or rehospitalization within 6 months after discharge (per 10-point increment hazard ratio 1.035, 95% confidence interval 1.005-1.065). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest differential myocardial responses to decompensation and recompensation, depending on the HF phenotype in patients presenting with AHF. The GWW predicted the 6-month prognosis in these patients, regardless of LVEF. Future studies in larger cohorts need to confirm our results and identify determinants of short-term and longer term changes in MyW.

5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 669335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179134

RESUMO

Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) dilatation and LV hypertrophy are acknowledged precursors of myocardial dysfunction and ultimately of heart failure, but the implications of abnormal LV geometry on myocardial function are not well-understood. Non-invasive LV myocardial work (MyW) assessment based on echocardiography-derived pressure-strain loops offers the opportunity to study detailed myocardial function in larger cohorts. We aimed to assess the relationship of LV geometry with MyW indices in general population free from heart failure. Methods and Results: We report cross-sectional baseline data from the Characteristics and Course of Heart Failure Stages A-B and Determinants of Progression (STAAB) cohort study investigating a representative sample of the general population of Würzburg, Germany, aged 30-79 years. MyW analysis was performed in 1,926 individuals who were in sinus rhythm and free from valvular disease (49.3% female, 54 ± 12 years). In multivariable regression, higher LV volume was associated with higher global wasted work (GWW) (+0.5 mmHg% per mL/m2, p < 0.001) and lower global work efficiency (GWE) (-0.02% per mL/m2, p < 0.01), while higher LV mass was associated with higher GWW (+0.45 mmHg% per g/m2, p < 0.001) and global constructive work (GCW) (+2.05 mmHg% per g/m2, p < 0.01) and lower GWE (-0.015% per g/m2, p < 0.001). This was dominated by the blood pressure level and also observed in participants with normal LV geometry and concomitant hypertension. Conclusion: Abnormal LV geometric profiles were associated with a higher amount of wasted work, which translated into reduced work efficiency. The pattern of a disproportionate increase in GWW with higher LV mass might be an early sign of hypertensive heart disease.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(10): e018326, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982599

RESUMO

Background Recent evidence suggests cardiac troponin levels to be a marker of increased vascular risk. We aimed to assess whether levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) are associated with recurrent vascular events and death in patients with first-ever, mild to moderate ischemic stroke. Methods and Results We used data from the PROSCIS-B (Prospective Cohort With Incident Stroke Berlin) study. We computed Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to assess the association between hs-cTnT levels upon study entry (Roche Elecsys, upper reference limit, 14 ng/L) and the primary outcome (composite of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death). A total of 562 patients were analyzed (mean age, 67 years [SD 13]; 38.6% women; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale=2; hs-cTnT above upper reference limit, 39.2%). During a mean follow-up of 3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 89 patients (15.8%), including 40 (7.1%) recurrent strokes, 4 (0.7%) myocardial infarctions, and 51 (9.1%) events of all-cause death. The primary outcome occurred more often in patients with hs-cTnT above the upper reference limit (27.3% versus 10.2%; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3), with a dose-response relationship when the highest and lowest hs-cTnT quartiles were compared (15.2 versus 1.8 events per 100 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9-11.8). This association remained consistent in sensitivity analyses, which included age matching and stratification for sex. Conclusions Hs-cTnT is dose-dependently associated with an increased risk of recurrent vascular events and death within 3 years after first-ever, mild to moderate ischemic stroke. These findings support further studies of the utility of hs-cTnT for individualized risk stratification after stroke. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01363856.

7.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(6): 426-436, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring improves detection of covert atrial fibrillation in stroke survivors but the effect on secondary prevention is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of systematic ECG monitoring of patients in hospital on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, randomised, open-label, parallel-group multicentre study with masked endpoint adjudication, we recruited patients aged at least 18 years with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack without known atrial fibrillation in 38 certified stroke units in Germany. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to usual diagnostic procedures for atrial fibrillation detection (control group) or additional Holter-ECG recording for up to 7 days in hospital (intervention group). Patients were stratified by centre using a random permuted block design. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients on oral anticoagulants at 12 months after the index event in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation in hospital and the composite of recurrent stroke, major bleeding, myocardial infarction, or death after 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02204267, and is completed and closed for participants. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2014, and Sept 11, 2017, 3465 patients were randomly assigned, 1735 (50·1%) to the intervention group and 1730 (49·9%) to the control group. Oral anticoagulation status was available in 2920 (84·3%) patients at 12 months (1484 [50·8%] in the intervention group and 1436 [49·2%] in the control group). For the primary outcome, at 12 months, 203 (13·7%) of 1484 patients in the intervention group versus 169 (11·8%) of 1436 in the control group were on oral anticoagulants (odds ratio [OR] 1·2 [95% CI 0·9-1·5]; p=0·13). Atrial fibrillation was newly detected in patients in hospital in 97 (5·8%) of 1714 in the intervention group versus 68 (4·0%) of 1717 in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·4 [95% CI 1·0-2·0]; p=0·024). The composite of cardiovascular outcomes and death did not differ between patients randomly assigned to the intervention group versus the control group at 24 months (232 [13·5%] of 1714 vs 249 [14·5%] of 1717; HR 0·9 [0·8-1·1]; p=0·43). Skin reactions due to study ECG electrodes were reported in 56 (3·3%) patients in the intervention group. All-cause death occured in 73 (4·3%) patients in the intervention group and in 103 (6·0%) patients in the control group (OR 0·7 [0·5-0·9]). INTERPRETATION: Systematic core centrally reviewed ECG monitoring is feasible and increases the detection rate of atrial fibrillation in unselected patients hospitalised with acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, if added to usual diagnostic care in certified German stroke units. However, we found no effect of systematic ECG monitoring on the rate of oral anticoagulant use after 12 months and further efforts are needed to improve secondary stroke prevention. FUNDING: Bayer Vital. TRANSLATION: For the German translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2639-2647, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improving understanding of study contents and procedures might enhance recruitment into studies and retention during follow-up. However, data in stroke patients on understanding of the informed consent (IC) procedure are sparse. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among ischemic stroke patients taking part in the IC procedure of an ongoing cluster-randomized secondary prevention trial. All aspects of the IC procedure were assessed in an interview using a standardized 20-item questionnaire. Responses were collected within 72 h after the IC procedure and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Participants were also asked their main reasons for participation. RESULTS: A total of 146 stroke patients (65 ± 12 years old, 38% female) were enrolled. On average, patients recalled 66.4% (95% confidence interval = 65.2%-67.5%) of the content of the IC procedure. Most patients understood that participation was voluntary (99.3%) and that they had the right to withdraw consent (97.1%); 79.1% of the patients recalled the study duration and 56.1% the goal. Only 40.3% could clearly state a benefit of participation, and 28.8% knew their group allocation. Younger age, higher graduation, and allocation to the intervention group were associated with better understanding. Of all patients, 53% exclusively stated a personal and 22% an altruistic reason for participation. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas understanding of patient rights was high, many patients were unable to recall other important aspects of study content and procedures. Increased attention to older and less educated patients may help to enhance understanding in this patient population. Actual recruitment and retention benefit of an improved IC procedure remains to be tested in a randomized trial.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Cancer ; 127(13): 2319-2332, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC), which is most common in elderly women, requires a multidisciplinary and continuous approach to care. With demographic changes, the number of patients with chronic diseases such as BC will increase. This trend will especially hit rural areas, where the majority of the elderly live, in terms of comprehensive health care. METHODS: Accessibility to several cancer facilities in Bavaria, Germany, was analyzed with a geographic information system. Facilities were identified from the national BC guideline and from 31 participants in a proof-of-concept study from the Breast Cancer Care for Patients With Metastatic Disease registry. The timeframe for accessibility was defined as 30 or 60 minutes for all population points. The collection of address information was performed with different sources (eg, a physician registry). Routine data from the German Census 2011 and the population-based Cancer Registry of Bavaria were linked at the district level. RESULTS: Females from urban areas (n = 2,938,991 [ie, total of females living in urban areas]) had a higher chance for predefined accessibility to the majority of analyzed facilities in comparison with females from rural areas (n = 3,385,813 [ie, total number of females living in rural areas]) with an odds ratio (OR) of 9.0 for cancer information counselling, an OR of 17.2 for a university hospital, and an OR of 7.2 for a psycho-oncologist. For (inpatient) rehabilitation centers (OR, 0.2) and genetic counselling (OR, 0.3), women from urban areas had lower odds of accessibility within 30 or 60 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in accessibility between rural and urban areas exist in Bavaria. The identification of underserved areas can help to inform policymakers about disparities in comprehensive health care. Future strategies are needed to deliver high-quality health care to all inhabitants, regardless of residence.

10.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(4): 420-428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Door-to-CT scan time (DCT) and door-to-needle time (DNT) are important process measures in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients undergoing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We examined the impact of a telemedical prenotification by emergency medical service (EMS) (called the "Stroke Angel" program) on DCT and DNT and IVT rate compared to standard of care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two prospective observational studies including AIS patients admitted via EMS from 2011 to 2013 (cohort I; n = 496) and from January 1, 2015 to May 31, 2018 (cohort II; n = 349) were conducted. After cohort I, the 4-Item Stroke Scale and a digital thrombolysis protocol were added. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: In cohort I, DCT was lower in the intervention group (13 vs. 26 min using standard of care; p < 0.001), but no significant difference in median DNT (35 vs. 39 min; p = 0.24) was observed. In cohort II, a reduction of DCT (8 vs. 15 min; p < 0.001) and DNT (25 vs. 29 min p = 0.003) was observed in the intervention group. Compared to standard of care, the likelihood of DCT ≤10 min or DNT ≤20 min in the intervention group was 2.7 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.7; 95% CI: 2.1-3.5) and 1.8 (aOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively. In cohort II, IVT rate was higher (aOR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9) in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: Although the positive effects of Stroke Angel in AIS provided a rationale for implementation in routine care, larger studies of practice implementation will be needed. Using Stroke Angel in the prehospital management of AIS impacts on important process measures of IVT delivery.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Telemedicina , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enfermagem em Emergência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Alemanha , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurologistas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654241

RESUMO

Myocardial work is a new echocardiography-based diagnostic tool, which allows to quantify left ventricular performance based on pressure-strain loops, and has been validated against invasively derived pressure-volume measurements. Myocardial work is described by its components (global constructive work [GCW], global wasted work [GWW]) and indices (global work index [GWI], global work efficiency [GWE]). Applying this innovative concept, we characterized the prevalence and severity of subclinical left ventricular compromise in the general population and estimated its association with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Within the Characteristics and Course of Heart Failure STAges A/B and Determinants of Progression (STAAB) cohort study we comprehensively phenotyped a representative sample of the population of Würzburg, Germany, aged 30-79 years. Indices of myocardial work were determined in 1929 individuals (49.3% female, mean age 54 ± 12 years). In multivariable analysis, hypertension was associated with a mild increase in GCW, but a profound increase in GWW, resulting in higher GWI and lower GWE. All other CV risk factors were associated with lower GCW and GWI, but not with GWW. The association of hypertension and obesity with GWI was stronger in women. We conclude that traditional CV risk factors impact selectively and gender-specifically on left ventricular myocardial performance, independent of systolic blood pressure. Quantifying active systolic and diastolic compromise by derivation of myocardial work advances our understanding of pathophysiological processes in health and cardiac disease.

12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3267-3278, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on telemedical care have not been described on a national level. Thus, we investigated the medical stroke treatment situation before, during, and after the first lockdown in Germany. METHODS: In this nationwide, multicenter study, data from 14 telemedical networks including 31 network centers and 155 spoke hospitals covering large parts of Germany were analyzed regarding patients' characteristics, stroke type/severity, and acute stroke treatment. A survey focusing on potential shortcomings of in-hospital and (telemedical) stroke care during the pandemic was conducted. RESULTS: Between January 2018 and June 2020, 67,033 telemedical consultations and 38,895 telemedical stroke consultations were conducted. A significant decline of telemedical (p < 0.001) and telemedical stroke consultations (p < 0.001) during the lockdown in March/April 2020 and a reciprocal increase after relaxation of COVID-19 measures in May/June 2020 were observed. Compared to 2018-2019, neither stroke patients' age (p = 0.38), gender (p = 0.44), nor severity of ischemic stroke (p = 0.32) differed in March/April 2020. Whereas the proportion of ischemic stroke patients for whom endovascular treatment (14.3% vs. 14.6%; p = 0.85) was recommended remained stable, there was a nonsignificant trend toward a lower proportion of recommendation of intravenous thrombolysis during the lockdown (19.0% vs. 22.1%; p = 0.052). Despite the majority of participating network centers treating patients with COVID-19, there were no relevant shortcomings reported regarding in-hospital stroke treatment or telemedical stroke care. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedical stroke care in Germany was able to provide full service despite the COVID-19 pandemic, but telemedical consultations declined abruptly during the lockdown period and normalized after relaxation of COVID-19 measures in Germany.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Consulta Remota , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
13.
Stroke ; 52(2): 543-551, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Outcome prognostication in ischemic stroke patients remains challenging due to limited predictive properties of existing models. Blood-based biomarkers might provide additional information to established prognostic factors. We intended to identify the most promising prognostic biomarkers in ischemic stroke, their incremental prognostic value, and whether their predictive value differs among etiologies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (Ovid) and Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge for articles reporting the predictive performance of blood-based biomarkers measured up to 7 days after ischemic stroke and reporting functional outcome or death at least 7 days after stroke. This work updates a previous systematic review (up to January 2007), follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and was registered (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews PROSPERO 2018; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; Unique identifier: CRD42018094671). RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-one articles published between January 2007 and August 2018 comprising 257 different biomarkers met inclusion criteria. Median sample size was 232 (interquartile range, 110-455); 260 (89%) articles reported regression analyses with 78% adjusting for stroke severity, 82% for age, 67% for both, and 9% for none of them; 37% investigated discrimination, 5% calibration, and 11% reclassification. Including publications from a previous systematic review (1960-January 2007), natriuretic peptides, copeptin, procalcitonin, mannose-binding lectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and cortisol were the biomarkers most consistently associated with poor outcome in higher-quality studies showing an incremental value over established prognostic factors. Other biomarkers were less consistently associated with poor outcome or were reported in lower quality studies. High heterogeneity among studies precluded the performance of a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The number of reports on prognostic blood-based biomarkers in ischemic stroke increased 3.5-fold in the period January 2007 to August 2018. Although sample size increased, methodological flaws are still common. Natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation, atherogenesis, and stress response are the most promising prognostic biomarkers among identified studies.

14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 1117-1129, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350167

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischaemic stroke (IS) might induce alterations of cardiac function. Prospective data on frequency of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure (HF) after IS are lacking. We assessed prevalence and determinants of diastolic dysfunction (DD), systolic dysfunction (SD), and HF in patients with acute IS. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Stroke-Induced Cardiac FAILure in mice and men (SICFAIL) study is a prospective, hospital-based cohort study. Patients with IS underwent a comprehensive assessment of cardiac function in the acute phase (median 4 days after IS) including clinical examination, standardized transthoracic echocardiography by expert sonographers, and determination of blood-based biomarkers. Information on demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, symptoms suggestive of HF, and medical history was collected by a standardized personal interview. Applying current guidelines, cardiac dysfunction was classified based on echocardiographic criteria into SD (left ventricular ejection fraction < 52% in men or <54% in women) and DD (≥3 signs of DD in patients without SD). Clinically overt HF was classified into HF with reduced, mid-range, or preserved ejection fraction. Between January 2014 and February 2017, 696 IS patients were enrolled. Of them, patients with sufficient echocardiographic data on SD were included in the analyses {n = 644 patients [median age 71 years (interquartile range 60-78), 61.5% male]}. In these patients, full assessment of DD was feasible in 549 patients without SD (94%). Prevalence of cardiac dysfunction and HF was as follows: SD 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6-12.2%]; DD in patients without SD 23.3% (95% CI 20.0-27.0%); and clinically overt HF 5.4% (95% CI 3.9-7.5%) with subcategories of HF with preserved ejection fraction 4.35%, HF with mid-range ejection fraction 0.31%, and HF with reduced ejection fraction 0.78%. In multivariable analysis, SD and fulfilment of HF criteria were associated with history of coronary heart disease [SD: odds ratio (OR) 3.87, 95% CI 1.93-7.75, P = 0.0001; HF: OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.04-5.05, P = 0.0406] and high-sensitive troponin T at baseline (SD: OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.31-2.42, P = 0.0003; HF: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.33, P = 0.004); DD was associated with older age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11, P < 0.0001) and treated hypertension vs. no hypertension (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.23-6.54, P = 0.0405). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the study population exhibited subclinical and clinical cardiac dysfunction. SICFAIL provides reliable data on prevalence and determinants of SD, DD, and clinically overt HF in patients with acute IS according to current guidelines, enabling further clarification of its aetiological and prognostic role.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
15.
Neurol Res Pract ; 2: 41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324941

RESUMO

Introduction: Dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD) is a common non-motor symptom of advanced disease, associated with pronounced neocortical cholinergic deficits due to neurodegeneration of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and its cholinergic terminals. In advanced PD, patients often require advanced therapies such as infusion therapy or deep brain stimulation (DBS) to improve motor control. However, patients with associated dementia are commonly excluded from DBS because of potential deterioration of cognitive functions. Yet marked reductions in dopaminergic medication and the subsequent risk of side effects (e.g., cognitive decline, psychosis, delirium) suggest that critical re-consideration of DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for advanced stages of PD and PDD is worthwhile. In this Phase 1b study, we will provide STN-DBS to a cohort of PDD patients with severe motor fluctuations and combine two additional electrodes for augmentative neurostimulation of the NBM. Methods: We aim to include 12 patients with mild-to-moderately severe PDD who fulfill indication criteria regarding motor symptoms for STN-DBS. Eligible patients will undergo implantation of a neurostimulation system with bilateral electrodes in both the STN and NBM. After 12 weeks of STN-DBS (visit 1/V1), participants will be randomized to receive either effective neurostimulation of the NBM (group 1) or sham stimulation of the NBM (group 2). NBM-DBS will be activated in all participants after 24 weeks of blinded treatment (visit 2/V2). The primary outcome will be the safety of combined bilateral STN- and NBM-DBS, determined by spontaneously-reported adverse events. Other outcome measures will comprise changes on scales evaluating cognition, activities of daily living functioning and clinical global impression, as well as motor functions, mood, behavior, caregiver burden and health economic aspects, and several domain-specific cognitive tests. Changes in scores (V1 - V2) for both treatment arms will undergo analysis of covariances, with baseline scores as covariates. Perspective: The feasibility and safety of combined STN-NBM-DBS in patients with PDD will be assessed to determine whether additional NBM-DBS improves or slows the progression of cognitive decline. Positive results would provide a basic concept for future studies evaluating the efficacy of NBM-DBS in larger PDD cohorts. Indirectly, proof-of-safety of STN-DBS in PDD might influence patient selection for this standard treatment option in advanced PD. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02589925.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088336

RESUMO

Background: The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is an interviewer-administered scale assessing functional impairment originally developed for psychiatric patients. Objectives: To adapt the FAST for the general population, we developed a self-administered version of the scale and assessed its properties in a pilot study. Methods: The original FAST scale was translated into German via forward and backward translation. Afterwards, we adjusted the scale for self-administered application and inquired participants from two ongoing studies in Germany, 'STAAB' (Würzburg) and 'BiDirect' (Münster), both recruiting subjects from the general population across a wide age range (STAAB: 30-79 years, BiDirect: 35-65 years). To assess reliability, agreement of self-assessment with proxy-assessment by partners was measured via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over the FAST score. Construct validity was estimated by conducting correlations with validated scales of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), and health-related quality of life (SF-12) and regression analyses using these scales besides potentially disabling comorbidities (e.g. Chronic Back Pain (CBP)). Results: Participants (n=54) had a median age of 57.0 years (quartiles: 49.8, 65.3), 46.3% were female. Reliability was moderate: ICC 0.50 (95% CI 0.46-0.54). The FAST score significantly correlated with PHQ-9, GAD-7, and the mental sub-scale of SF-12. In univariable linear regression, all three scales and chronic back pain explained variance of the FAST score. In multivariable analysis, only CBP and the SF-12 remained significant predictors. Conclusion: The German self-administered version of the FAST yielded moderate psychometric properties in this pilot study, indicating its applicability to assess functional impairment in the general population.

17.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3664-3672, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quality indicators (QI) are an accepted tool to measure performance of hospitals in routine care. We investigated the association between quality of acute stroke care defined by overall adherence to evidence-based QI and early outcome in German acute care hospitals. METHODS: Patients with ischemic stroke admitted to one of the hospitals cooperating within the ADSR (German Stroke Register Study Group) were analyzed. The ADSR is a voluntary network of 9 regional stroke registers monitoring quality of acute stroke care across 736 hospitals in Germany. Quality of stroke care was defined by adherence to 11 evidence-based indicators of early processes of stroke care. The correlation between overall adherence to QI with outcome was investigated by assessing the association between 7-day in-hospital mortality with the proportion of QI fulfilled from the total number of QI the individual patient was eligible for. Generalized linear mixed model analysis was performed adjusted for the variables age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and living will and as random effect for the variable hospital. RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2016, 388 012 patients with ischemic stroke were reported (median age 76 years, 52.4% male). Adherence to distinct QI ranged between 41.0% (thrombolysis in eligible patients) and 95.2% (early physiotherapy). Seven-day in-hospital mortality was 3.4%. The overall proportion of QI fulfilled was median 90% (interquartile range, 75%-100%). In multivariable analysis, a linear association between overall adherence to QI and 7-day in-hospital-mortality was observed (odds ratio adherence <50% versus 100%, 12.7 [95% CI, 11.8-13.7]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher quality of care measured by adherence to a set of evidence-based process QI for the early phase of stroke treatment was associated with lower in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Neuroimagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Angiografia Cerebral/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Deambulação Precoce/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/reabilitação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Fonoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, myocardial work analysis as an echocardiographic tool to non-invasively determine LV work has been introduced and validated against invasive measurements. Based on systolic blood pressure and speckle-tracking derived longitudinal strain (GLS) during systole and isovolumic relaxation, it is considered less load-dependent than LV ejection fraction (LVEF) or GLS and to integrate information on LV active systolic and diastolic work. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to establish reference values for global constructive (GCW) and global wasted work (GWW) as well as of global work index (GWI) and global work efficiency (GWE) across a wide age range and to assess the association with standard echocardiography parameters to estimate the potential additional information provided by myocardial work (MyW). METHODS: The Characteristics and Course of Heart Failure STAges A/B and Determinants of Progression (STAAB) cohort study carefully characterized a representative sample of the population of the City of Würzburg, Germany, aged 30-79 years. We performed myocardial work analysis using the standardized, quality-controlled transthoracic echocardiograms of all individuals lacking any cardiovascular risk factor. RESULTS: Out of 4965 participants, 779 (49±10 years, 59% women) were eligible for the present analysis. Levels of GCW, GWW, and GWE were independent of sex and body mass index, and were stable until the age of 45 years. Thereafter, we observed an upward shift to further stable values of GCW and a linear increase of GWW with advancing age, resulting in lower GWE. Age-adjusted percentiles for GCW, GWW, GWI, and GWE were derived. Higher levels of blood pressure or LV mass were associated with higher GCW, GWI, and GWW, resulting in lower GWE; higher LVEF correlated with higher GCW and GWI, but lower GWW. Higher E/e´ correlated with higher GWW, higher e´ with lower GWW. CONCLUSIONS: Derived from a large sample of apparently healthy individuals from a population based-cohort, we provide age-adjusted reference values for myocardial work indices, applicable for either sex. Weak correlations with common echocardiographic parameters suggest MyW indices to potentially provide additional information, which has to be evaluated in diseased patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diástole/fisiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sístole/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
19.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(12): 3316-3324, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though risk for recurrent vascular events is high following ischemic stroke, little knowledge about risk factors for secondary events post-stroke exists. OBJECTIVES: Coagulation factors XII, XI, and VIII (FXII, FXI, and FVIII) have been implicated in first thrombotic events, and our aim was to estimate their effects on vascular outcomes within 3 years after first stroke. PATIENTS/METHODS: In the Prospective Cohort with Incident Stroke Berlin (PROSCIS-B) study, we followed participants aged 18 and older for 3 years after first mild to moderate ischemic stroke event or until occurrence of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, or all-cause mortality. We compared high coagulation factor activity levels to normal and low levels and also analyzed activities as continuous variables. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the combined endpoint. RESULTS: In total, 94 events occurred in 576 included participants, resulting in an absolute rate of 6.6 events per 100 person-years. After confounding adjustment, high FVIII activity showed the strongest relationship with the combined endpoint (HR = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-3.29). High FXI activity was also associated with a higher hazard (HR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.98), though high FXII activity was not (HR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.49-1.51). Continuous analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In our study of mild to moderate ischemic stroke patients, high activity levels of FXI and FVIII but not FXII were associated with worse vascular outcomes in the 3-year period after first ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Fator XI , Fator XII , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
20.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2778-2785, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on long-term survival and recurrence after stroke are lacking. We investigated time trends in ischemic stroke case-fatality and recurrence rates over 20-years stratified by etiological subtype according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification within a population-based stroke register in Germany. METHODS: Data was collected within the Erlangen Stroke Project, a prospective, population-based stroke register covering a source population of 105 164 inhabitants (2010). Case fatality and recurrence rates for 3 months, 1 year, and 5 years were estimated with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Sex-specific time trends for case-fatality and recurrence rates were estimated with Cox regression. We adjusted for age, sex, and year of event and stratified for etiological subtypes. A sensitivity analysis with competing risk analysis for time trends in recurrence were performed. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2015, 3346 patients with first ischemic stroke were included; age-standardized incidence per 100 000 was 75.8 in women and 131.6 in men (2015). Overall, 5-year survival probabilities were 50.4% (95% CI, 47.9-53.1) in women and 59.2% (95% CI, 56.4-62.0) in men; 5-year survival was highest in patients with first stroke due to small-artery occlusion (women, 71.8% [95% CI, 67.1-76.9]; men, 75.9% [95% CI, 71.3-80.9]) and lowest in cardioembolic stroke (women, 35.7% [95% CI, 31.0-41.1]; men, 47.8% [95% CI, 42.2-54.3]). Five-year recurrence rates were 20.1% (95% CI, 17.5-22.6) in women and 20.1% (95% CI, 17.5-22.7) in men; 5-year recurrence rate was lowest in women in stroke due to small artery occlusion 16.0% (95% CI, 11.7-20.1) and in men in large-artery atherosclerosis 16.6% (95% CI, 8.7-23.9); highest risk of recurrence was observed in undefined strokes (women, 22.3% [95% CI, 17.8-26.6]; men, 21.4% [95% CI, 16.7-25.9]). Cox regression revealed improvements in case-fatality rates over time with differences in stroke causes. No time trends in recurrence rates were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival and recurrence varied substantially by first stroke cause. Survival probabilities improved over the past 2 decades; no major trends in stroke recurrence rates were observed.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Embolia/complicações , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
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