Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 234
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Management of synchronous early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial, as resection is not always feasible. This study evaluates efficacy and patterns of failure following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for synchronous early-stage NSCLC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2005-2015, patients presenting with ≥2 synchronous NSCLC tumors (T1a-T2b) and receiving SABR to ≥1 lesion were reviewed. The most common prescriptions were 50-Gy in 4 or 70-Gy in 10-fractions. Patients underwent multidisciplinary management with work-up including CT-Chest and PET/CT, plus brain imaging and EBUS for most patients to rule-out mediastinal and distant disease. Synchronous lesions were defined as multiple ipsilateral or contralateral intrapulmonary lesions diagnosed within 6 months. RESULTS: Of 912 patients treated with SABR for early-stage NSCLC at our institution, 82 (9%) presented with synchronous disease, with a total of 169 lesions. SABR was delivered to 142 lesions (84%), with 57 patients (69.5%) receiving SABR for all sites. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 and 2.7 years. At a median follow-up of 58 months, OS was 67% and 52% at 3- and 5-years; and corresponding PFS was 47% and 29%. Thirty-nine patients (48%) had progression, with 21 (26%) experiencing distant failure, while intra-lobar recurrence was among the first failure for 15 patients (18%). Of the 142 SABR-treated sites, these included 6 in-field (4%) and 4 marginal (3%) recurrences. There were no Grade≥3 adverse events. Among patients receiving SABR for all sites, there were no differences in OS (p=.946), PFS (p=.980), local control (p=.683), regional and distant control (p=.656), or toxicity (p=.791). On multivariable analysis, ipsilateral synchronous disease was associated with greater regional and distant failure (HR 2.691; p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Synchronous NSCLC can be managed with definitive local therapy. With high control rates and favorable outcomes, SABR is an effective and feasible treatment for synchronous early-stage NSCLC.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 603, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001676

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting T cells is increasingly utilized to treat solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This requires a better understanding of the T cells in the lungs of patients with NSCLC. Here, we report T cell repertoire analysis in a cohort of 236 early-stage NSCLC patients. T cell repertoire attributes are associated with clinicopathologic features, mutational and immune landscape. A considerable proportion of the most prevalent T cells in tumors are also prevalent in the uninvolved tumor-adjacent lungs and appear specific to shared background mutations or viral infections. Patients with higher T cell repertoire homology between the tumor and uninvolved tumor-adjacent lung, suggesting a less tumor-focused T cell response, exhibit inferior survival. These findings indicate that a concise understanding of antigens and T cells in NSCLC is needed to improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity with immunotherapy, particularly adoptive T cell therapy.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor genomic features have been of particular interest because of their potential impact on the tumor immune microenvironment and response to immunotherapy. Due to the substantial heterogeneity, an integrative approach incorporating diverse molecular features is needed to characterize immunological features underlying primary resistance to immunotherapy and for the establishment of novel predictive biomarkers. METHODS: We developed a pan-cancer deep machine-learning model integrating tumor mutation burden, microsatellite instability and somatic copy number alterations to classify tumors of different types into different genomic clusters, assessed the immune microenvironment in each genomic cluster and the association of each genomic cluster with response to immunotherapy. RESULTS: Our model grouped 8,646 tumors of 29 cancer types from the Cancer Genome Atlas into four genomic clusters. Analysis of RNA-sequencing data revealed distinct immune microenvironment in tumors of each genomic class. Furthermore, applying this model to tumors from two melanoma immunotherapy clinical cohorts demonstrated that patients with melanoma of different genomic classes achieved different benefit from immunotherapy. Interestingly, tumors in cluster 4 demonstrated a cold immune microenvironment and lack of benefit from immunotherapy despite high microsatellite instability burden. CONCLUSION: Our study provides a proof-for-principle that deep learning modeling may have the potential to discover intrinsic statistical cross-modality correlations of multifactorial input data to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying primary resistance to immunotherapy, which likely involves multiple factors from both the tumor and host at different molecular levels.

4.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metformin reduces glucose uptake in physiologic tissues and has been shown to affect non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metabolism. We hypothesized that positron emission tomography (PET) scans could detect the impact of metformin on glucose uptake in NSCLC and we sought to redundant test this hypothesis in a prospective clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-blinded phase II clinical trial was performed with subjects randomized 6:1 to 3 to 4 weeks of metformin versus placebo for inoperable early-stage NSCLC. PET scans were performed at baseline, mid-treatment (after 2 wk study medication), and 6 months postradiation. The primary endpoint of the trial was tumor metabolic response to metformin by PERCIST before definitive radiation. Stereotactic body radiotherapy to 50 Gy in 4 fractions was used for peripheral tumors and 70 Gy in 10 fractions for central tumors. RESULTS: There were 14 subjects randomized to the metformin and 1 to placebo. Histologies were 60% adenocarcinoma, 33.3% squamous cell carcinoma, and 6.7% poorly differentiated carcinoma. At mid-treatment PET scan, 57% of subjects randomized to metformin met PERCIST criteria for metabolic response, of which 75% had progressive metabolic disease and 25% had partial metabolic response, whereas the placebo subject had stable metabolic disease. At 6 months, the metformin arm had 69% complete metabolic response, 23% partial metabolic response and 1 progressive metabolic disease, and the subject treated with placebo had a complete metabolic response. There were no CTCAE grade ≥3 toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: Despite low accrual, majority of subjects treated with metformin had metabolic responses by PERCIST criteria on PET imaging. Contrary to the effect of metformin on most physiologic tissues, most tumors had increased metabolic activity in response to metformin.

5.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(2): 349-357, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: NCT01725165 was a phase II prospective trial in which patients with non-small cell lung cancer were randomized to local consolidative therapy (LCT) versus maintenance therapy or observation (MT/O). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Peripheral blood from patients enrolled on NCT01725165 were labeled as (1) baseline, (2) early follow-up (FU) if obtained in the first or second FU evaluation (6-18 weeks), and (3) late FU if obtained in the third to sixth FU evaluations (22-50 weeks). All patients who underwent LCT and were included in this analysis received radiation. Among 49 randomized patients, 21 patients underwent T cell CDR3 variable region sequencing using immunoSEQ, 31 patients underwent circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis using next-generation sequencing with a 1021 cancer gene panel, and cytokine concentration was assayed in 19 patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All analyses were exploratory and not corrected for multiple testing. RESULTS: No associations were identified between baseline T cell repertoire and ctDNA metrics with patient outcomes. Among baseline cytokines, interleukin 1α was the only cytokine associated with both overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.5; P = .0006) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.9; P = .03). At early FU, LCT was associated with decreased ctDNA burden, including lower number of detected mutations (median, 2 [interquartile range {IQR}, 1-6] vs 6 [IQR, 4-18]) and decreased average variable allele frequency (VAF; median, 0.006 [IQR, 0.003-0.010] vs 0.011 [IQR, 0.007-0.014]) compared with MT/O. Among 6 patients with serial ctDNA analysis, a rise in ctDNA detected mutation burden preceded clinical progression by 6.7 months. At early FU, LCT was associated with changes in T cell clonality that suggested oligoclonal expansion specifically increased T cell clonality (median, 0.15 [IQR, 0.12-0.24] vs 0.10 [IQR, 0.05-0.13]) and frequency of top 10 clones (median, 0.14 [IQR, 0.06-0.18] vs 0.21[IQR, 0.19-0.28]). CONCLUSION: LCT was associated with decreased ctDNA burden and oligoclonal expansion at early FU timepoints. Baseline interleukin 1α was associated with improved patient outcomes.

6.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 21(1): 37-46.e7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local consolidative therapy (LCT) to optimize disease control is an evolving management paradigm in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who present with a limited metastatic disease burden. We hypothesized that LCT to all sites of disease would be associated with improved overall survival (OS) among patients with synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients presenting to a single institution (2000-2017) with stage IV NSCLC and ≤ 3 synchronous metastases were identified. Intrathoracic nodal disease was counted as one site. Landmark and propensity-adjusted Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with OS. RESULTS: Of 194 patients, 143 (74%) had 2 or 3 sites of metastasis. LCT was delivered to all sites of disease in 121 patients (62%), to some but not all sites in 52 (27%), and were not used in 21 (11%). Comprehensive LCT was independently associated with improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.97; P = .034), with the greatest therapeutic effect among patients without thoracic nodal disease, bone metastases, or > 1 metastatic site. Among patients who underwent comprehensive LCT, tumor histology (squamous: HR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.28-4.22; P = .006), intrathoracic disease burden (T3-4: HR = 1.67; 95% CI, 0.97-2.86; P = .065; N3: HR = 1.90; 95% CI, 0.90-4.03; P = .093), and bone metastases (HR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-3.00; P = .044) were associated with poor OS. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive LCT was associated with improved OS in this large cohort of patients with synchronous oligometastatic NSCLC. These results support ongoing prospective efforts to characterize the therapeutic benefits associated with this management strategy.

7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(2): 358-366, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High tumor mutational burden (TMB) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are leading biomarkers in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and predict favorable response to checkpoint inhibitors. We sought to identify clinicopathologic characteristics associated with elevated TMB and PD-L1 expression among patients who underwent resection for NSCLC. METHODS: NSCLC patients undergoing primary resection (2016-2018) were prospectively enrolled in an immunogenomic profiling project. Multiplex immunofluorescence quantified densities (cells/mm2) of CD3+, CD3+CD8+, CD3+CD8+PD-1+, malignant cells (MCs), MCsPD-L1+, CD68+, CD68+PD-L1+, and CD20+ cells. Whole-exome sequencing quantified TMB (mutations/megabase). TMB and MCsPD-L1+ were dichotomized according to the median of each. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients completed multiplex immunofluorescence and whole-exome sequencing profiling. In this sample, 41.8% (23 of 55) had pathologic stage I disease. Median TMB and MCsPD-L1+ were 3.91 and 0.62 cells/mm2, respectively. TMB was higher among smokers (P = .001) and tumors with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P = .051). TMB was positively correlated with densities of MCsPD-L1+ (r = 0.293, P = .030), CD68+PD-L1+ (r = 0.289, P = .033), and CD20+ (r = 0.310, P = .043) cells. The density of MCsPD-L1+ was associated with increased CD3+CD8+ (r = 0.319, P = .018) and CD68+PD-L1+ (r = 0.371, P = .005) cells. Patients with PD-L1HighTMBHigh tumors (30.9%, 17 of 55) had higher intratumoral densities of CD3+, CD3+CD8+, CD68+, CD68+PD-L1+, and CD20+ cells. On multivariable analysis LVI was associated with synchronous elevated TMB and PD-L1 expression (odds ratio 3.53, P = .039). CONCLUSIONS: NSCLC tumors with elevated TMB and PD-L1 expression are associated with LVI and increased intratumoral immune cell infiltration. These findings may potentially improve patient selection for checkpoint inhibitor therapy trials in the adjuvant setting.

8.
Head Neck ; 42(2): 289-301, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton radiotherapy (PRT) may be a less toxic alternative to photon radiotherapy (XRT) for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the molecular responses of HNSCC cells to PRT vs XRT are unclear. METHODS: Proteomics analyses of protein expression profiles by reverse-phase protein arrays were done for two human papillomavirus [HPV]-negative and two HPV+ cell lines. Expression patterns of 175 proteins involved in several signaling pathways were tested. RESULTS: Compared with PRT, XRT tended to induce lower expression of DNA damage repair-and cell cycle arrest-related proteins and higher expression of cell survival- and proliferation-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Under these experimental conditions, PRT and XRT induced different protein expression and activation profiles. Further preclinical verification is needed, as are studies of tumor pathway mutations as biomarkers for choice of treatment or as radiosensitization targets to improve the response of HNSCC to PRT or XRT.

9.
Oncogene ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831835

RESUMO

The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: Professor Stebbing sits on SABs for Celltrion, Singapore Biotech, Vor Biopharma, TLC Biopharmaceuticals and Benevolent AI, has consulted with Lansdowne partners, Vitruvian and Social Impact Capital and Chairs the Board of Directors for BB Biotech Healthcare Trust and Xerion Healthcare. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828732

RESUMO

Lung cancer results in more patient deaths each year than any other cancer type. Additional treatment strategies are needed to improve clinical responses to approved treatment modalities and prevent the emergence of resistant disease. Catecholamines including norepinephrine and epinephrine are elevated as a result of chronic stress and mediate their physiological effects through activation of adrenergic receptors on target tissues. Lung cancer cells express ß-adrenergic receptors (ß-ARs), and numerous preclinical studies indicate that ß2-AR signaling on lung cancer cells facilities cellular programs including proliferation, motility, apoptosis resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, metastasis, and the acquisition of an angiogenic and immunosuppressive phenotype. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a potential role for beta-blockers in improving the clinical outcome of lung cancer patients. Graphical Abstract Catecholamines including norepinephrine and epinephrine act of ß-ARs expressed on NSCLC tumor cells and activate pathways regulating tumor progression.

11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 351, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: OX-40 co-stimulatory signaling plays a role in mounting anti-tumor immune responses and clinical trials targeting this pathway are ongoing. However, the association of with OX-40 protein expression with clinical outcomes and pathological features in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are largely unknown. METHODS: Surgically-resected stage I-III NSCLC specimens (N = 100) were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the following immune markers: OX-40, PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD57, CD68, FOXP3, granzyme B, and ICOS. Immune-related markers mRNA expression were also assessed. We evaluated the association of OX-40 levels with major clinicopathologic variables, including molecular driver mutations. RESULTS: OX-40 IHC expression was observed in all tested tumors, predominantly localized in the membrane of the tumor immune infiltrate, and was not associated with a specific clinicopathologic or molecular subtype. High OX-40 expression levels measured by IHC median score were associated with better overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002), independent of CD3/CD8, PD-L1, and ICOS expression. High OX-40 IHC score was associated with increased expression of immune-related genes such as CD3, IFN-gamma, ICOS, CD8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL5, granzyme K. CONCLUSIONS: High OX-40 IHC expression in the tumor immune infiltrate is associated with favorable prognosis and increased levels of immune-related genes including IFN-gamma in patients with surgically resected stage I-III NSCLC. Its prognostic utility is independent of PD-L1 and other common markers of immune activation. High OX-40 expression potentially identifies a unique subgroup of NSCLC that may benefit from co-stimulation with OX-40 agonist antibodies and potentially enhance the efficacy of existing immune checkpoint therapies.

12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Consolidation durvalumab after chemoradiation (CRT) is the current standard of care for locally advanced NSCLC. We hypothesized that adding immunotherapy concurrently with CRT (cCRT) would increase efficacy without additive toxicity. METHODS: This phase II study was conducted in two parts. Part 1 (n = 10) involved administration of conventionally fractionated CRT followed by consolidation chemotherapy (atezolizumab [two cycles] and maintenance atezolizumab up to 1 y). Part 2 (n = 30) involved administration of cCRT with atezolizumab followed by the same consolidation and maintenance therapies as in part 1. Programmed cell death ligand-1 staining cutoffs (1% or 50%) using Dako 22C3 immunohistochemistry were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The overall toxicities for part 1/2 were overall adverse events of grade 3 and above of 80%/80%; immune-related adverse events of grade 3 and above of 30%/20%; and pneumonitis of grade 2 and above of 10%/16%, respectively. In part 1, for preliminary efficacy results, with a median follow-up of 22.5 months, the median progression-free survival was 18.6 months, and the overall survival was 22.8 months. In part 2, with a median follow-up time of 15.1 months, the median progression-free survival was 13.2 months, and the overall survival was not reached. There was no difference in cancer recurrence regardless of programmed cell death ligand-1 status. CONCLUSIONS: Atezolizumab with cCRT is safe and feasible and has no added toxicities compared with historical rates.

13.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754213

RESUMO

EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients inevitably develop drug resistance when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Systematic genetic analysis is important to understand drug-resistant mechanisms; however, the clinical significance of co-occurring genetic alterations at baseline, co-acquired mutations at progressive disease (PD), and the clonal evolution remain underinvestigated. We performed targeted sequencing of pre-treatment and PD tumor samples from 54 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. Ten additional patients were sequenced using whole-exome sequencing to infer the clonal evolution patterns. We observed a domain-dependent effect of PIK3CA mutation at baseline on patient progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, at baseline, 9q34.3/19p13.3 (NOTCH1/STK11/GNA11) showed a co-deletion pattern, which was associated with a significantly worse PFS (p = 0.00079). T790M-postive patients with other concurrent acquired oncogenic mutations had a significantly shorter PFS (p = 0.005). Besides acquired T790M mutation, chromosomal instability (CIN) related genes, including AURKA and TP53 alterations, were the most frequently acquired events. CIN significantly increased during TKI treatment in T790M-negative patients and is a candidate resistance mechanism to the first-generation TKIs. Clonal evolution analyses suggest that the composition and relationship among resistant subclones, particularly relationship with T790M subclone, affect patients' outcomes. Overall, our findings of novel co-occurring alterations and clonal evolution patterns can be served as predictive biomarkers to stratify patients and help to better understand the drug-resistant mechanism to TKIs.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694833

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The optimal systemic treatment for pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is still under debate. Previous studies showed that LCNEC with different genomic characteristics might respond differently to different chemotherapy regimens. In this study, we sought to investigate genomic subtyping using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis in advanced LCNEC and assess its potential prognostic and predictive value. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor DNA and cfDNA from 63 patients with LCNEC were analyzed by target-captured sequencing. Survival and response analyses were applied to 54 patients with advanced stage incurable disease who received first-line chemotherapy. RESULTS: The mutation landscape of frequently mutated cancer genes in LCNEC from cfDNA closely resembled that from tumor DNA, which led to a 90% concordance in genomic subtyping. The 63 patients with LCNEC were classified into small-cell lung cancer (SCLC)-like and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-like LCNEC based on corresponding genomic features derived from tumor DNA and/or cfDNA. Overall, patients with SCLC-like LCNEC had a shorter overall survival than those with NSCLC-like LCNEC despite higher response rate (RR) to chemotherapy. Furthermore, treatment with etoposide-platinum was associated with superior response and survival in SCLC-like LCNEC compared with pemetrexed-platinum and gemcitabine/taxane-platinum doublets, while treatment with gemcitabine/taxane-platinum led to a shorter survival compared with etoposide-platinum or pemetrexed-platinum in patients with NSCLC-like LCNEC. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic subtyping has potential in prognostication and therapeutic decision-making for patients with LCNEC and cfDNA analysis may be a reliable alternative for genomic profiling of LCNEC.

15.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 7(12): 1903-1909, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658994

RESUMO

Ipilimumab is effective for patients with melanoma, but not for those with less immunogenic tumors. We report a phase II trial of ipilimumab with concurrent or sequential stereotactic ablative radiotherapy to metastatic lesions in the liver or lung (NCT02239900). Ipilimumab (every 3 weeks for 4 doses) was given with radiotherapy begun during the first dose (concurrent) or 1 week after the second dose (sequential) and delivered as 50 Gy in 4 fractions or 60 Gy in 10 fractions to metastatic liver or lung lesions. In total, 106 patients received ≥1 cycle of ipilimumab with radiation. Median follow-up was 10.5 months. Median progression-free survival time was 2.9 months (95% confidence interval, 2.45-3.40), and median overall survival time was not reached. Rates of clinical benefit of nonirradiated tumor volume were 26% overall, 28% for sequential versus 20% for concurrent therapy (P = 0.250), and 31% for lung versus 14% for liver metastases (P = 0.061). The sequential lung group had the highest rate of clinical benefit at 42%. There were no differences in treatment-related adverse events between groups. Exploratory analysis of nontargeted lesions revealed that lesions receiving low-dose radiation were more likely to respond than those that received no radiation (31% vs. 5%, P = 0.0091). This phase II trial of ipilimumab with stereotactic radiotherapy describes satisfactory outcomes and low toxicities, lending support to further investigation of combined-modality therapy for metastatic cancers.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605794

RESUMO

INTRUDUCTION: Radiation and immunotherapy have separately been shown to confer survival advantages to patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ESCLC), but failure rates remain high and combination therapy has been understudied. In this single-arm phase I trial (NCT02402920), we assessed the safety of combining pembrolizumab with thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) after induction chemotherapy for SCLC. METHODS: Patients with ESCLC who had completed chemotherapy received TRT with pembrolizumab. The maximum tolerated dose of pembrolizumab was assessed by 3+3 dose-escalation; doses began at 100 mg and increased in 50 mg increments to 200 mg. Pembrolizumab was given every 3 weeks for up to 16 cycles; TRT was prescribed as 45 Gy in 15 daily fractions. Toxicity was evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. The primary endpoint was safety of the combined therapy based on the incidence of dose-limiting toxicity in the 35 days following initiation of treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients with ESCLC (median age 65 years, range: 37-79 years) were enrolled from September 2015 through September 2017; 33 received per-protocol treatment, and all tolerated pembrolizumab at 100 to 200 mg with no dose-limiting toxicity in the 35-day window. There were no grade 4-5 toxicities; 2 (6%) patients experienced grade 3 events (n = 1 rash, n = 1 asthenia/paresthesia/autoimmune disorder) that were unlikely/doubtfully related to protocol therapy. The median follow-up time was 7.3 months (range: 1-13 months); median progression-free and overall survival times were 6.1 months (95% confidence interval: 4.1-8.1) and 8.4 months (95% confidence interval: 6.7-10.1). CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent pembrolizumab-TRT was tolerated well with few high-grade adverse events in the short-term; progression-free and overall survival rates are difficult to interpret due to heterogeneity in eligibility criteria (e.g., enrolling progressors on induction chemotherapy). Although randomized studies have shown benefits to TRT alone and immunotherapy alone, the safety of the combined regimen supports further investigation as a foundational approach for future prospective studies.

17.
Cancer Cell ; 36(4): 444-457.e7, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588020

RESUMO

We characterized the landscape and drug sensitivity of ERBB2 (HER2) mutations in cancers. In 11 datasets (n = 211,726), ERBB2 mutational hotspots varied across 25 tumor types. Common HER2 mutants yielded differential sensitivities to eleven EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in vitro, and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that mutants with a reduced drug-binding pocket volume were associated with decreased affinity for larger TKIs. Overall, poziotinib was the most potent HER2 mutant-selective TKI tested. Phase II clinical testing in ERBB2 exon 20-mutant non-small cell lung cancer resulted in a confirmed objective response rate of 42% in the first 12 evaluable patients. In pre-clinical models, poziotinib upregulated HER2 cell-surface expression and potentiated the activity of T-DM1, resulting in complete tumor regression with combination treatment.

18.
Mol Cell ; 76(5): 838-851.e5, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564558

RESUMO

Intermediary metabolism in cancer cells is regulated by diverse cell-autonomous processes, including signal transduction and gene expression patterns, arising from specific oncogenotypes and cell lineages. Although it is well established that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, we lack a full view of the diversity of metabolic programs in cancer cells and an unbiased assessment of the associations between metabolic pathway preferences and other cell-autonomous processes. Here, we quantified metabolic features, mostly from the 13C enrichment of molecules from central carbon metabolism, in over 80 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines cultured under identical conditions. Because these cell lines were extensively annotated for oncogenotype, gene expression, protein expression, and therapeutic sensitivity, the resulting database enables the user to uncover new relationships between metabolism and these orthogonal processes.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 237, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence suggests that low-dose radiation may overcome the inhibitory effects of the tumor stroma and improve a tumor's response to immunotherapy, when combined with high-dose radiation to another tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor responses to this combination in a clinical setting. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis of 3 ongoing immunoradiation trials was performed. Twenty-six (of 155) patients received low-dose radiation (1-20 Gy total), either as scatter from high-dose radiation or from intentional treatment of a second isocenter with low-dose radiation, were evaluated for response. The low-dose lesions were compared to lesions that received no radiation (< 1 Gy total). Response rates, both defined as complete and partial responses as defined by RECIST criteria were used to compare lesion types. RESULTS: The 26 patients had a total of 83 lesions for comparison (38 receiving low-dose, 45 receiving no-dose). The average dose given to low-dose lesions was 7.3 Gy (1.1-19.4 Gy), and the average time to response was 56 days. Twenty-two out of 38 (58%) low-dose lesions met the PR/CR criteria for RECIST compared with 8 out of 45 (18%) no-dose lesions (P = 0.0001). The median change for longest diameter size for low-dose lesions was - 38.5% compared to 8% in no-dose lesions (P < 0.0001). Among the low-dose lesions that had at least one no-dose lesion within the same patient as a control (33 and 45 lesions respectively), 12 low-dose lesions (36%) responded without a corresponding response in their no-dose lesions; Conversely, two (4%) of the no-dose lesions responded without a corresponding response in their low-dose lesion (P = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose radiation may increase systemic response rates of metastatic disease treated with high-dose radiation and immunotherapy.

20.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(28): 2537-2547, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antiangiogenic agents combined with chemotherapy have efficacy in the treatment of unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Cediranib (AstraZeneca, Cheshire, United Kingdom), a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor, demonstrated therapeutic potential in a prior phase I trial. We evaluated a phase II trial for efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: SWOG S0905 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01064648) randomly assigned cediranib or placebo with platinum-pemetrexed for six cycles followed by maintenance cediranib or placebo in unresectable chemotherapy-naïve patients with MPM of any histologic subtype. Primary end point was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival, PFS by modified RECIST v1.1, response (modified RECIST and RECIST v1.1), disease control, and safety/toxicity. The trial was designed to detect a difference in RECIST v1.1 PFS at the one-sided 0.1 level using a stratified log-rank test. RESULTS: Ninety-two eligible patients were enrolled (75% epithelioid and 25% biphasic or sarcomatoid). The cediranib arm had more grade 3 and 4 diarrhea, dehydration, hypertension, and weight loss. Cediranib improved PFS by RECIST v1.1 (hazard ratio, 0.71; 80% CI, 0.54 to 0.95; P = .062; 7.2 months v 5.6 months) and increased modified RECIST v1.1 response (50% v 20%; P = .006). By modified RECIST v1.1, cediranib numerically increased PFS (hazard ratio, 0.77; 80% CI, 0.59 to 1.02; P = .12; median, 6.9 months v 5.6 months). No significant difference in overall survival was observed. CONCLUSION: The addition of cediranib to platinum-pemetrexed improved PFS by RECIST v1.1 and response rate by modified RECIST in patients with unresectable MPM. Whereas adding antiangiogenics to chemotherapy has been a successful strategy for some patients, the cediranib toxicity profile and small incremental survival benefit precludes additional development in MPM.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA