Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 329
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071938

RESUMO

Hormone receptor expression patterns often correlate with infiltration of specific lymphocytes in tumors. Specifically, the presence of specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with particular hormone receptor expression is reportedly associated with breast cancer, however, this has not been revealed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Therefore, we investigated the association between hormone receptor expression and TILs in EOC. Here we found that ERα, AR, and GR expression increased in EOC, while PR was significantly reduced and ERß expression showed a reduced trend compared to normal epithelium. Cluster analysis indicated poor disease-free survival (DFS) in AR+/GR+/PR+ subgroup (triple dominant group); while the Cox proportional-hazards model highlighted the triple dominant group as an independent prognostic factor for DFS. In addition, significant upregulation of FoxP3+ TILs, PD-1, and PD-L1 was observed in the triple dominant group compared to other groups. NanoString analyses further suggested that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and/or NF-κB signaling pathways were activated with significant upregulation of RELA, MAP3K5, TNFAIP3, BCL2L1, RIPK1, TRAF2, PARP1, and AKT1 in the triple dominant EOC group. The triple dominant subgroup correlates with poor prognosis in EOC. Moreover, the TNF and/or NF-κB signaling pathways may be responsible for hormone-mediated inhibition of the immune microenvironment.

2.
Gastric Cancer ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant activation of the WNT/ß-catenin and STAT3 signaling pathways plays a critical role in cancer progression. However, direct targeting of these pathways as an anti-cancer therapeutic approach needs to be reconsidered due to its serious side effects. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of WNT induces STAT3 activation in a galectin-3-dependent manner. METHODS: We investigated how galectin-3 mediates the crosstalk between WNT/ß-catenin and STAT3 signaling and whether inhibition of galectin-3 can reduce gastric cancer. The molecular mechanisms were analyzed by biochemical assays using cultured gastric cancer cells, patient tissues, and genetically engineered mice. Moreover, we confirm of therapeutic effects of GB1107, a cell-penetrating galectin-3 specific inhibitor, using orthotopic gastric cancer-bearing mice RESULTS: Increased levels of galectin-3 and STAT3 phosphorylation were detected in the stomach tissues of WNT1-overexpressing mouse models. Also, high expression levels and co-localization of ß-catenin, pSTAT3, and galectin-3 in patients with advanced gastric cancer were correlated with a poorer prognosis. Galectin-3 depletion significantly decreased STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional activation. A peptide of galectin-3 (Y45-Q48) directly bound to the STAT3 SH2 domain and enhanced its phosphorylation. GB1107, a specific membrane-penetrating inhibitor of galectin-3, significantly reduced the activation of both STAT3 and ß-catenin and inhibited tumor growth in orthotopic gastric cancer-bearing mice. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that galectin-3 mediates the crosstalk between the WNT and STAT3 signaling pathways. Therefore GB1107, a galectin-3-specific inhibitor, maybe a potent agent with anti-gastric cancer activity. Further studies are needed for its clinical application in gastric cancer therapy.

3.
Nat Med ; 27(5): 892-903, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767405

RESUMO

Despite signs of infection-including taste loss, dry mouth and mucosal lesions such as ulcerations, enanthema and macules-the involvement of the oral cavity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood. To address this, we generated and analyzed two single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of the human minor salivary glands and gingiva (9 samples, 13,824 cells), identifying 50 cell clusters. Using integrated cell normalization and annotation, we classified 34 unique cell subpopulations between glands and gingiva. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral entry factors such as ACE2 and TMPRSS members were broadly enriched in epithelial cells of the glands and oral mucosae. Using orthogonal RNA and protein expression assessments, we confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the glands and mucosae. Saliva from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals harbored epithelial cells exhibiting ACE2 and TMPRSS expression and sustained SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acellular and cellular salivary fractions from asymptomatic individuals were found to transmit SARS-CoV-2 ex vivo. Matched nasopharyngeal and saliva samples displayed distinct viral shedding dynamics, and salivary viral burden correlated with COVID-19 symptoms, including taste loss. Upon recovery, this asymptomatic cohort exhibited sustained salivary IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, these data show that the oral cavity is an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and implicate saliva as a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Boca/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/análise , Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/etiologia , Humanos , Serina Endopeptidases/análise , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Replicação Viral
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 150, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526872

RESUMO

The use of digital pathology for the histomorphologic profiling of pathological specimens is expanding the precision and specificity of quantitative tissue analysis at an unprecedented scale; thus, enabling the discovery of new and functionally relevant histological features of both predictive and prognostic significance. In this study, we apply quantitative automated image processing and computational methods to profile the subcellular distribution of the multi-functional transcriptional regulator, Kaiso (ZBTB33), in the tumors of a large racially diverse breast cancer cohort from a designated health disparities region in the United States. Multiplex multivariate analysis of the association of Kaiso's subcellular distribution with other breast cancer biomarkers reveals novel functional and predictive linkages between Kaiso and the autophagy-related proteins, LC3A/B, that are associated with features of the tumor immune microenvironment, survival, and race. These findings identify effective modalities of Kaiso biomarker assessment and uncover unanticipated insights into Kaiso's role in breast cancer progression.

5.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536203

RESUMO

The structure and organization of a tumor and its microenvironment are often associated with cancer outcomes due to spatially varying molecular composition and signaling. A persistent challenge is to use this physical and chemical spatial organization to understand cancer progression. Here, we present a high-definition infrared imaging-based organizational measurement framework (INFORM) that leverages intrinsic chemical contrast of tissue to label unique components of the tumor and its microenvironment. Using objective and automated computational methods, further, we determine organization characteristics important for prediction. We show that the tumor spatial organization assessed with this framework is predictive of overall survival in colon cancer that adds to capability from clinical variables such as stage and grade, approximately doubling the risk of death in high-risk individuals. Our results open an all-digital avenue for measuring and studying the association between tumor spatial organization and disease progression.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419780

RESUMO

Immunoprofiling to identify biomarkers and integration with clinical trials outcome are critical to improve immunotherapy approaches for cancer patients. However, the translational potential of individual studies is often limited by small sample size of trials and the complexity of immuno-oncology biomarkers. Variability in assays further limits comparison and interpretation of data across studies and laboratories. To enable a systematic approach to biomarker identification and correlation with clinical outcome across trials, the Cancer Immune Monitoring and Analysis Centers and Cancer Immunologic Data Commons (CIMAC-CIDC) Network was established through support of the Cancer MoonshotSM Initiative of the National Cancer Institute and the Partnership for Accelerating Cancer Therapies (PACT) with industry partners via the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. The CIMAC-CIDC Network is composed of four academic centers (CIMACs) with multidisciplinary expertise in the field of cancer immunotherapy that provide validated and harmonized assays for immune profiling. A data coordinating center (CIDC) provides the computational expertise and resources for biomarker data storage and analysis platforms for correlation with clinical data. This overview highlights strategies for assay harmonization to enable cross-trial and cross-site data analysis and describes key elements for establishing a network to enhance immuno-oncology biomarker development. These include an operational infrastructure; validation and harmonization of core immunoprofiling assays; platforms for data ingestion and integration; and access to specimens from clinical trials. Published in the same volume are reports of harmonization for core analyses: whole exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, cytometry by time of flight, and immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009216, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481911

RESUMO

Intracellular pathogens have evolved to utilize normal cellular processes to complete their replicative cycles. Pathogens that interface with proliferative cell signaling pathways risk infections that can lead to cancers, but the factors that influence malignant outcomes are incompletely understood. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) predominantly cause benign hyperplasia in stratifying epithelial tissues. However, a subset of carcinogenic or "high-risk" HPV (hr-HPV) genotypes are etiologically linked to nearly 5% of all human cancers. Progression of hr-HPV-induced lesions to malignancies is characterized by increased expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes and the oncogenic functions of these viral proteins have been widely studied. Yet, the mechanisms that regulate hr-HPV oncogene transcription and suppress their expression in benign lesions remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling, influenced by epithelial contact inhibition and tissue differentiation cues, regulates hr-HPV oncogene expression. Using monolayer cells, epithelial organotypic tissue models, and neoplastic tissue biopsy materials, we show that cell-extrinsic activation of ERK overrides cellular control to promote HPV oncogene expression and the neoplastic phenotype. Our data suggest that HPVs are adapted to use the EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling pathway to regulate their productive replicative cycles. Mechanistic studies show that EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling influences AP-1 transcription factor activity and AP-1 factor knockdown reduces oncogene transcription. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of EGFR, MEK, and ERK signaling quash HPV oncogene expression and the neoplastic phenotype, revealing a potential clinical strategy to suppress uncontrolled cell proliferation, reduce oncogene expression and treat HPV neoplasia.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
8.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 110(2): 526-538, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385497

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Type II pneumocyte (alveolar epithelial cells type II [AECII]) senescence has been implicated in the progression of lung fibrosis. The capacity of senescent cells to modulate pulmonary macrophages to drive fibrosis is unexplored. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling has been implicated as a regulator of senescence and aging. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Mice with an AECII-specific deletion of IGF-1R received thoracic irradiation (n ≥ 5 per condition), and the effect of IGF-1R deficiency on radiation-induced AECII senescence and macrophage polarization to an alternatively activated phenotype (M2) was investigated. IGF-1R signaling, macrophage polarization, and senescence were evaluated in surgically resected human lung (n = 63). RESULTS: IGF-1R deficient mice demonstrated reduced AECII senescence (senescent AECII/field; intact: 7.25% ± 3.5% [mean ± SD], deficient: 2.75% ± 2.8%, P = .0001), reduced accumulation of M2 macrophages (intact: 24.7 ± 2.2 cells/field, deficient: 15.5 ± 1.2 cells/field, P = .0086), and fibrosis (hydroxyproline content; intact: 71.9 ± 21.7 µg/lung, deficient: 31.7 ± 7.9, P = .0485) after irradiation. Senescent AECII enhanced M2 polarization in a paracrine fashion (relative Arg1 mRNA, 0 Gy: 1.0 ± 0.4, 17.5 Gy: 7.34 ± 0.5, P < .0001). Evaluation of surgical samples from patients treated with chemoradiation demonstrated increased expression of IGF-1 (unirradiated: 10.2% ± 4.9% area, irradiated: 15.1% ± 11.5%, P = .0377), p21 (unirradiated: 0.013 ± 0.02 histoscore, irradiated: 0.084 ± 0.09 histoscore, P = .0002), IL-13 (unirradiated: 13.7% ± 2.8% area, irradiated: 21.7% ± 3.8%, P < .0001), and M2 macrophages in fibrotic regions relative to nonfibrotic regions (unirradiated: 11.4 ± 12.2 CD163 + cells/core, irradiated: 43.1 ± 40.9 cells/core, P = .0011), consistent with findings from animal models of lung fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that senescent AECII are necessary for the progression of pulmonary fibrosis and serve as a targetable, chronic stimuli for macrophage activation in fibrotic lung.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6236, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262409

RESUMO

A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20178-0.

11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 443, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a critical player in tumor progression, metastasis and therapy outcomes. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a well-recognized core element of the TME and generally characterized as M2-like macrophages. TAMs are believed to contribute to tumor progression, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the clinical, angiogenic, and lymphangiogenic significance of TAMs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Utilizing combined immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis, we assessed CD68, CD163, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C expression in 349 patients with NSCLC. Subsequently, the potential association between M2 TAMs and angiogenic VEGF-A and/or lymphangiogenic VEGF-C was evaluated for its prognostic value. Furthermore, the effects of M2 TAMs on angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were explored via an in vitro co-culture system. RESULTS: CD68 and CD163 expression were found to directly correlate with VEGF-A and/or VEGF-C expression (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, elevated M2 ratio (CD163+/CD68+) was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.023). Dual expression of M2 ratiohigh and VEGF-Chigh (M2 ratiohighVEGF-Chigh) was correlated with worse overall survival (p = 0.033). Multivariate analysis revealed that M2 ratiohigh [HR (95% CI) = 1.53 (1.01-2.33), p = 0.046] and combined M2 ratiohighVEGF-Chigh expression [HR (95% CI) = 2.01 (1.28-3.16), p = 0.003] were independent predictors of poor overall survival. Notably, we confirmed that M2 macrophages significantly enhanced the protein and mRNA expression of both VEGF-A and VEGF-C, while M1 macrophages induced only mRNA expression of VEGF-A in A549 cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that TAMs are significantly associated with angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, contributing to the progression of NSCLC. Furthermore, elevated M2 ratio, similar to combined high M2 ratio and high VEGF-C expression, is a strong indicator of poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC, providing insight for future TAM-based immunotherapy strategies.

12.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 68(11): 731, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131384
13.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129371

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are fusion proteins that contain antigen-recognition domains and T cell signaling domains. Signaling lymphocytic-activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7) is a promising target for CAR T cell therapies of the plasma cell malignancy multiple myeloma (MM) because SLAMF7 is expressed by MM but not normal nonhematopoietic cells. We designed CARs targeting SLAMF7. We transduced human T cells with anti-SLAMF7 CARs containing either CD28 or 4-1BB costimulatory domains. T cells expressing CD28-containing CARs or 4-1BB-containing CARs recognized SLAMF7 in vitro. SLAMF7-specific cytokine release was higher for T cells expressing CARs with CD28 versus 4-1BB domains. In murine solid tumor and disseminated tumor models, anti-tumor activity of T cells was superior with CD28-containing CARs versus 4-1BB-containing CARs. Because of SLAMF7 expression on some normal leukocytes, especially natural killer cells that control certain viral infections, the inclusion of a suicide gene with an anti-SLAMF7 CAR is prudent. We designed a construct with a CD28-containing anti-SLAMF7 CAR and a suicide gene. The suicide gene encoded a dimerization domain fused to a caspase-9 domain. T cells expressing the anti-SLAMF7 CAR plus suicide-gene construct specifically recognized SLAMF7 in vitro and eliminated tumors from mice. T cells expressing this construct were eliminated on demand by administering the dimerizing agent AP1903 (rimiducid).

14.
Virchows Arch ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103210

RESUMO

The presence of KRAS mutation enhances the stem cell features of colorectal carcinoma cells containing mutant adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). However, their potential role in small intestinal adenocarcinoma remains elusive. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of cancer stem cell markers expression in the context of small intestinal adenocarcinoma with the KRAS genotype. SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis, and their potential association with KRAS was further examined in 185 Korean patients with small intestinal adenocarcinomas, which were collected from 22 institutions in South Korea. Positive expression of SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4 was detected in 65 (35.1%), 94 (50.8%), and 82 (44.3%) of patients, respectively. Patients with high SOX2 (SOX2+) expression displayed worse overall survival compared to those with low SOX2 (SOX2-) expression (P < 0.001). Patients with SOX2+/mutant KRAS (KRASMT) (11.1 months) had significantly shorter overall survival than those with SOX2-/KRASWT (53.6 months) (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, SOX2+, distal location, high pT and pN categories, microsatellite stable, and absence of predisposing diseases were independent prognostic factors for worse overall survival. These results suggest that SOX2 expression has the potential to predict clinical outcomes in patients with small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089311

RESUMO

Evidence for in utero transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is growing but not definitive. We present a case of neonatal infection that supports in utero transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and provides insight into hematogenous spread from mother to fetus.

16.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 68(9): 635-643, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867573

RESUMO

Lipid peroxidation is a common feature of liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are limited validated tools to study intra-hepatic lipid peroxidation, especially for small specimen. We developed a semi-quantitative, fully automated immunohistochemistry assay for the detection of 4-hydroxynoneal (4-HNE) protein adducts, a marker of lipid peroxidation, for adaptation to clinical diagnostics and research. We used Hep G2 cells treated with 4-HNE to validate specificity, sensitivity, and dynamic range of the antibody. Staining and semi-quantitative automated readout were confirmed in human needle-biopsy liver samples from subjects with NAFLD and normal liver histology. The ability to detect changes in lipid peroxidation was tested in paired liver biopsies from NAFLD subjects, obtained before and after 4 weeks of treatment with the antioxidant vitamin E (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01792115, n=21). The cellular calibrator was linear and NAFLD patients had significantly higher levels of 4-HNE adducts compared to controls (p=0.02). Vitamin E treatment significantly decreased 4-HNE (p=0.0002). Our findings demonstrate that 4-HNE quantification by immunohistochemistry and automated image analysis is feasible and able to detect changes in hepatic lipid peroxidation in clinical trials. This method can be applied to archival and fresh samples and should be considered for use in assessing NAFLD histology.

17.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974155

RESUMO

Objective: Hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES-1), which is a downstream target of the Notch signaling pathway, has been linked to KRAS mutations. HES-1 has been proposed as harboring oncogenic activity in colorectal cancer but has not been investigated in adenocarcinoma of the small intestine, where the drivers of oncogenesis are not as well-understood. Materials and Methods: To investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic implications of HES-1, HES-1 immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in digital images along with clinicopathological variables, including survival and KRAS genotype, in 185 small intestinal adenocarcinomas. Results: The loss of HES-1 expression (HES-1Loss) was observed in 38.4% (71/185) of the patients, and was associated with higher pT category (P = 0.018), pancreatic invasion (P = 0.005), high grade (P = 0.043), and non-tubular histology (P = 0.004). Specifically, in tumors with mutant KRAS (KRAS MT), HES-1Loss was related to proximal location (P = 0.024), high T and N categories (P = 0.005 and 0.047, respectively), and pancreatic invasion (P = 0.004). Patients with HES-1Loss showed worse overall survival compared to those with intact HES-1 (HES-1Intact) (P = 0.013). Patients with HES-1Loss/KRAS MT (median, 17.3 months) had significantly worse outcomes than those with HES-1Intact/KRAS WT (39.9 months), HES-1Intact/KRAS MT (47.6 month), and HES-1Loss/KRAS WT (36.2 months; P = 0.010). By multivariate analysis, HES-1Loss (hazard ratio = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-2.26; P = 0.022) remained an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: HES-1expression can be used as a potential prognostic marker and may aid in the management of patients with small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

18.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964115

RESUMO

Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the predominant anatomical structures where breast cancers originate. Having lesser degrees of age-related TDLU involution, measured as higher TDLUs counts or more epithelial TDLU substructures (acini), is related to increased breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease (BBD). We evaluated whether a recently developed polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313-common variants for breast cancer prediction is related to TDLU involution in the background, normal breast tissue, as this could provide mechanistic clues on the genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Among 1398 women without breast cancer, higher values of the PRS were significantly associated with higher TDLU counts (P = 0.004), but not with acini counts (P = 0.808), in histologically normal tissue samples from donors and diagnostic BBD biopsies. Mediation analysis indicated that TDLU counts may explain a modest proportion (≤10%) of the association of the 313-variant PRS with breast cancer risk. These findings suggest that TDLU involution might be an intermediate step in the association between common genetic variation and breast cancer risk.

19.
J Histochem Cytochem ; : 22155420959146, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936035

RESUMO

Advances in reagents, methodologies, analytic platforms, and tools have resulted in a dramatic transformation of the research pathology laboratory. These advances have increased our ability to efficiently generate substantial volumes of data on the expression and accumulation of mRNA, proteins, carbohydrates, signaling pathways, cells, and structures in healthy and diseased tissues that are objective, quantitative, reproducible, and suitable for statistical analysis. The goal of this review is to identify and present how to acquire the critical information required to measure changes in tissues. Included is a brief overview of two morphometric techniques, image analysis and stereology, and the use of artificial intelligence to classify cells and identify hidden patterns and relationships in digital images. In addition, we explore the importance of preanalytical factors in generating high-quality data. This review focuses on techniques we have used to measure proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and immune cells in tissues using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to demonstrate the various morphometric techniques. When performed correctly, quantitative digital pathology is a powerful tool that provides unbiased quantitative data that are difficult to obtain with other methods.

20.
Autophagy ; : 1-20, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762616

RESUMO

Immune selection drives tumor cells to acquire refractory phenotypes. We previously demonstrated that cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune pressure enriches NANOG+ tumor cells with stem-like and immune-refractory properties that make them resistant to CTLs. Here, we report that the emergence of refractory phenotypes is highly associated with an aberrant macroautophagic/autophagic state of the NANOG+ tumor cells and that the autophagic phenotype arises through transcriptional induction of MAP1LC3B/LC3B by NANOG. Furthermore, we found that upregulation of LC3B expression contributes to an increase in EGF secretion. The subsequent hyperactivation of EGFR-AKT signaling rendered NANOG+ tumor cells resistant to CTL killing. The NANOG-LC3B-p-EGFR axis was preserved across various types of human cancer and correlated negatively with the overall survival of cervical cancer patients. Inhibition of LC3B in immune-refractory tumor models rendered tumors susceptible to adoptive T-cell transfer, as well as PDCD1/PD-1 blockade, and led to successful, long-term control of the disease. Thus, our findings demonstrate a novel link among immune-resistance, stem-like phenotypes, and LC3B-mediated autophagic secretion in immune-refractory tumor cells, and implicate the LC3B-p-EGFR axis as a central molecular target for controlling NANOG+ immune-refractory cancer. ABBREVIATIONS: ACTB: actin beta; ATG7: autophagy related 7; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CASP3: caspase 3; CFSE: carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; CI: confidence interval; CIN: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CSC: cancer stem cell; CTL: cytotoxic T lymphocyte; EGF: epidermal growth factor; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; FIGO: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GZMB: granzyme B; HG-CIN: high-grade CIN; IHC: immunohistochemistry; LG-CIN: low-grade CIN; LN: lymph node; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MCL1: myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1; MLANA/MART-1: melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1; MUT: mutant; NANOG: Nanog homeobox; PDCD1/PD-1: programmed cell death 1; PMEL/gp100: premelanosome protein; RTK: receptor tyrosine kinase; TMA: tissue microarray; WT: wild type.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...