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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity is associated with better gastric cancer prognosis and is found in a relatively fixed 9% of tumors worldwide. AIM: We aimed to examine the EBV status of gastric adenocarcinomas in a very high-incidence population and to compare prevalence between cardia and non-cardia anatomic subsites. METHODS: We evaluated 1035 adult gastric adenocarcinoma cases presenting during 1997-2005 to the Shanxi Cancer Hospital in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China. EBV-encoded RNA was detected in alcohol-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens by in situ hybridization. Associations were assessed in case-case comparisons using the Chi-squared test for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, with p values < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression, and mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent of the evaluated cancers were found in the cardia. Cardia tumor localization was associated with male sex, advanced primary tumor stage, better differentiated histology, and intestinal-type Lauren classification. Four percent of the non-cardia and only 0.9% of cardia cancers were EBV-positive. EBV positivity was associated with better overall survival (adjusted HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights unusually low EBV prevalence in gastric adenocarcinoma among a high-incidence population, particularly for cardia cancers. These findings suggest a unique risk factor profile for the high incidence of gastric cancer in this population.

2.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436923

RESUMO

Stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) are a potential predictive biomarker for immunotherapy response in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). To incorporate sTILs into clinical trials and diagnostics, reliable assessment is essential. In this review, we propose a new concept, namely the implementation of a risk-management framework that enables the use of sTILs as a stratification factor in clinical trials. We present the design of a biomarker risk-mitigation workflow that can be applied to any biomarker incorporation in clinical trials. We demonstrate the implementation of this concept using sTILs as an integral biomarker in a single-center phase II immunotherapy trial for metastatic TNBC (TONIC trial, NCT02499367), using this workflow to mitigate risks of suboptimal inclusion of sTILs in this specific trial. In this review, we demonstrate that a web-based scoring platform can mitigate potential risk factors when including sTILs in clinical trials, and we argue that this framework can be applied for any future biomarker-driven clinical trial setting.

3.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 68(4): 237-238, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228158
5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 437-443, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Resistance to chemo-radiation therapy is a substantial obstacle that compromises treatment of advanced cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate if a proteomic panel associated with radioresistance could predict survival of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: A total of 181 frozen tissue samples were prospectively obtained from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer before chemoradiation. Expression levels of 22 total and phosphorylated proteins were evaluated using well-based reverse phase protein arrays. Selected proteins were validated with western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry. Performances of models were internally and externally validated. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering stratified patients into three major groups with different overall survival (OS, P = 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS, P = 0.003) based on detection of BCL2, HER2, CD133, CAIX, and ERCC1. Reverse-phase protein array results significantly correlated with western blotting results (R2 = 0.856). The C-index of model was higher than clinical model in the prediction of OS (C-index: 0.86 and 0.62, respectively) and PFS (C-index: 0.82 and 0.64, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a dose-dependent prognostic significance of risk score for PFS and OS. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that the risk score was an independent predictor of PFS (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.9; P < 0.001) and OS (HR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.7-2.5; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A proteomic panel of BCL2, HER2, CD133, CAIX, and ERCC1 independently predicted survival in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. This prediction model can help identify chemoradiation responsive tumors and improve prediction for clinical outcome of cervical cancer patients.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068253

RESUMO

Higher proportions of early-onset and estrogen receptor (ER) negative cancers are observed in women of African ancestry than in women of European ancestry. Differences in risk factor distributions and associations by age at diagnosis and ER status may explain this disparity. We analyzed data from 1,126 cases (aged 18-74 years) with invasive breast cancer and 2,106 controls recruited from a population-based case-control study in Ghana. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for menstrual and reproductive factors using polytomous logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Among controls, medians for age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, and breastfeeding/pregnancy were 15 years, 4 births, 20 years and 18 months, respectively. For women ≥50 years, parity and extended breastfeeding were associated with decreased risks: >5 births vs. nulliparous, OR 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.83) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.51-0.98) for ≥19 vs. <13 breastfeeding months/pregnancy, which did not differ by ER. In contrast, for earlier onset cases (<50 years) parity was associated with increased risk for ER-negative tumors (p-heterogeneity by ER = 0.02), which was offset by extended breastfeeding. Similar associations were observed by intrinsic-like subtypes. Less consistent relationships were observed with ages at menarche and first birth. Reproductive risk factor distributions are different from European populations but exhibited etiologic heterogeneity by age at diagnosis and ER status similar to other populations. Differences in reproductive patterns and subtype heterogeneity are consistent with racial disparities in subtype distributions.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glypican 3 (GPC3) is an oncofetal antigen involved in Wnt-dependent cell proliferation that is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated whether the functions of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that target GPC3 are affected by their antibody-binding properties. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and patients with HCC and used them to create CAR T cells, based on the humanized YP7 (hYP7) and HN3 antibodies, which have high affinities for the C-lobe and N-lobe of GPC3, respectively. NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgcnull (NSG) mice were given intraperitoneal injections of luciferase-expressing (Luc) Hep3B or HepG2 cells and after xenograft tumors formed, mice were given injections of saline or untransduced T cells (controls), or CAR (HN3) T cells or CAR (hYP7) T cells. In other NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgcnull (NSG) mice, HepG2-Luc or Hep3B-Luc cells were injected into liver, and after orthotopic tumors formed, mice were given 1 injection of CAR (hYP7) T cells or CD19 CAR T cells (control). We developed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and genome sequencing methods to analyze persistent CAR T cells in mice. RESULTS: Injections of CAR (hYP7) T cells eliminated tumors in 66% of mice by week 3, whereas CAR (HN3) T cells did not reduce tumor burden. Mice given CAR (hYP7) T cells remained tumor free after re-challenge with additional Hep3B cells. The CAR T cells induced perforin- and granzyme-mediated apoptosis and reduced levels of active ß-catenin in HCC cells. Mice injected with CAR (hYP7) T cells had persistent expansion of T cells and subsets of polyfunctional CAR T cells via antigen-induced selection. These T cells were observed in the tumor microenvironment and spleen for up to 7 weeks after CAR T-cell administration. Integration sites in pre-infusion CAR (HN3) and CAR (hYP7) T cells were randomly distributed, whereas integration into NUPL1 was detected in 3.9% of CAR (hYP7) T cells 5 weeks after injection into tumor-bearing mice and 18.1% of CAR (hYP7) T cells at week 7. There was no common site of integration in CAR (HN3) or CD19 CAR T cells from tumor-bearing mice. CONCLUSIONS: In mice with xenograft or orthoptic liver tumors, CAR (hYP7) T cells eliminate GPC3-positive HCC cells, possibly by inducing perforin- and granzyme-mediated apoptosis or reducing Wnt signaling in tumor cells. GPC3-targeted CAR T cells might be developed for treatment of patients with HCC.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 562, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992715

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a promising cancer treatment. However, the presence of immune-refractory tumor cells limits its clinical success by blocking amplification of anti-tumor immunity. Previously, we found that immune selection by immunotherapy drives the evolution of tumors toward multi-modal resistant and stem-like phenotypes via transcription induction of AKT co-activator TCL1A by NANOG. Here, we report a crucial role of HSP90A at the crossroads between NANOG-TCL1A axis and multi-aggressive properties of immune-edited tumor cells by identifying HSP90AA1 as a NANOG transcriptional target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HSP90A potentiates AKT activation through TCL1A-stabilization, thereby contributing to the multi-aggressive properties in NANOGhigh tumor cells. Importantly, HSP90 inhibition sensitized immune-refractory tumor to adoptive T cell transfer as well as PD-1 blockade, and re-invigorated the immune cycle of tumor-reactive T cells. Our findings implicate that the HSP90A-TCL1A-AKT pathway ignited by NANOG is a central molecular axis and a potential target for immune-refractory tumor.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Imunidade , Imunoterapia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Resorcinóis/farmacologia
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1905-1914, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compared with their European American (EA) counterparts, African American (AA) women are more likely to die from breast cancer in the United States. This disparity is greatest in hormone receptor-positive subtypes. Here we uncover biological factors underlying this disparity by comparing functional expression and prognostic significance of master transcriptional regulators of luminal differentiation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Data and biospecimens from 262 AA and 293 EA patients diagnosed with breast cancer from 2001 to 2010 at a major medical center were analyzed by IHC for functional biomarkers of luminal differentiation, including estrogen receptor (ESR1) and its pioneer factors, FOXA1 and GATA3. Integrated comparison of protein levels with network-level gene expression analysis uncovered predictive correlations with race and survival. RESULTS: Univariate or multivariate HRs for overall survival, estimated from digital IHC scoring of nuclear antigen, show distinct differences in the magnitude and significance of these biomarkers to predict survival based on race: ESR1 [EA HR = 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-0.72 and AA HR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.48-1.18]; FOXA1 (EA HR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.23-0.63 and AA HR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.88), and GATA3 (EA HR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.23-0.56; AA HR = 0.57; CI, 0.56-1.4). In addition, we identify genes in the downstream regulons of these biomarkers highly correlated with race and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Even within clinically homogeneous tumor groups, regulatory networks that drive mammary luminal differentiation reveal race-specific differences in their association with clinical outcome. Understanding these biomarkers and their downstream regulons will elucidate the intrinsic mechanisms that drive racial disparities in breast cancer survival.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 333, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949145

RESUMO

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive cancer of melanocytes with a strong propensity to metastasize. We posit that melanoma cells acquire metastatic capability by adopting an embryonic-like phenotype, and that a lineage approach would uncover metastatic melanoma biology. Using a genetically engineered mouse model to generate a rich melanoblast transcriptome dataset, we identify melanoblast-specific genes whose expression contribute to metastatic competence and derive a 43-gene signature that predicts patient survival. We identify a melanoblast gene, KDELR3, whose loss impairs experimental metastasis. In contrast, KDELR1 deficiency enhances metastasis, providing the first example of different disease etiologies within the KDELR-family of retrograde transporters. We show that KDELR3 regulates the metastasis suppressor, KAI1, and report an interaction with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gp78, a regulator of KAI1 degradation. Our work demonstrates that the melanoblast transcriptome can be mined to uncover targetable pathways for melanoma therapy.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Proteína Kangai-1/genética , Proteína Kangai-1/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 211-221, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) engages tumor growth by acting as a direct link between the regulation of transcription and the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the clinical significance of CDK7 expression and its potential as a therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: CDK7 expression was examined in 436 ovarian tissues including normal to metastatic ovarian tumors using immunohistochemistry, and its clinical implications were analyzed. Furthermore, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments using CDK7 siRNA or a covalent CDK7 inhibitor (THZ1) to elucidate the effect of CDK7 inhibition on tumorigenesis in EOC cells. RESULTS: The patient incidence of high CDK7 expression (CDK7High) gradually increased from normal ovarian epithelium to EOC (P < 0.001). Moreover, CDK7High was associated with an advanced stage and high-grade histology (P = 0.035 and P = 0.011, respectively) in EOC patients and had an independent prognostic significance in EOC recurrence (P = 0.034). CDK7 inhibition with siRNA or THZ1 decreased cell proliferation and migration, and increased apoptosis in EOC cells, and this anti-cancer mechanism is caused by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In in vivo therapeutic experiments using cell-line xenograft and PDX models, CDK7 inhibition significantly decreased the tumor weight, which was mediated by cell proliferation and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Mechanistic interrogation of CDK7 revealed that it is significantly associated with an aggressive phenotype of EOC, and it has independent prognostic power for EOC recurrence. Furthermore, CDK7 may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with EOC, whether platinum sensitive or resistant.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/enzimologia , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/biossíntese , Neoplasias Ovarianas/enzimologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/enzimologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
12.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 68(1): 73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870240
13.
Environ Int ; 135: 105346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans based on sufficient evidence for lung cancer. IARC noted, however, an increased risk of bladder cancer (based on limited evidence). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between quantitative, lifetime occupational diesel exhaust exposure and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder (UBC) overall and according to pathological subtypes. METHODS: Data from personal interviews with 1944 UBC cases, as well as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue blocks, and 2135 controls were pooled from two case-control studies conducted in the U.S. and Spain. Lifetime occupational histories combined with exposure-oriented questions were used to estimate cumulative exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a primary surrogate for diesel exhaust. Unconditional logistic regression and two-stage polytomous logistic regression were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking and other risk factors. RESULTS: Exposure to cumulative REC was associated with an increased risk of UBC; workers with cumulative REC >396 µg/m3-years had an OR of 1.61 (95% CI, 1.08-2.40). At this level of cumulative exposure, similar results were observed in the U.S. and Spain, OR = 1.75 (95% CI, 0.97-3.15) and OR = 1.54 (95% CI, 0.89-2.68), respectively. In lagged analysis, we also observed a consistent increased risk among workers with cumulative REC >396 µg/m3-years (range of ORs = 1.52-1.93) for all lag intervals evaluated (5-40 years). When we accounted for tumor subtypes defined by stage and grade, a significant association between diesel exhaust exposure and UBC was apparent (global test for association p = 0.0019). CONCLUSIONS: Combining data from two large epidemiologic studies, our results provide further evidence that diesel exhaust exposure increases the risk of UBC.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615043

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A2 (ALDH1A2) is a rate-limiting enzyme involved in cellular retinoic acid synthesis. However, its functional role in ovarian cancer remains elusive. Here, we found that ALDH1A2 was the most prominently downregulated gene among ALDH family members in ovarian cancer cells, according to complementary DNA microarray data. Low ALDH1A2 expression was associated with unfavorable prognosis and shorter disease-free and overall survival for ovarian cancer patients. Notably, hypermethylation of ALDH1A2 was significantly higher in ovarian cancer cell lines when compared to that in immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. ALDH1A2 expression was restored in various ovarian cancer cell lines after treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Furthermore, silencing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) or 3B (DNMT3B) restored ALDH1A2 expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. Functional studies revealed that forced ALDH1A2 expression significantly impaired the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and their invasive activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that ALDH1A2 expression is regulated by the epigenetic regulation of DNMTs, and subsequently that it might act as a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, further suggesting that enhancing ALDH1A2-linked signaling might provide new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in ovarian cancer.

15.
Cancer Cell ; 36(4): 418-430.e6, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588021

RESUMO

Cellular diversity in tumors is a key factor for therapeutic failures and lethal outcomes of solid malignancies. Here, we determined the single-cell transcriptomic landscape of liver cancer biospecimens from 19 patients. We found varying degrees of heterogeneity in malignant cells within and between tumors and diverse landscapes of tumor microenvironment (TME). Strikingly, tumors with higher transcriptomic diversity were associated with patient's worse overall survival. We found a link between hypoxia-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor expression in tumor diversity and TME polarization. Moreover, T cells from higher heterogeneous tumors showed lower cytolytic activities. Consistent results were found using bulk genomic and transcriptomic profiles of 765 liver tumors. Our results offer insight into the diverse ecosystem of liver cancer and its impact on patient prognosis.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 86(6): 878-884, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: JC virus (JCV) infection is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; less common forms of central nervous system manifestations associated with JCV infection include granule cell neuronopathy, encephalopathy, and meningitis. Presented is the first case of fatal JCV encephalopathy after immunosuppressive therapy that included ruxolitinib. METHODS: Postmortem analysis included next generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing, tissue immunohistochemistry, and formalin-fixed hemisphere 7T magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: JCV DNA isolated from postmortem tissue samples identified a novel 12bp insertion that altered the transcription site binding pattern in an otherwise "wild-type virus," which has long been thought to be the nonpathogenic form of JCV. Anti-VP1 staining demonstrated infection in cortical neurons, hippocampal neurons, and glial and endothelial cells. INTERPRETATION: This expands the spectrum of identified JCV diseases associated with broad-spectrum immunosuppression, including JAK-STAT inhibitors, and sheds light on an additional neurotropic virus strain of the archetype variety. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:878-884.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 269, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymic epithelial tumors are PD-L1-expressing tumors of thymic epithelial origin characterized by varying degrees of lymphocytic infiltration and a predisposition towards development of paraneoplastic autoimmunity. PD-1-targeting antibodies have been evaluated, largely in patients with thymic carcinoma. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the anti-PD-L1 antibody, avelumab (MSB0010718C), in patients with relapsed, advanced thymic epithelial tumors and conduct correlative immunological studies. METHODS: Seven patients with thymoma and one patient with thymic carcinoma were enrolled in a phase I, dose-escalation trial of avelumab (MSB0010718C), and treated with avelumab at doses of 10 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or development of intolerable side effects. Tissue and blood immunological analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Two of seven (29%) patients with thymoma had a confirmed Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors-defined partial response, two (29%) had an unconfirmed partial response and three patients (two thymoma; one thymic carcinoma) had stable disease (43%). Three of four responses were observed after a single dose of avelumab. All responders developed immune-related adverse events that resolved with immunosuppressive therapy. Only one of four patients without a clinical response developed immune-related adverse events. Responders had a higher absolute lymphocyte count, lower frequencies of B cells, regulatory T cells, conventional dendritic cells, and natural killer cells prior to therapy. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate anti-tumor activity of PD-L1 inhibition in patients with relapsed thymoma accompanied by a high frequency of immune-related adverse events. Pre-treatment immune cell subset populations differ between responders and non-responders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT01772004 . Date of registration - January 21, 2013.

18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(12): 861-870, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645342

RESUMO

Delayed terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution is associated with elevated mammographic breast density (MD). Both are independent breast cancer risk factors among women with benign breast disease (BBD). Prior digital analyses of normal breast tissues revealed that epithelial nuclear density (END) and TDLU involution are inversely correlated. Accordingly, we examined associations of END, TDLU involution, and MD in BBD clinical biopsies. This study included digitized images of 262 representative image-guided hematoxylin and eosin-stained biopsies from 224 women diagnosed with BBD, enrolled within the cross-sectional BREAST-Stamp project that were visually assessed for TDLU involution (TDLU count/100 mm2, median TDLU span and median acini count per TDLU). A digital algorithm estimated nuclei count per unit epithelial area, or END. Single X-ray absorptiometry of prebiopsy ipsilateral craniocaudal digital mammograms measured global and localized MD surrounding the biopsy region. Adjusted ordinal logistic regression models assessed relationships between tertiles of TDLU and END measures. Analysis of covariance examined mean differences in MD across END tertiles. TDLU measures were positively associated with increasing END tertiles [TDLU count/100 mm2, ORT3vsT1: 3.42, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.87-6.28; acini count/TDLUT3vsT1, OR: 2.40, 95% CI, 1.39-4.15]. END was significantly associated with localized, but not, global MD. Relationships were most apparent among patients with nonproliferative BBD. These findings suggest that quantitative END reflects different but complementary information to the histologic information captured by visual TDLU and radiologic MD measures and merits continued evaluation in assessing cellularity of breast parenchyma to understand the etiology of BBD.

19.
Nat Mater ; 18(10): 1034-1035, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537941
20.
Cell Death Differ ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527799

RESUMO

Notch, an essential factor in tissue development and homoeostasis, has been reported to play an oncogenic function in a variety of cancers. Here, we report ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) as a novel deubiquitylase of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD). USP8 specifically stabilizes and deubiquitylates NICD through a direct interaction. The inhibition of USP8 downregulated the Notch signalling pathway via NICD destabilization, resulting in the retardation of cellular growth, wound closure, and colony forming ability of breast cancer cell lines. These phenomena were restored by the reconstitution of NICD or USP8, supporting the direct interaction between these two proteins. The expression levels of NICD and USP8 proteins were positively correlated in patients with advanced breast cancer. Taken together, our results suggest that USP8 functions as a positive regulator of Notch signalling, offering a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

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