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2.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632532

RESUMO

A large variety of data filtration techniques exist in biomechanics literature. Data filtration is both an 'art' and a 'science' to eliminate noise and retain true signal to draw conclusions that will direct future hypotheses, experimentation, and technology development. Thus, data consilience is paramount, but is dependent on filtration methodologies. In this study, we utilized ligament strain, vertical ground reaction force, and kinetic data from cadaveric impact simulations to assess data from four different filters (12 vs. 50 Hz low-pass; forward vs. zero lag). We hypothesized that 50 Hz filtered data would demonstrate larger peak magnitudes, but exhibit consilience of waveforms and statistical significance as compared to 12 Hz filtered data. Results demonstrated high data consilience for matched pair t test correlations of peak ACL strain (≥ 0.97), MCL strain (≥ 0.93) and vertical ground reaction force (≥ 0.98). Kinetics had a larger range of correlation (0.06-0.96) that was dependent on both external load application and direction of motion monitored. Coefficients of multiple correlation demonstrated high data consilience for zero lag filtered data. With respect to in vitro mechanical data, selection of low-pass filter cutoff frequency will influence both the magnitudes of discrete and waveform data. Dependent on the data type (i.e., strain and ground reaction forces), this will not likely significantly alter conclusions of statistical significance previously reported in the literature with high consilience of matched pair t-test correlations and coefficients of multiple correlation demonstrated. However, rotational kinetics are more sensitive to filtration selection and could be suspect to errors, especially at lower magnitudes.

4.
Am J Sports Med ; 48(10): 2447-2455, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most commonly damaged structures of the knee are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and menisci. Given that these injuries present as either isolated or concomitant, it follows that these events are driven by specific mechanics versus coincidence. This study was designed to investigate the multiplanar mechanisms and determine the important biomechanical and demographic factors that contribute to classification of the injury outcome. HYPOTHESIS: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) would accurately classify each injury type generated by the mechanical impact simulator based on biomechanical input variables (ie, ligament strain and knee kinetics). STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: In vivo kinetics and kinematics of 42 healthy, athletic participants were measured to determine stratification of injury risk (ie, low, medium, and high) in 3 degrees of knee forces/moments (knee abduction moment, anterior tibial shear, and internal tibial rotation). These stratified kinetic values were input into a cadaveric impact simulator to assess ligamentous strain and knee kinetics during a simulated landing task. Uniaxial and multiaxial load cells and implanted strain sensors were used to collect mechanical data for analysis. LDA was used to determine the ability to classify injury outcome by demographic and biomechanical input variables. RESULTS: From LDA, a 5-factor model (Entropy R2 = 0.26) demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for all 5 injury outcomes (ACL, MCL, ACL+MCL, ACL+MCL+meniscus, ACL+meniscus) of 0.74 or higher, with "good" prediction for 4 of 5 injury classifications. A 10-factor model (Entropy R2 = 0.66) improved the AUC to 0.86 or higher, with "excellent" prediction for 5 injury classifications. The 15-factor model (Entropy R2 = 0.85), produced 94.1% accuracy with the AUC 0.98 or higher for all 5 injury classifications. CONCLUSION: Use of LDA accurately predicted the outcome of knee injury from kinetic data from cadaveric simulations with the use of a mechanical impact simulator at 25° of knee flexion. Thus, with clinically relevant kinetics, it is possible to determine clinical risk of injury and also the likely presentation of singular or concomitant knee injury. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: LDA demonstrates that injury outcomes are largely characterized by specific mechanics that can distinguish ACL, MCL, and medial meniscal injury. Furthermore, as the mechanics of injury are better understood, improved interventional prehabilitation can be designed to reduce these injuries.

5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 320, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered motor unit (MU) activity has been identified after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, but its effect on muscle tissue properties is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare thigh musculature muscle stiffness between control and ACL-injured subjects. METHODS: Thirty ACL-injured subjects and 25 control subjects were recruited. Subjects completed a randomized protocol of isometric contractions while electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded. Three maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) determined peak force for 10 and 25% MVIC trials. Shear wave elastography was captured during each 10 and 25% MVIC trials. RESULTS: Differences in muscle stiffness were assessed between limbs and groups. 12 months post-surgery had higher stiffness for VM 0% MVIC, VL 0 and 10% MVIC, and ST 10 and 25% MVIC (all p ≤ 0.04). CONCLUSION: Thigh musculature stiffness changed throughout rehabilitation and remained altered at 12 months after ACL reconstruction.

6.
Arthroscopy ; 36(6): 1500-1501, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259646

RESUMO

Is there value and validity for the use of return-to-sport (RTS) test batteries? With regard to RTS testing, there has been marked interest and rapid growth in studies that document RTS criteria after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A set of criteria or "test-battery" is typically used to "clear" the athlete for RTS. Although most RTS testing is done with aim of assessing safety, the same measurements can be as used to determine the amount of functional capacity regained. It is suggested that RTS test batteries incorporate multiple domains of risk factors. If testing "works," patients who pass should have a lower risk of reinjury than patients who fail but nonetheless return to sport. More recent studies have attempted to cover a broad range of risk factors, with as many as 15 to 20 RTS tests. This is possibly due to a lack of clear evidence as to what are the most important risk factors for second injury. As a result, few patients pass these combined criteria. Findings from a meta-analysis showed that there is a low rate of passing RTS testing (23%). The findings from this and a second meta-analyses are quite similar, as both showed there was no effect of passing RTS test batteries on overall subsequent anterior cruciate ligament injury. There was a 7% to 9% reduction in risk difference of graft injuries with passing of RTS; however, there was a 4% to 9% risk difference or 176% to 235% increased risk of a contralateral injury with passing of RTS criteria. There remain several problems with RTS test batteries, which include low rates of meeting thresholds, many athletes return without meeting RTS thresholds, evidence for predictive value is limited, small sample sizes in many studies (only 2 studies >100 patients), and many studies don't document RTS rates. Additional issues include questions as to whether testing should be staged, how to monitor progression of rehabilitation, and should these RTS batteries be tailored to age groups?

7.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249962

RESUMO

Postoperative gait mechanics in persons with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) remain understudied as a treatment outcome despite observed, yet inconclusive, preoperative gait abnormalities. Females with FAIS demonstrate worse preoperative patient-reported hip function and altered hip mechanics when compared with males; it is unknown whether these sex differences persist postarthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-specific gait kinematics between persons at least 1 year postarthroscopy for FAIS and healthy comparisons. General linear models with estimating equations were used to evaluate the effect of (a) limb and sex within each group, and (b) limb and group within each sex for peak sagittal and frontal plane trunk, pelvis, and hip kinematics during stance phase of gait. Analyses were covaried by gait speed. Seventeen females and eight males an average 2.5 years postarthroscopy (1.1-7.2 year) for FAIS were compared with healthy females (n = 7) and males (n = 5). Females in the FAIS group presented with an average of 6.6° less trunk flexion, 4.7° more anterior pelvic tilt, and 4.8° less hip extension compared with healthy females (P ≤ .03) and 8.6° less trunk flexion, 4.7° more anterior pelvic tilt, 3.0° more pelvic drop, and 7.5° more hip flexion than males with FAIS (P ≤ .03). Males in the FAIS group presented with 2.8° less pelvic drop, and 3.1° less hip adduction than healthy males. Preoperative gait mechanics were not collected and thus changes in mechanics could not be evaluated. This study is significant to clinicians who treat patients postarthroscopy to consider sex-specific gait impairments.

8.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30(3): 216-223, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate injury characteristics by position groups. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: A single, major Division I collegiate football program. PARTICIPANTS: All players on a collegiate football program each fall regular season. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Exposure to Division I collegiate football and position groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury rates (IRs) per 1000 athlete exposures (AEs) and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated and analyzed for all monitored injury variables, which included time in the season, body part, type of injury, game and practice injuries, mechanism of injury, and type of exposure. RESULTS: During the 2012 to 2016 fall regular seasons, there were 200 reported injuries sustained from 48 615 AE. The overall 5-year IR was 4.11 per 1000 AEs (3.57-4.72 95% confidence intervals). Skill players sustained the highest IR in the preseason (IR, 7.56) compared with line (IR, 4.26) and other (IR, 4.10) position groups. In addition, skill players demonstrated a significantly higher IRR compared with the line (IRR, 1.75, P < 0.05) and other (IRR, 1.85, P < 0.05) position groups. CONCLUSIONS: Skill players sustained most of their injuries in the preseason, whereas the linemen and other position groups suffered most of their injuries in the first half of the regular season. Skill players demonstrated a significantly higher IR in preseason, noncontact mechanism injuries, and injuries to the upper leg and thigh compared with line and other position groups. Efforts to reduce soft-tissue muscle strains in skill players targeting the preseason may provide one of the best opportunities to significantly decrease current football IRs, whereas efforts to reduce contact exposures may have the greatest effect on concussions and contact mechanism injuries for the other position group. There were no significant differences in IRs between position groups and type of exposure.

9.
J Appl Biomech ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320947

RESUMO

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury videos estimate that rupture occurs within 50 milliseconds of initial contact, but are limited by imprecise timing and nondirect data acquisition. The objective of this study was to precisely quantify the timing associated with ligament strain during simulated landing and injury events. The hypotheses tested were that the timing of peak strain following initial contact would differ between ligaments and that peak strain timing would be independent of the injury-risk profile emulated during simulated landing. A mechanical impact simulator was used to perform landing simulations based on various injury-risk profiles that were applied to each specimen in a block-randomized order. The ACL and medial collateral ligament were instrumented with strain gauges that recorded continuously. The data from 35 lower-extremity specimens were included for analysis. Analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine the differences between timing and profiles. The mean time to peak strain was 53 (24) milliseconds for the ACL and 58 (35) milliseconds for the medial collateral ligament. The time to peak ACL strain ranged from 48 to 61 milliseconds, but the timing differences were not significant between profiles. Strain timing was independent of injury-risk profile. Noncontact ACL injuries are expected to occur between 0 and 61 milliseconds after initial contact. Both ligaments reached peak strain within the same time frame.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A precise and consistent definition of return to sport (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is lacking, and there is controversy surrounding the process of returning patients to sports and their previous activity level. The aim of the Panther Symposium ACL Injury RTS Consensus Group was to provide a clear definition of RTS and description of the RTS continuum, as well as to provide clinical guidance on RTS testing and decision-making. METHODS: An international, multidisciplinary group of ACL experts convened as part of a consensus meeting. Consensus statements were developed using a modified Delphi method. Literature review was performed to report the supporting evidence. RESULTS: Key points include that RTS is characterized by achievement of the pre-injury level of sport and involves a criteria-based progression from return to participation to return to sport, and ultimately return to performance. Purely time-based RTS decision-making should be abandoned. Progression occurs along a RTS continuum with decision-making by a multidisciplinary group that incorporates objective physical examination data and validated and peer-reviewed RTS tests, which should involve functional assessment as well as psychological readiness. Consideration should be given to biological healing, contextual factors and concomitant injuries. CONCLUSION: The resultant consensus statements and scientific rationale aim to inform the reader of the complex process of RTS after ACL injury that occurs along a dynamic continuum. Research is needed to determine the ideal RTS test battery, the best implementation of psychological readiness testing and methods for the biologic assessment of healing and recovery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

11.
Skeletal Radiol ; 49(8): 1231-1237, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize lower extremity passive muscle stiffness in a young, healthy, athletic population. It was hypothesized that males would exhibit greater stiffness than females and that hamstring stiffness would increase with increased passive hamstring stretch. METHODS: Male (n = 52, age 16.0 ± 1.3 years, height 180.3 ± 7.9 cm, weight 73.1 ± 11.8 kg) and female (n = 89, age 15.6 ± 1.3 years, height 169.7 ± 8.1 cm, weight 65.2 ± 13.2 kg) high school basketball athletes were recruited for this study. Shear wave elastography (SWE) was used to measure shear wave velocity (m/s) of the biceps femoris muscle at three leg positions (40%, 60%, and 80%) of the maximum passive 90-90 straight-leg raise position for each leg. Hamstring stiffness (kPa) was quantified from the SWE elastogram using custom processing software. RESULTS: Hamstring stiffness was significantly greater for males than females at every position on both the dominant and non-dominant limbs (p < 0.05). Hamstring stiffness was greater on the non-dominant limb than the dominant for females at the 40% position. Stiffness at 60% was greater than stiffness at 40% for males on both the dominant and non-dominant limbs. However, stiffness at 60% was greater than stiffness at 80% on the male non-dominant limb. Females demonstrated higher stiffness at 40% than both 60% and 80% for the dominant and non-dominant limbs. CONCLUSION: Healthy male basketball players had higher hamstring muscle stiffness than female players. Future studies may investigate what factors contribute to the large variability observed in muscle stiffness, resulting in mixed results on the effects of leg dominance and stretching positions.

12.
Gait Posture ; 77: 175-181, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal patient-reported function and movement impairments often persist after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Individuals with FAIS with preoperative cartilage pathology (ie. chondropathy) demonstrate distinct movement patterns and have worse post-operative outcomes. It is unknown whether the presence of chondropathy after surgery negatively affects movement and function. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do sagittal plane gait mechanics differ based on chondropathy severity following arthroscopy for FAIS? METHODS: A cross-sectional walking gait analysis was performed for 25 participants post-arthroscopy (2.48 ±â€¯1.38y) and 12 healthy controls (HCs). Peak total support moment (TSM) and relative contributions of the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated during loading response. The Hip Osteoarthritis MRI Scoring System was used to categorize the FAIS group into no-mild or moderate-severe chondropathy groups based on 3 T magnetic resonance imaging of their surgical hip. The interactions of group by limb were evaluated for kinetic variables, covaried by gait speed. RESULTS: Groups did not differ based on age, BMI and sex distribution (P ≥ 0.14). 13 participants with FAIS presented with moderate-severe chondropathy and 12 presented with no-mild chondropathy. Participants with moderate-severe chondropathy walked significantly slower than both other groups (P = 0.006) and demonstrated lower peak TSM than those with no-mild chondropathy (P = 0.002). Participants with no-mild chondropathy demonstrated lower hip (61.5 %) and greater ankle (17.7 %) contributions to the TSM on the involved limb compared to the moderate-severe group (hip:73.4 %, P = 0.07; ankle:10.5 %, P = 0.007). SIGNIFICANCE: Slower gait speed alone did not explain the lower TSM strategy in participants with moderate-severe chondropathy. Interestingly, the joint contribution strategy of this group was not different than HCs. Participants with no-mild chondropathy demonstrated a TSM strategy that shifted the demand away from their hip and toward their ankle. Given the small sample size, and large variability in joint strategies, future work needs to examine whether these alterations in gait strategy, with or without advanced chondropathy, impact patient function.

13.
J Biomech ; 103: 109669, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019678

RESUMO

Prospective knee abduction moments measured during the drop vertical jump task identify those at increased risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to determine which muscle forces and frontal plane biomechanical features contribute to large knee abduction moments. Thirteen young female athletes performed three drop vertical jump trials. Subject-specific musculoskeletal models and electromyography-informed simulations were developed to calculate the frontal plane biomechanics and lower limb muscle forces. The relationships between knee abduction moment and frontal plane biomechanics were examined. Knee abduction moment was positively correlated to vertical (R = 0.522, P < 0.001) and lateral ground reaction forces (R = 0.395, P = 0.016), hip adduction angle (R = 0.358, P < 0.023) and lateral pelvic tilt (R = 0.311, P = 0.061). A multiple regression showed that knee abduction moment was predicted by reduced gluteus medius force and increased vertical and lateral ground reaction forces (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.640). Hip adduction is indicative of lateral pelvic shift during landing. The coupled hip adduction and lateral pelvic tilt were associated to the increased vertical and lateral ground reaction forces, propagating into higher knee abduction moments. These biomechanical features are associated with ACL injury and may be limited in a landing with increased activation of the gluteus medius. Targeted neuromuscular training to control the frontal pelvic and hip motion may help to avoid injurious ground reaction forces and consequent knee abduction moment and ACL injury risk.

15.
Sports Med ; 50(6): 1203-1210, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate concussion increases risk of musculoskeletal injury in specific groups of patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the odds of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury after concussion in a population-based cohort. METHODS: International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision (ICD-9, ICD-10) codes relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of a concussion and ACL tear were utilized to search the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) between 2000 and 2017. A total of 1653 unique patients with acute, isolated ACL tears were identified. Medical records for cases were reviewed to confirm ACL tear diagnosis and to determine history of concussion within 3 years prior to the ACL injury. Cases were matched by age, sex, and REP availability date to patients without an ACL tear (1:3 match), resulting in 4959 controls. The medical records of the matched control patients were reviewed to determine history of concussion. RESULTS: 39 patients with a concussion suffered an ACL injury up to 3 years after the concussion. The rate of prior concussion was higher in ACL-injured cases (2.4%) compared to matched controls with no ACL injury (1.5%). This corresponds to an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.4; p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Although activity level could not be assessed, there are increased odds of ACL injury after concussion in a general population. Based on the evidence of increased odds of musculoskeletal injury after concussion, standard clinical assessments should consider concussion symptom resolution as well as assessment of neuromuscular factors associated with risk of injuries.

16.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 73: 35-45, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomechanical changes that persist after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may impact short- and long-term outcomes. Understanding the relationship of biomechanics during a dynamic task and patient reported function can better identify patients who are most vulnerable to sub-optimal long-term outcomes, such as osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether hip and knee biomechanics during single-leg hop landing were significantly correlated with the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and whether symptomatic knees displayed altered biomechanics relative to asymptomatic knees. METHODS: Hip and knee biomechanics during the landing phase of a single-leg hop of thirty subjects with ACLR were analyzed. Subjects were also classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic based on their KOOS results. Correlation analyses and group comparisons between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects were conducted. FINDINGS: KOOS Symptoms, Pain, and Sport subscales were significantly correlated with frontal and sagittal plane hip and knee biomechanics. Furthermore, those with symptomatic knees demonstrated greater hip and knee flexion angles, and greater hip flexion moments. INTERPRETATION: These results indicate that biomechanics associated with ACLR during a single-leg hop are correlated with worse KOOS outcomes. However, these correlations may be due to symptoms of the recovery from ACLR rather than those of OA. The results of this study may help to identify rehabilitation opportunities for patients at risk for worse long-term outcomes after ACLR.

17.
J Athl Train ; 55(3): 282-288, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967864

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Neck pain (NP), neck injuries, and concussions are more prevalent in female athletes than in their male counterparts. Females exhibit less neck girth, strength, and stiffness against a perturbation. As part of the clinical examination for individuals with NP, ultrasound (US)-based imaging of the cervical muscles has become common. Muscle size or thickness and stiffness can be measured with US-based B-mode and shear-wave elastography (SWE), respectively. Information on reliability, normative values, and sex differences based on US-based muscle size or thickness and stiffness in young and athletic individuals is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sex differences in US-based muscle size or thickness and biomechanical properties of the cervical-flexor and -extensor muscles. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 women (age = 23.7 ± 1.9 years, height = 167.1 ± 6.1 cm, mass = 63.8 ± 5.6 kg) and 11 men (age = 25.6 ± 4.9 years, height = 178.7 ± 8.3 cm, mass = 78.9 ± 12.0 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The same examiner collected all measures, using US B-mode to scan the cross-sectional area and thickness of the longus colli (LC), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical-extensor muscles, and upper trapezius (UT) muscle. The US SWE-mode was used to measure the stiffness of the SCM and UT. Independent t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests were calculated to determine sex differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) measured intrarater test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Men had thicker SCMs than women (P = .01). No sex differences were present for longus colli cross-sectional area, cervical-extensor muscle thickness, or UT thickness (P > .05). In addition, no sex differences were evident for SCM (P = .302) or UT (P = .703) SWE stiffness. Reliability was good to excellent (ICC = 0.715-0.890) except for SCM SWE stiffness (ICC = 0.554). CONCLUSIONS: The only sex difference was in SCM thickness. However, smaller SCMs in women did not result in less SCM SWE stiffness. We provided normative values for US-based imaging of the cervical-flexor and -extensor muscles in young and athletic men and women.

18.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 28(3): 816-822, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Quadriceps weakness is a common clinical sign following anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction surgery (ACLR). The aim of this study was to compare strength deficits and the limb symmetry index (LSI) from three different types of functional tests: isokinetic dynamometry, hop test, and leg press. METHODS: A total of 26 subjects with ACLR (average 8.3 months post-operation) participated in the study. The peak knee extension torque was tested with isokinetic dynamometry at 60/180/300 °/s (ISO60/180/300). Hop distance was tested during single hop (SH) and triple hop (TH). Unilateral peak leg power (POWER) was tested during a bilateral leg press test. LSI was calculated as the ratio of the involved limb over the uninvolved limb values. Pearson correlation coefficients and paired t-tests were used to establish relationships among ISO60/180/300, SH/TH, and POWER values and compare these values between the limbs, respectively. Within-subject one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc analyses was used to compare LSI values among different tests. RESULTS: ISO60/180/300 values were significantly positively correlated with SH/TH and POWER (P < 0.05), while SH/TH and POWER values were not significantly correlated. Significant limb differences were found in all tests (P = 0.001-0.008). ANOVA revealed significant LSI differences among different tests. Specifically, post hoc analyses revealed that LSI during SH was significantly higher than LSI during ISO60. Similarly, LSI during TH was significantly higher than LSIs from ISO60, ISO180, and POWER tests. CONCLUSIONS: Peak knee extension torque values were positively associated with hop distance and leg power during the leg press test. However, LSI values should be interpreted with caution as hop tests provided significantly higher LSI values than isokinetic testing. Both isokinetic dynamometry and unilateral leg press machine could be used to isolate and strengthen the quadriceps in the involved limb. The current "gold standard" isokinetic testing at slow speed (ISO60) provided the lowest LSI value among all functional tests; therefore, the current study supported a continued use of isokinetic testing when examining individual's readiness and return-to-sport. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

19.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(5): 1088-1098, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coordination of multiple degrees of freedom in the performance of dynamic and complex motor tasks presents a challenging neuromuscular control problem. Experiments have inferred that humans exhibit self-organized, preferred coordination patterns, which emerge due to actor and task constraints on performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the set of effective coordination strategies that exist for a task centers on a small number of robust, invariant patterns of behavior. METHODS: Kinetic movement patterns computed from a cohort of 780 primarily female adolescent athletes performing a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task were analyzed to discover distinct groups into which individuals could be classified based on the similarity of movement coordination solutions. RESULTS: Clustering of reduced-dimension joint moment of force time series revealed three very distinct, precisely delineated movement profiles that persisted across trials, and which exhibited different functional performance outcomes, despite no other apparent group differences. The same analysis was also performed on a different task-a single-leg drop landing-which also produced distinct movement profiles; however, the three DVJ profiles did not translate to this task as group assignment was inconsistent between these two tasks. CONCLUSION: The task demands of the DVJ and single-leg drop-successful landing, reversal of downward momentum, and, in the case of the DVJ, vertical propulsion toward a maximally positioned target-constrain movement performance such that only a few successful outcomes emerge. Discovery of the observed strategies in the context of associated task constraints may help our understanding of how injury risk movement patterns emerge during specific tasks, as well as how the natural dynamics of the system may be exploited to improve these patterns.

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