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1.
Viruses ; 11(9)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443440

RESUMO

Although the concept of high-level containment care (HLCC or 'biocontainment'), dates back to 1969, the 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) brought with it a renewed emphasis on the use of specialized HLCC units in the care of patients with EVD. Employment of these units in the United States and Western Europe resulted in a significant decrease in mortality compared to traditional management in field settings. Moreover, this employment appeared to significantly lessen the risk of nosocomial transmission of disease; no secondary cases occurred among healthcare workers in these units. While many now accept the wisdom of utilizing HLCC units and principles in the management of EVD (and, presumably, of other transmissible and highly hazardous viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as those caused by Marburg and Lassa viruses), no consensus exists regarding additional diseases that might warrant HLCC. We propose here a construct designed to make such determinations for existing and newly discovered diseases. The construct examines infectivity (as measured by the infectious dose needed to infect 50% of a given population (ID50)), communicability (as measured by the reproductive number (R0)), and hazard (as measured by morbidity and mortality). Diseases fulfilling all three criteria (i.e., those that are highly infectious, communicable, and highly hazardous) are considered candidates for HLCC management if they also meet a fourth criterion, namely that they lack effective and available licensed countermeasures.

3.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 54(2): 169-180, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027659

RESUMO

The 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak response resulted in many lessons learned about biocontainment patient care, leading to enhanced domestic capabilities for highly infectious and hazardous communicable diseases. However, additional opportunities for improvement remain. The article identifies and describes key considerations and challenges for laboratory analysis, clinical management, transportation, and personnel management during the care of patients infected with Ebola or other special pathogens. Dedication to maintaining preparedness enables biocontainment patient care teams to perform at the highest levels of safety and confidence.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998566

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effects of a trauma performance improvement project involving standardized protocols for the administration of antibiotics in open fractures at a level one trauma center. This study specifically evaluated the protocol's efficacy for improving the timing of delivery and appropriate therapy administration and sought to identify factors that lead to the delay in antibiotic delivery. METHODS: Retrospective comparative cohort study comparing patients with open fractures treated at our hospital between January 2013 and September 2015 (group 1) and between April 2016 and June 2017 (group 2). Group 1 was treated before implementation of the performance improvement project and group 2 was treated after implementation. RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 79 patients and group 2 consisted of 80 patients with open fractures. Each group was statistically similar in patient and injury factors. Group 1 received antibiotics at an average of 97 minutes after arrival to our hospital while group 2 patients received them at an average of 46 minutes (P < 0.0001). Average time from admission to initial evaluation improved from 10 to 3 minutes (P < 0.0001). Average time from evaluation to antibiotic order placement improved from 77 to 26 minutes (P < 0.0001). Average time from order entry to antibiotic administration showed no significant difference (12 versus 15 minutes, P = 0.25). Thirty-four percent (27/79) of group 1 patients and 84% (67/80) of group 2 patients received antibiotics within 1 hour of admission (P < 0.0001), while 91% and 99% received antibiotics within 3 hours, respectively (P = 0.03). DISCUSSION: The described multifaceted performance improvement protocol was highly effective for producing a more coordinated, efficient, and timely process for administration of antibiotics to patients with open fractures at our hospital. This protocol may be adopted and implemented at other facilities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic level III.

6.
Am J Infect Control ; 46(12): 1356-1359, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acrylic nails harbor more bacteria than natural nails, and wear is not recommended for health care workers (HCWs). Little is known about the new and popular gel nail products. This study sought to evaluate the bacterial burden of gel nails, standard nail polish, and natural nails on the hands of HCWs. METHODS: The study was conducted at 3 health centers. Nails on the dominant hand of 88 HCWs were painted with gel polish and standard polish. Cultures were obtained on days 1, 7, and 14 of wear and before and after hand hygiene with alcohol hand gel. RESULTS: A total of 741 cultures were obtained. Bacterial burden increased over time for all nail types (P ≤ .0001). Reductions in the bacterial burden of natural nails and standard polish, but not gel polish, (P = .001, P = .0028, and P = .98, respectively) were seen after hand hygiene. All 3 nail types become more contaminated with bacteria over time. Standard polish and natural nails may be more amenable to hand hygiene than gel polish. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not show an increased number of microorganisms on nails with gel polish; however, gel nails may be more difficult to clean using alcohol hand gel.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8007-E8016, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072435

RESUMO

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is the only known human developmental defect exclusively affecting a lymphoid organ. In 2013, we showed that private deleterious mutations in the protein-coding region of RPSA, encoding ribosomal protein SA, caused ICA by haploinsufficiency with complete penetrance. We reported seven heterozygous protein-coding mutations in 8 of the 23 kindreds studied, including 6 of the 8 multiplex kindreds. We have since enrolled 33 new kindreds, 5 of which are multiplex. We describe here 11 new heterozygous ICA-causing RPSA protein-coding mutations, and the first two mutations in the 5'-UTR of this gene, which disrupt mRNA splicing. Overall, 40 of the 73 ICA patients (55%) and 23 of the 56 kindreds (41%) carry mutations located in translated or untranslated exons of RPSA. Eleven of the 43 kindreds affected by sporadic disease (26%) carry RPSA mutations, whereas 12 of the 13 multiplex kindreds (92%) carry RPSA mutations. We also report that 6 of 18 (33%) protein-coding mutations and the two (100%) 5'-UTR mutations display incomplete penetrance. Three mutations were identified in two independent kindreds, due to a hotspot or a founder effect. Finally, RPSA ICA-causing mutations were demonstrated to be de novo in 7 of the 23 probands. Mutations in RPSA exons can affect the translated or untranslated regions and can underlie ICA with complete or incomplete penetrance.


Assuntos
Éxons , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Baço/anormalidades , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores de Laminina/biossíntese , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Baço/metabolismo
10.
Health Secur ; 16(4): 224-238, 2018 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096247

RESUMO

Differentiating between illness caused by community-acquired respiratory pathogens versus infection by biothreat agents is a challenge. This review highlights respiratory and clinical features of category A and B potential biothreat agents that have respiratory features as their primary presenting signs and symptoms. Recent world events make such a reminder that the possibility of rare diseases and unlikely events can occur timely for clinicians, policymakers, and public health authorities. Despite some distinguishing features, nothing can replace good clinical acumen and a strong index of suspicion in the diagnosis of uncommon infectious diseases.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901775

RESUMO

Background: Intervention by infectious diseases (ID) physicians improves outcomes for inpatients in Medicare, but patients with other insurance types could fare differently. We assessed whether ID involvement leads to better outcomes among privately insured patients under age 65 hospitalized with common infections. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of administrative claims data from community hospital and post-discharge ambulatory care. Patients were privately insured individuals under 65 years old with an acute-care stay in 2014 for selected infections, classed as having early (by day 3) or late (after day 3) ID intervention, or none. Key outcomes were mortality, cost, length of the index stay; readmission rate, mortality and total cost of care over the first 30 days after discharge. Results: Patients managed with early ID involvement had shorter length of stay, lower spending, and lower mortality in the index stay than those patients managed without ID involvement. Relative to late, early ID involvement was associated with shorter length of stay and lower cost. Individuals with early ID intervention during hospitalization had fewer readmissions and lower healthcare payments after discharge. Relative to late, those with early ID intervention experienced lower readmission, lower spending, and lower mortality. Conclusions: Among privately insured patients under 65 years old, treated in a hospital, early intervention with an ID physician was associated with lower mortality rate and shorter length of stay. Patients who received early ID intervention during their hospital stay were less likely to be readmitted after discharge and had lower total healthcare spending.

12.
Am J Infect Control ; 46(5): 579-580, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329915

RESUMO

Video review and scoring was used to evaluate the behaviors of nurses wearing N95 filtering face piece respirators while providing isolation care in a simulated patient care environment. This study yielded a detailed description of behaviors related to N95 respirator use in a health care setting. Developing a more robust and systematic behavior analysis tool for use in demonstration, simulation, and clinical care would allow for improved respiratory protection of health care workers.

13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(2)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167287

RESUMO

In late 2014, 56 hospitals in the United States were designated by state and federal public health authorities as specially designed high-level isolation units (HLIUs) equipped with advanced infrastructure, laboratory capabilities, and trained staff to care for patients with highly hazardous communicable diseases (HHCDs), such as Ebola virus disease. This survey describes the clinical laboratory support capabilities of U.S. HLIUs, including the specific test menus that HLIUs have identified to safely manage HHCD patients and the locations where such testing would be performed. In spring 2016, a survey was electronically distributed, as a fillable pdf file, to the 56 U.S. HLIUs. Site representatives completed the surveys, and data were coded and analyzed in an electronic spreadsheet, using descriptive statistics. Thirty-six HLIUs (64%) responded, and 33 completed the laboratory capabilities section. Thirty-one HLIUs (94%) had performed risk analyses for all laboratory procedures and equipment. Twenty-nine (88%) had decontamination procedures specified for all laboratory equipment used for patients with suspected or confirmed HHCDs. On-site laboratories in 27 HLIUs (81%) had the capacity to inventory and to securely store HHCD patient specimens. Ten HLIUs (31%) had at least one test they would conduct within the patient isolation room. The high-risk nature of HHCDs and the occupational exposures that may occur in clinical laboratories demand advanced preparation and risk assessment of work practices, laboratory equipment, and instrumentation by HLIU laboratories. Although risk analyses of clinical laboratory testing and equipment that HLIUs have conducted have likely focused on those for Ebola virus, HLIUs must be prepared to revise their current procedures for other HHCDs.

14.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 24(5): E28-E33, 2018 Sep/Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227420

RESUMO

CONTEXT: US state public health departments played key roles in planning for and responding to confirmed and suspected cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2014-2016 outbreak, including designating select hospitals as high-level isolation units (HLIUs) for EVD treatment in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. OBJECTIVE: To identify existing guidelines and perspectives of state health departments pertaining to the management and transport of patients with EVD and other highly hazardous communicable diseases (HHCDs). DESIGN: An electronic 8-question survey with subquestions was administered as a fillable PDF. SETTING: The survey was distributed to publicly accessible e-mails of state health department employees. PARTICIPANTS: State epidemiologists, emergency preparedness directors, or chief medical officers from each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia were contacted; a representative from 36 states and the District of Columbia responded (73%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics were used to identify the proportion of state health departments with various existing protocols. RESULTS: A majority of states reported that they would prefer patients confirmed with viral hemorrhagic fevers (eg, EVD, Marburg fever) and smallpox be transported to an HLIU for treatment rather than remain at the initial hospital of diagnosis. While most (89%) states had written guidelines for the safe transportation of patients with HHCDs, only 6 (16%) had written protocols for the management of accidents or other travel disruptions that may occur during HHCD transport within the state. Twenty-two state health departments (59%) had operationally exercised transport of a patient to an HLIU. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of states in the United States lack an HLIU, yet most prefer to have patients with HHCDs treated in high-level isolation. Recent budget cuts and uncertainty of future funding threaten the abilities of health departments to devote the necessary resources and staff to prepare for and deliver the desired care to HHCD cases. The lack of HLIUs in some states may complicate transport to a geographically proximate HLIU. Moreover, limited guidance on diseases that warrant high-level isolation may cause disagreement in HHCD patient placement between health departments, diagnosing facilities, and HLIUs.

16.
Health Secur ; 15(5): 519-526, 2017 Sep/Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058966

RESUMO

The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa prompted a select group of US hospitals to establish high-level isolation units equipped with advanced engineering controls, trained staff, and stringent protocols to safely treat highly infectious disease patients. This survey details the comprehensive infection control protocols developed by these units, including for decontamination of units, post-mortem management, liquid waste disposal, and personal protective equipment (PPE) use. In spring 2016, a survey was electronically distributed to the 56 original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-designated high-level isolation units. Responses were collected via a fillable PDF and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty-six (64%) high-level isolation units responded; 33 completed the survey, and 3 reported they no longer maintained high-level isolation unit capabilities. Nearly all responding units had written procedures for decontamination, liquid waste disposal, and PPE use; however, infection control protocols varied between units. High-level isolation units implemented multiple strategies in promoting hand hygiene among staff and in monitoring correct PPE use. Maximum time allowed in full PPE was restricted in all but 2 units (average of 3.45 hours per shift). Almost all (94%) had written procedures for the management of human remains, although only 2 units had written protocols for an autopsy of a patient with a highly infectious disease. While the vast majority of high-level isolation units reported having written protocols for infection control practices, staff compliance and procedural application are the true indicators of the state of preparedness. Therefore, rigorous training and staff adherence to infection control practices is critical to minimizing exposure risks.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/normas , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Autopsia/métodos , Descontaminação/normas , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes/organização & administração , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
17.
Health Secur ; 15(4): 432-439, 2017 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805464

RESUMO

The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016 highlighted the need for the development of a more robust healthcare infrastructure in the United States to provide isolation care for patients infected with a highly hazardous contagious disease. Routine exercises and skills practice are required to effectively and safely prepare care teams to confidently treat this special population of patients. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU) at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha has been conducting exercises since 2005 when the unit was opened. Previous activities and exercises conducted by the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit have focused on transporting and caring for up to 3 patients with Ebola virus disease or other special pathogens. Changes in regional and national mandates, as well as the increased potential for receiving multiple patients at once, at a single location, have resulted in a greater demand to exercise protocols for the treatment of multiple patients. This article discusses in detail the planning, execution, and outcomes of a full-scale exercise involving 10 simulated patients with a highly infectious pathogen transmitted by the airborne route.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Planejamento em Desastres , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Simulação de Paciente , Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Nebraska , Estados Unidos
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(6): 965-967, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28518036

RESUMO

To identify barriers to maintaining and applying capabilities of US high-level isolation units (HLIUs) used during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, during 2016 we surveyed HLIUs. HLIUs identified sustainability challenges and reported the highly infectious diseases they would treat. HLIUs expended substantial resources in development but must strategize models of sustainability to maintain readiness.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Hospitais de Isolamento/provisão & distribução , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/economia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Hospitais de Isolamento/economia , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 14(6): 456-460, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28278065

RESUMO

An ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator (the TORCH, ClorDiSys Solutions, Inc.) was used to compare the disinfection of surface coupons (plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, and chrome-plated light switch cover) in a hospital room with walls coated with ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint (Lumacept) or standard paint. Each surface coupon was inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room coated with UV-reflective paint or standard paint, and treated by 10 min UVC exposure (UVC dose of 0-688 mJ/cm2 between sites with standard paint and 0-553 mJ/cm2 with UV-reflective paint) in 8 total trials. Aggregated MRSA concentrations on plastic bedrail surface coupons were reduced on average by 3.0 log10 (1.8 log10 Geometric Standard Deviation [GSD]) with standard paint and 4.3 log10 (1.3 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p = 0.0005) with no significant reduction differences between paints on stainless steel and chrome. Average VRE concentrations were reduced by ≥4.9 log10 (<1.2 log10 GSD) on all surface types with UV-reflective paint and ≤4.1 log10 (<1.7 log10 GSD) with standard paint (p < 0.05). At 5 aggregated sites directly exposed to UVC light, MRSA concentrations on average were reduced by 5.2 log10 (1.4 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 5.1 log10 (1.2 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p = 0.017) and VRE by 4.4 log10 (1.4 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 5.3 log10 (1.1 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001). At one indirectly exposed site on the opposite side of the hospital bed from the UVGI generator, MRSA concentrations on average were reduced by 1.3 log10 (1.7 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 4.7 log10 (1.3 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001) and VRE by 1.2 log10 (1.5 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 4.6 log10 (1.1 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001). Coating hospital room walls with UV-reflective paint enhanced UVGI disinfection of nosocomial bacteria on various surfaces compared to standard paint, particularly at a surface placement site indirectly exposed to UVC light.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos da radiação , Pintura , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos da radiação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Quartos de Pacientes , Raios Ultravioleta
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