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1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many seriously ill hospitalized patients have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as part of their care plan, but CPR is unlikely to achieve the goals of many seriously ill hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a multicomponent decision support intervention changes documented orders for CPR in the medical record, compared to usual care. DESIGN: Open-label randomized controlled trial. PATIENTS: Patients on internal medicine and neurology wards at two tertiary care teaching hospitals who had a 1-year mortality greater than 10% as predicted with a validated model and whose care plan included CPR, if needed. INTERVENTION: Both the control and intervention groups received usual communication about CPR at the discretion of their care team. The intervention group participated in a values clarification exercise and watched a CPR video decision aid. MAIN MEASURE: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had a no-CPR order at 14 days after enrollment. KEY RESULTS: We recruited 200 patients between October 2017 and October 2018. Mean age was 77 years. There was no difference between the groups in no-CPR orders 14 days after enrollment (17/100 (17%) intervention vs 17/99 (17%) control, risk difference, - 0.2%) (95% confidence interval - 11 to 10%; p = 0.98). In addition, there were no differences between groups in decisional conflict summary score or satisfaction with decision-making. Patients in the intervention group had less conflict about understanding treatment options (decisional conflict knowledge subscale score mean (SD), 17.5 (26.5) intervention arm vs 40.4 (38.1) control; scale range 0-100 with lower scores reflecting less conflict). CONCLUSIONS: Among seriously ill hospitalized patients who had CPR as part of their care plan, this decision support intervention did not increase the likelihood of no-CPR orders compared to usual care. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Canadian Frailty Network, The Ottawa Hospital Academic Medical Organization.

2.
Nutrition ; 83: 111057, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between malnutrition and long-term survival in patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: This study analyzed the long-term survival data of a mixed cohort of 1187 cardiac patients previously enrolled in a prospective observational study of nutritional screening in cardiac surgery. Nutritional status was assessed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). The mean age of patients was 58.86 ± 10.07 y (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.2-59.4). The median time of follow-up was 73.4 mo (25th-75th percentiles, 18.3-101.3). RESULTS: In all, 449 patients (37.8%) were lost to follow-up after hospitalization. For the remaining participants, the overall 8-y survival was 68% (95% CI, 59-76) and 77% (95% CI, 73-80; log-rank, P = 0.12) in patients with and without malnutrition risk, respectively. Statistically significant differences in survival were found during the 3-y follow-up of patients with heart valve disease: 83% (95% CI, 74-92) with malnutrition versus 93% (95% CI, 90-96) without malnutrition (log-rank, P = 0.03). The final multivariate Cox regression model revealed logistic EuroSCORE (hazard ratio (HR), 1.337; 95% CI, 1.110-1.612), cardiopulmonary bypass time <110.5 min (HR 0.463, 95% CI 0.255-0.842), preoperative albumin (HR 0.799, 95% CI 0.691-0.924), and C-reactive protein (HR, 1.106; 95% CI, 1.018-1.202) as independent predictors of 3-y survival. CONCLUSION: Preoperative malnutrition is not associated with 8-y mortality in a mixed cardiac surgery cohort. However, it may be associated with worse 3-y outcomes in patients with heart valve disease.

3.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(10): 946-954, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281320

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine reliability and validity of a Thai version of the Family Satisfaction with Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU 24) questionnaire and use this survey in intensive care units (ICUs) in Thailand. Materials and methods: The standard English FS-ICU questionnaire was translated into the Thai language using translation and culture adaptation guidelines. After reliability and validity testing, we consecutively surveyed the satisfaction of family members of ICU patients over 1 year. Adult family members of patients admitted to medical or surgical ICUs for 48 hours or more who had visited the patients at least once during the ICU stay were included. Results: In all, 315 (95%) of 332 surveys were returned from family members. Cronbach's α of the Thai FS-ICU 24 questionnaire was 0.95. Factor analysis demonstrated good construct validity. The mean (±SD) of total satisfaction score, overall ICU care subscale, and decision-making subscale were 81.5 ± 14.3, 81.0 ± 15.6, and 82.0 ± 14.0. Items with the lowest scores were the waiting room atmosphere and the frequency of doctors communicating with family members about the patient's condition. The mean total satisfaction score tended to be higher in family members of survivors than in family members of nonsurvivors (81.9 ± 13.8 vs 77.7 ± 16.2, p value = 0.059). The overall satisfaction scores between medial ICU and surgical ICU were not significantly different. Conclusion: The Thai version of FS-ICU questionnaire was found to have acceptable reliability and validity in a Thai population and can be used to drive improvements in ICU care. Trial registration: www.clinicaltrials.in.th, TCR20160603002. How to cite this article: Tajarernmuang P, Chittawatanarat K, Dodek P, Heyland DK, Chanayat P, Inchai J, et al. Validity and Reliability of a Thai Version of Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit Survey. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(10):946-954.

4.
Burns ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288334

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A need exists to improve the efficiency of clinical trials in burn care. The objective of this study was to validate "Persistent Organ Dysfunction" plus death as endpoint in burn patients and to demonstrate its statistical efficiency. METHODS: This secondary outcome analysis of a dataset from a prospective international multicenter RCT (RE-ENERGIZE) included patients with burned total body surface area >20% and a 6-month follow-up. Persistent organ dysfunction was defined as persistence of organ dysfunction with life-supportiing technologies and ICU care. RESULTS: In the 539 included patients, the prevalence of 0p p+ pdeath was 40% at day 14 and of 27% at day 28. At both timepoints, survivors with POD (vs. survivors without POD) had a higher mortality rate, longer ICU- and hospital-stays, and a reduced quality of life. POD + death as an endpoint could result in reduced sample size requirements for clinical trials. Detecting a 25% relative risk reduction in 28-day mortality would require a sample size of 4492 patients, whereas 1236 patients would be required were 28-day POD + death used. CONCLUSIONS: POD + death represents a promising composite outcome measure that may reduce the sample size requirements of clinical trials in severe burns patients. Further validation in larger clinical trials is warranted. STUDY TYPE: Prospective cohort study, level of evidence: II.

5.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tools for advance care planning (ACP) are advocated to help ensure patient values guide healthcare decisions. Evaluation of the effect of tools introduced to patients in clinical settings is needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the Canadian Speak Up Campaign tools on engagement in advance care planning (ACP), with patients attending outpatient clinics. Patient involvement: Patients were not involved in the problem definition or solution selection in this study but members of the public were involved in development of tools. The measurement of impacts involved patients. METHODS: This was a prospective pre-post study in 15 primary care and two outpatient cancer clinics. The outcome was scores on an Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey measuring Behavior Change Process on 5-point scales and Actions (0-21-point scale) administered before and six weeks after using a tool, with reminders at two or four weeks. RESULTS: 177 of 220 patients (81%) completed the study (mean 68 years of age, 16% had cancer). Mean Behavior Change Process scores were 2.9 at baseline and 3.5 at follow-up (mean change 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 0.7; large effect size of 0.8). Mean Action Measure score was 3.7 at baseline and 4.8 at follow-up (mean change 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.6-1.5; small effect size of 0.2). PRACTICAL VALUE: Publicly available ACP tools may have utility in clinical settings to initiate ACP among patients. More time and motivation may be required to stimulate changes in patient behaviors related to ACP.

6.
Crit Care Med ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of enteral feed intolerance, identify factors associated with enteral feed intolerance, and assess the relationship between enteral feed intolerance and key nutritional and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Analysis of International Nutrition Survey database collected prospectively from 2007 to 2014. SETTING: Seven-hundred eighty-five ICUs from around the world. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated adults with ICU stay greater than or equal to 72 hours and received enteral nutrition during the first 12 ICU days. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: We defined enteral feed intolerance as interrupted feeding due to one of the following reasons: high gastric residual volumes, increased abdominal girth, distension, subjective discomfort, emesis, or diarrhea. The current analysis included 15,918 patients. Of these, 4,036 (24%) had at least one episode of enteral feed intolerance. The enteral feed intolerance rate increased from 1% on day 1 to 6% on days 4 and 5 and declined daily thereafter. After controlling for site and patient covariates, burn (odds ratio 1.46; 95% CIs, 1.07-1.99), gastrointestinal (odds ratio 1.45; 95% CI, 1.27-1.66), and sepsis (odds ratio 1.34; 95% CI, 1.17-1.54) admission diagnoses were more likely to develop enteral feed intolerance, as compared to patients with respiratory-related admission diagnosis. enteral feed intolerance patients received about 10% less enteral nutrition intake, as compared to patients without enteral feed intolerance after controlling for important covariates including severity of illness. Enteral feed intolerance patients had fewer ventilator-free days and longer ICU length of stay time to discharge alive (all p < 0.0001). The daily mortality hazard rate increased by a factor of 1.5 (1.4-1.6; p < 0.0001) once enteral feed intolerance occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral feed intolerance occurs frequently during enteral nutrition delivery in the critically ill. Burn and gastrointestinal patients had the highest risk of developing enteral feed intolerance. Enteral feed intolerance is associated with lower enteral nutrition delivery and worse clinical outcomes. Identification, prevention, and optimal management of enteral feed intolerance may improve nutrition delivery and clinical outcomes in important "at risk" populations.

7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1143-1148, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score was developed to identify patients most likely to benefit from nutritional therapies and to stratify or select study subjects for clinical trials. The score is not validated in trauma victims in whom adequate nutritional support is important and difficult to achieve. We sought to determine whether a higher mNUTRIC score was associated with worse outcomes and whether caloric and protein intake improved outcome more in patients classified as high risk relative to those classified as low risk. METHODS: We analyzed a prospectively collected database of patients from intensive care units globally. The primary outcome was 60-day hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was time to discharge alive. We compared outcomes between high and low mNUTRIC score groups and also tested whether the association between outcome and nutrition intake was modified by the mNUTRIC score. RESULTS: A total of 771 trauma patients were included. Most (585; 76%) had a low-risk mNUTRIC (0-4) score, and 186 (24%) had a high-risk (5-9) mNUTRIC score. The overall 60-day mortality was 13%. Patients in the high mNUTRIC group had a higher risk of death than those in the low mNUTRIC group (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2). Overall, there was no relationship between caloric or protein intake and clinical outcomes. However, patients in the high mNUTRIC group fared better with increasing caloric and protein intake, whereas subjects in the low mNUTRIC score group did not (p values for interaction with the mNUTRIC score for time to discharge alive was p = 0.014 for calories and was p = 0.004 for protein). CONCLUSION: A high mNUTRIC score identifies trauma patients at higher risk for poor outcomes and those who may benefit from higher caloric and protein intake. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological/Prognostic, level III.

8.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In critically ill patients, direct measurement of skeletal muscle using bedside ultrasound (US) may identify a patient population that might benefit more from optimal nutrition practices. When US is not available, survey measures of nutrition risk and functional status that are associated with muscle status may be used to identify patients with low muscularity. This study aims to determine the association between baseline and changing ultrasound quadriceps muscle status with premorbid functional status and 60-day mortality. METHODS: This single-center prospective observational study was conducted in a general ICU. Mechanically ventilated critically ill adult patients (age ≥18 years) without pre-existing systemic neuromuscular diseases and expected to stay for ≥96 h in the ICU were included. US measurements were performed within 48 h of ICU admission (baseline), at day 7, day 14 of ICU stay and at ICU discharge (if stay >14 days). Quadriceps muscle layer thickness (QMLT), rectus femoris cross sectional area (RFCSA), vastus intermedius pennation angle (PA) and fascicle length (FL), and rectus femoris echogenicity (mean and standard deviation [SD]) were measured. Patients' next-of-kin were interviewed by using established questionnaires for their pre-hospitalization nutritional risk (nutrition risk screening-2002) and functional status (SARC-F, clinical frailty scale [CFS], Katz activities of daily living [ADL] and Lawton Instrumental ADL). RESULTS: Ninety patients were recruited. A total of 86, 53, 24 and 10 US measures were analyzed, which were performed at a median of 1, 7, 14 and 22 days from ICU admission, respectively. QMLT, RFCSA and PA reduced significantly over time. The overall trend of change of FL was not significant. The only independent predictor of 60-day mortality was the change of QMLT from baseline to day 7 (adjusted odds ratio 0.95 for every 1% less QMLT loss, 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.99; p = 0.02). Baseline measures of high nutrition risk (modified nutrition risk in critically ill ≥5), sarcopenia (SARC-F ≥4) and frailty (CFS ≥5) were associated with lower baseline QMLT, RFCSA and PA and higher 60-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Every 1% loss of QMLT over the first week of critical illness was associated with 5% higher odds of 60-day mortality. SARC-F, CFS and mNUTRIC are associated with quadriceps muscle status and 60-day mortality and may serve as a potential simple and indirect measures of premorbid muscle status at ICU admission.

10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 499, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787899

RESUMO

The goal of nutrition support is to provide the substrates required to match the bioenergetic needs of the patient and promote the net synthesis of macromolecules required for the preservation of lean mass, organ function, and immunity. Contemporary observational studies have exposed the pervasive undernutrition of critically ill patients and its association with adverse clinical outcomes. The intuitive hypothesis is that optimization of nutrition delivery should improve ICU clinical outcomes. It is therefore surprising that multiple large randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the clinical benefit of restoring or maximizing nutrient intake. This may be in part due to the absence of biological markers that identify patients who are most likely to benefit from nutrition interventions and that monitor the effects of nutrition support. Here, we discuss the need for practical risk stratification tools in critical care nutrition, a proposed rationale for targeted biomarker development, and potential approaches that can be adopted for biomarker identification and validation in the field.

11.
Nutr Res Rev ; 33(2): 312-320, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669140

RESUMO

While medical nutrition therapy is an essential part of the care for critically ill patients, uncertainty exists about the right form, dosage, timing and route in relation to the phases of critical illness. As enteral nutrition (EN) is often withheld or interrupted during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, combined EN and parenteral nutrition (PN) may represent an effective and safe option to achieve energy and protein goals as recommended by international guidelines. We hypothesise that critically ill patients at high nutritional risk may benefit from such a combined approach during their stay on the ICU. Therefore, we aim to test if an early combination of EN and high-protein PN (EN+PN) is effective in reaching energy and protein goals in patients at high nutritional risk, while avoiding overfeeding. This approach will be tested in the here-presented EFFORTcombo trial. Nutritionally high-risk ICU patients will be randomised to either high (≥2·2 g/kg per d) or low protein (≤1·2 g/kg per d). In the high protein group, the patients will receive EN+PN; in the low protein group, patients will be given EN alone. EN will be started in accordance with international guidelines in both groups. Efforts will be made to reach nutrition goals within 48-96 h. The efficacy of the proposed nutritional strategy will be tested as an innovative approach by functional outcomes at ICU and hospital discharge, as well as at a 6-month follow-up.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708449

RESUMO

COVID-19 has highlighted the reality of an impending serious illness for many, particularly for older persons. Those faced with severe COVID-19 infection or other serious illness will be faced with decisions regarding admission to intensive care and use of mechanical ventilation. Past research has documented substantial medical errors regarding the use or non-use of life-sustaining treatments in older persons. While some experts advocate that advance care planning may be a solution to the problem, I argue that the prevailing understanding and current practice of advance care planning perpetuates the problem and results in patients not receiving optimal patient-centered care. Much of the problem centers on the framing of advance care planning around end of life care, the lack of use of decision support tools, and inadequate language that does not support shared decision-making. I posit that a new approach and new terminology is needed. Advance Serious Illness Preparations and Planning (ASIPP) consists of discrete steps using evidence-based tools to prepare people for future clinical decision-making in the context of shared decision-making and informed consent. Existing tools to support this approach have been developed and validated. Further dissemination of these tools is warranted.

13.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies examining nutrition intake of critically ill patients following liberation from mechanical ventilation (LMV) are scarce. The objectives of this prospective, observational feasibility study were to quantify and assess protein and energy intake in hospitalized, critically ill patients following LMV, to determine barriers to optimal intake, and to report on the feasibility of recruiting and retaining patients into this study. METHODS: Adult patients requiring MV for >72 hours in a medical/surgical intensive care unit (ICU) were recruited. Protein and energy intakes were quantified up to 14 days following LMV. Patients also identified barriers to eating. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (mean age, 60 years [SD, 12 years]) were studied over 125 days. Over all study days, the median amounts of protein and energy consumed in comparison with amounts prescribed by dietitians were 46% (interquartile range [IQR], 26-100) and 71% (IQR, 38-100), respectively. When stratified by route of nutrition delivery, on days (n = 54) when patients consumed an oral diet as the sole nutrition source, median amounts of protein and energy consumed in comparison with those prescribed were only 27% (IQR, 15-41) and 47% (IQR, 29-66), respectively. The most frequently reported barriers to eating were poor appetite, early satiety, and taste changes. CONCLUSIONS: Protein and calorie intake is below prescribed amounts for patients whose enteral nutrition is discontinued and an oral diet prescribed as sole nutrition source following LMV. Acceptable strategies to enhance nutrition intake in post-ICU patients during the recovery stages of critical illness are needed.

14.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(2): 172-183, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494333

RESUMO

Background: The impact of prior advance care planning (ACP) documentation on substitute decision-makers' (SDMs) knowledge of values for end-of-life (EOL) care, and its correlation with SDM satisfaction with EOL care provision, have not been assessed in long-term care (LTC). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2,595 SDMs from 27 LTC homes assessed: 1) knowledge of pre-existing ACP documentation and values for EOL care, and 2) the importance and satisfaction of EOL care provision in LTC. Knowledge of values for EOL care was compared to administrative documentation. Importance and satisfaction were plotted on a performance-importance grid. Multiple linear regression assessed whether knowledge of pre-existing ACP documentation correlated with satisfaction. Results: The response rate was 25% (658/2,595); 69% of LTC residents had pre-existing ACP documentation. Discordance was noted between SDMs' knowledge of values for EOL care and administrative documentation. Pre-existing knowledge of ACP documentation was not correlated with EOL care provision satisfaction. Priority areas for increasing satisfaction include illness management, SDM communication, and relationships with LTC clinicians. Conclusions: The discordance between SDMs' knowledge of values for EOL care and formal documentation needs to be addressed. Although pre-existing ACP documentation does not impact satisfaction, EOL care provision could be improved by targeting illness management, SDM communication, and relationships with LTC clinicians.

15.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 94, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although patient-centred care has become increasingly important across all medical specialties, when it comes to end of life care, research has shown that treatments ordered are not often concordant with people's expressed preferences. Patient and family engagement in Advance Care Planning (ACP) in the primary care setting could improve the concordance between patients' wishes and the healthcare received when patients cannot speak for themselves. The aim of this study was to better understand the barriers faced by older patients regarding talking to their family members and family physicians about ACP. METHODS: In this multi-site cross-sectional study, three free text questions regarding reasons patients found it difficult to discuss ACP with their families or their family physicians were part of a self-administered questionnaire about patients' knowledge of and engagement in ACP. The questionnaire, which included closed ended questions followed by three probing open ended questions, was distributed in 20 family practices across 3 provinces in Canada. The free text responses were analyzed using thematic analysis and form the basis of this paper. RESULTS: One hundred two participants provided an analyzable response to the survey when asked why they haven't talked to someone about ACP. Two hundred fifty-four answered the question about talking to their physician and 340 answered the question about talking to family members. Eight distinct themes emerged from the free text response analysis: 1. They were too young for ACP; 2. The topic is too emotional; 3. The Medical Doctor (MD) should be responsible for bringing up ACP 4. A fear of negatively impacting the patient-physician relationship; 5. Not enough time in appointments; 6. Concern about family dynamics; 7. It's not a priority; and 8. A lack of knowledge about ACP. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in our sample described many barriers to ACP discussions, including concerns about the effect these discussions may have on relationships with both family members and family physicians, and issues relating to patients' knowledge and interpretation of the importance, responsibility for, or relevance of ACP itself. Family physicians may be uniquely placed to leverage the longitudinal, person- centred relationship they have with patients to mitigate some of these barriers.

16.
CMAJ Open ; 8(2): E289-E296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown substantial deficiencies in the quality or quantity (or both) of communication and decision-making during serious illness. We evaluated the efficacy of a novel decision support intervention, the Plan Well Guide, in increasing completion of a standard medical order form for advance medical care planning and improving decisional outcomes in nonacademic primary care settings. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial in 3 primary care practices in Lethbridge, Alberta in 2017-2018. We recruited "patients at high risk" referred by the primary care doctor who required establishment or review of their Goals of Care Designation (GCD). Enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive the Plan Well Guide, delivered by a trained facilitator, or usual care. Eight to 12 weeks after the intervention, a research assistant blinded to intervention assignment contacted the patients in both groups by telephone to do a final outcome assessment. The primary outcome was completion of GCD forms; secondary outcomes included decisional conflict scores and ratings of satisfaction. RESULTS: A total of 123 patients (59 women [48.0%]; mean age 73.9 yr) were enrolled, 66 in the intervention arm and 57 in the usualcare arm; 119 patients completed the trial. After the intervention, GCD completion rates in the intervention and usual-care groups were 95.3% and 90.9%, respectively (risk difference [RD] 4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -14% to 22%), and the rate of concordance between medical orders and expressed preferences on follow-up was 78% and 66%, respectively (RD 12%, 95% CI -7% to 30%). Significantly fewer patients in the intervention group than in the usual-care group had written medical orders for intensive care unit care and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (22 [34%] v. 33 [60%], RD -26%, 95% CI -42% to -8%). Patients in the intervention group had lower decisional conflict scores than those in the usual-care group (mean 30.9 v. 43.1, adjusted mean difference -12.0, 95% CI -23.2 to -0.8). Physicians considered patients in the intervention group to have lower decisional conflict than those in the usual-care group, although not significantly so (mean score 10.4 v. 14.9, adjusted mean difference -4.7, 95% CI -9.9 to 0.4) and spent less time with the former (mean 9.7 v. 13.2 min, adjusted mean difference -3.5, 95% CI -5.5 to -1.5 min). INTERPRETATION: The decision-support intervention did not increase GCD completion rates but did seem to improve some aspects of decisional quality while reducing the physician's time to accomplish GCD decisions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01297946.

17.
Clin Nutr ; 39(12): 3813-3820, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Burn patients pose a number of clinical challenges for doctors and dietitians to achieve optimal nutrition practice. The objective of this study was to describe nutrition practices in burn center intensive care units (ICUs) compared to the most recent ESPEN and SCCM/ASPEN guidelines (hereafter referenced as "the Guidelines") and highlight the variation in practice and what is "best achievable." METHODS: In 2014-15, we prospectively enrolled 283 mechanically ventilated patients who were admitted to one of 14 burn ICUs for at least 72 h. Data collected included information on the estimation of energy and protein requirements, their actual delivery as well as route and time of feeding, and administration of micronutrients. We describe site practices and data per patient-day. RESULTS: Adherence to the Guidelines for the use of enteral nutrition (EN) over parenteral nutrition (PN) was 90.5% of patient-days (site range 79.2%-97.0%). However, adherence to the Guidelines for the measurement of energy requirements was 6.0% of patient-days (site range 0.0%-93.3%), supplementation with glutamine took place in 22.4% of patient-days (site range 0.0%-61.8%). Provision of 80% of energy requirements within 48-72 h was achieved in 35.3% of patients (site range 0.0%-80.0%), and provision of 80% of protein needs within 48-72 h was achieved in 34.3% of patients (site range 0.0%-80.0%). Average nutritional adequacy was 64.9 ± 40.0% for energy (best site: 80.2%, worst site: 42.0%) and 65.6 ± 42.1% for protein (best site: 87.3%, worst site: 43.6%). CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate that despite high adherence to providing EN over PN, there is still a large gap between many recommendations and clinical practice, and the achievement of nutrition goals for patients in burn centers is suboptimal.

18.
Ann Fam Med ; 18(2): 110-117, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Online programs may help to engage patients in advance care planning in outpatient settings. We sought to implement an online advance care planning program, PREPARE (Prepare for Your Care; http://www.prepareforyourcare.org), at home and evaluate the changes in advance care planning engagement among patients attending outpatient clinics. METHODS: We undertook a prospective before-and-after study in 15 primary care clinics and 2 outpatient cancer centers in Canada. Patients were aged 50 years or older (primary care) or 18 years or older (cancer care) and free of cognitive impairment. They used the PREPARE website over 6 weeks, with reminders sent at 2 or 4 weeks. We used the 55-item Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey, which measures behavior change processes (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, readiness) on 5-point scales and actions relating to substitute decision makers, quality of life, flexibility for the decision maker, and asking doctors questions on an overall scale from 0 to 21; higher scores indicate greater engagement. RESULTS: In total, 315 patients were screened and 172 enrolled, of whom 75% completed the study (mean age = 65.6 years, 51% female, 35% had cancer). The mean behavior change process score was 2.9 (SD 0.8) at baseline and 3.5 (SD 0.8) at follow-up (mean change = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.49-0.73); the mean action measure score was 4.0 (SD 4.9) at baseline and 5.2 (SD 5.4) at follow-up (mean change = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.54-1.77). The effect size was moderate (0.75) for the former and small (0.23) for the latter. Findings were similar in both primary care and cancer care populations. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the online PREPARE program in primary care and cancer care clinics increased advance care planning engagement among patients.

19.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 35(3): 540-547, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Introducing enteral nutrition (EN) during hemodynamic instability may induce the splanchnic steal phenomenon, which may worsen systemic oxygen delivery and increase vasopressor dose. We aimed to determine the change in vasopressor dose in septic shock patients who received concomitant EN. We hypothesize that EN delivery is not associated with worsening hemodynamic instability, as defined by an increase in vasopressor dose ≥50% at 24 hours. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational cohort study of adult patients with septic shock who were admitted to the intensive care unit from January 2015 to June 2015 and received EN. Vasopressor and EN parameters were collected at 6-hour intervals for the first 24 hours. RESULTS: Data were available for 28 consecutive patients. The mean age was 60 years (SD = 18), and 54% were females. Norepinephrine (NE) was used in 100%. EN and vasopressor overlap totaled 36 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 27-69). Median NE dose when starting EN was 5.9 µg/min (IQR, 3.88). Median change in dose from 0 to 6 hours was 0.85 µg/min (95% CI, 0.681.06; P = 0.136), corresponding to a median increase of 14.5%. Total NE duration was 60.5 hours (IQR, 47.5-75.5). No serious complications occurred. CONCLUSION: The median vasopressor dose did not increase by ≥50% during the first 24 hours of EN. This suggests early EN delivered during septic shock is not associated with worsening hemodynamic instability. Limitations include a small sample size and residual confounding. Prospective data are needed.

20.
Clin Nutr ; 39(10): 3049-3055, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is an important prognostic factor for clinical outcomes across several illnesses. Clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) scans are commonly used for quantification of body composition, but manual analysis is laborious and costly. The primary aim of this study was to develop an automated body composition analysis framework using CT scans. METHODS: CT scans of the 3rd lumbar vertebrae from critically ill, liver cirrhosis, pancreatic cancer, and clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients, as well as renal and liver donors, were manually analyzed for body composition. Ninety percent of scans were used for developing and validating a neural network for the automated segmentation of skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. Network accuracy was evaluated with the remaining 10 percent of scans using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), which quantifies the overlap (0 = no overlap, 1 = perfect overlap) between human and automated segmentations. RESULTS: Of the 893 patients, 44% were female, with a mean (±SD) age and body mass index of 52.7 (±15.8) years old and 28.0 (±6.1) kg/m2, respectively. In the testing cohort (n = 89), DSC scores indicated excellent agreement between human and network-predicted segmentations for skeletal muscle (0.983 ± 0.013), and intermuscular (0.900 ± 0.034), visceral (0.979 ± 0.019), and subcutaneous (0.986 ± 0.016) adipose tissue. Network segmentation took ~350 milliseconds/scan using modern computing hardware. CONCLUSIONS: Our network displayed excellent ability to analyze diverse body composition phenotypes and clinical cohorts, which will create feasible opportunities to advance our capacity to predict health outcomes in clinical populations.

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