Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 177
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Epigenomics ; 12(2): 145-155, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916450

RESUMO

Cancer numbers increasing, cases heterogeneity and the drug resistance emergence have pushed scientists to search for innovative solutions for patients and epimutations can be one. Methylated DNA, modified nucleosomes and noncoding RNAs are found in all cells, including tumor cells. They are intracellular actors but also have intercellular communication roles, being released in extracellular environment and in different body fluids. Here, we reviewed current literature on the use of these blood circulating epimarks in cancer monitoring. What stands out is that epimarkers must be considered as 'real time' images of the tumor, and can be isolated without invasive methods. In the future, the real challenge lies in the development of specific, sensitive, fast and clinically applicable detection and analysis methods of epimarkers.

2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975481

RESUMO

Bone sarcomas are primary bone tumours found mainly in children and adolescents, as osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma, and in adults in their 40s as chondrosarcoma. The last four decades the development of therapeutic approaches was based on drug combinations have shown no real improvement in overall survival. Recently oncoimmunology has allowed a better understand of the crucial role played by the immune system in the oncologic process. This led to clinical trials with the aim of reprogramming the immune system to facilitate cancer cell recognition. Immune infiltrates of bone sarcomas have been characterized and their molecular profiling identified as immune therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, the clinical responses in trials remain anecdotal but highlight the necessity to improve the characterization of tumour micro-environment to unlock the immunotherapeutic response, especially in their paediatric forms. Bone sarcomas have entered the immunotherapy era and here we overview the recent developments in immunotherapies in these sarcomas.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14428, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594977

RESUMO

While joint damage is the primary co-morbidity of hemophilia, osteoporosis and osteopenia are also observed. Coagulation factor VIII deficient (FVIII-/-) mice develop an osteoporotic phenotype in the absence of induced hemarthrosis that is exacerbated two weeks after an induced joint injury. Here we have compared comprehensively the bone health of clotting factor VIII, factor IX, and Von Willebrand Factor knockout (FVIII-/-, FIX-/-, and VWF-/- respectively) mice both in the absence of joint hemorrhage and following induced joint injury. We found FVIII-/- and FIX-/- mice, but not VWF-/- mice, developmentally have an osteoporotic phenotype. Unilateral induced hemarthrosis causes further bone damage in both FVIII-/- and FIX-/- mice, but has little effect on VWF-/- bone health, indicating that the FVIII.VWF complex is not required for normal bone remodeling in vivo. To further investigate the bone healing following hemarthrosis in hemophilia we examined a two week time course using microCT, serum chemistry, and histological analysis. Elevated ratio of osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), increased osterix+ osteoblastic cells, and decreased smoothness of the cortical bone surface were evident within several days of injury, indicative of acute heterotopic mineralization along the cortical surface. This was closely followed by increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, increased osteoclast numbers, and significant trabecular bone loss. Uncoupled and disorganized bone formation and resorption continued for the duration of the study resulting in significant deterioration of the joint. Further elucidation of the shared mechanisms underlying abnormal bone homeostasis in the absence of FVIII or FIX is needed to guide evidence-based approaches to the screening and treatment of the prevalent bone defects in hemophilia A and B.

4.
Theranostics ; 9(16): 4580-4594, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367241

RESUMO

Tumor heterogeneity is the major cause of failure in cancer prognosis and prediction. Accurately detecting heterogeneity for the development of biomarkers and the detection of the clones resistant to therapy is one of the main goals of contemporary medicine. Metastases belong to the natural history of cancer. The present review gives an overview on the origin of tumor heterogeneity. Recent progress has made it possible to isolate and characterize circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are the drivers of the disease between the primary sites and metastatic foci. The most recent methods for characterizing CTCs are summarized and we discuss the power of CTC profiling for analyzing tumor heterogeneity in early and advanced diseases.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1664, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379856

RESUMO

The maxillofacial skeleton is highly dynamic and requires a constant equilibrium between the bone resorption and bone formation. The field of osteoimmunology explores the interactions between bone metabolism and the immune response, providing a context to study the complex cellular and molecular networks involved in oro-maxillofacial osteolytic diseases. In this review, we present a framework for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying the immuno-pathobiology in etiologically-diverse diseases that affect the oral and maxillofacial region and share bone destruction as their common clinical outcome. These otherwise different pathologies share similar inflammatory pathways mediated by central cellular players, such as macrophages, T and B cells, that promote the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, ineffective or insufficient bone apposition by osteoblasts, and the continuous production of osteoclastogenic signals by immune and local stromal cells. We also present the potential translational applications of this knowledge based on the biological mechanisms involved in the inflammation-induced bone destruction. Such applications can be the development of immune-based therapies that promote bone healing/regeneration, the identification of host-derived inflammatory/collagenolytic biomarkers as diagnostics tools, the assessment of links between oral and systemic diseases; and the characterization of genetic polymorphisms in immune or bone-related genes that will help diagnosis of susceptible individuals.

6.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 168: 133-148, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260659

RESUMO

Zoledronic acid (ZOL), a nitrogen bisphosphonate (N-BP), is currently used to treat and control pediatric osteolytic diseases. Variations in the intensity of the effects and side effects of N-BPs have been reported with no clear explanations regarding their origins. We wonder if such variations could be associated with different levels of RANKL signaling activity in growing bone during and after the treatment with N-BPs. To answer this question, ZOL was injected into neonate C57BL/6J mice with different genetically-determined RANKL signaling activity levels (Opg+/+\RankTg-, Opg+/+\RankTg+, Opg+/-\RankTg-, Opg+/-\RankTg+, Opg-/-\RankTg- and Opg-/-\RankTg+ mice) following a protocol (4 injections from post-natal day 1 to 7 at the dose of 50 µg/kg) that mimics those used in onco-pediatric patients. At the end of pediatric growth (1 and half months) and at an adult age (10 months), the bone morphometric and mineral parameters were measured using µCT in the tibia and skull for the different mice. A histologic analysis of the dental and periodontal tissues was also performed. At the end of pediatric growth, a delay in long bone and skull bone growth, a blockage of tooth eruption, some molar root alterations and a neoplasia-like structure associated with incisor development were found. Interestingly, the magnitude of these side effects was reduced by Opg deficiency (Opg-/-) but increased by Rank overexpression (RankTg). Analysis of the skeletal phenotype at ten months confirmed respectively the beneficial and harmful effects of Opg deficiency and Rank overexpression. These results validated the hypothesis that the RANKL signaling activity level in the bone microenvironment is implicated in the modulation of the response to ZOL. Further studies will be necessary to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, which will help decipher the variability in the effects of N-BPs reported in the human population. SIGNIFICANT STATEMENTS: The present study establishes that in mice the RANKL signaling activity level is a major modulator of the effects and side-effects of bisphosphonates on the individual skeleton during growth. However, the modulatory actions are dependent on the ways in which this level of activity is increased. A decrease in OPG expression is beneficial to the skeletal phenotype observed at the end of growth, while RANK overexpression deteriorates it. Far removed from pediatric treatment, in adults, the skeletal phenotypes initially observed at the end of growth for the different levels of RANKL signaling activity were maintained, although significant improvement was associated only with reductions in OPG expression.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 452-466, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated bone disease is a serious complication in bone sarcomas and metastatic carcinomas of breast and prostate origin. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is an enzyme of the endocannabinoid system, and is responsible for the degradation of the most abundant endocannabinoid in bone, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG). METHODS: The effects of the verified MAGL inhibitor on bone remodelling were assessed in healthy mice and in mouse models of bone disease caused by prostate and breast cancers and osteosarcoma. FINDINGS: JZL184 reduced osteolytic bone metastasis in mouse models of breast and prostate cancers, and inhibited skeletal tumour growth, metastasis and the formation of ectopic bone in models of osteosarcoma. Additionally, JZL184 suppressed cachexia and prolonged survival in mice injected with metastatic osteosarcoma and osteotropic cancer cells. Functional and histological analysis revealed that the osteoprotective action of JZL184 in cancer models is predominately due to inhibition of tumour growth and metastasis. In the absence of cancer, however, exposure to JZL184 exerts a paradoxical reduction of bone volume via an effect that is mediated by both Cnr1 and Cnr2 cannabinoid receptors. INTERPRETATION: MAGL inhibitors such as JZL184, or its novel analogues, may be of value in the treatment of bone disease caused by primary bone cancer and bone metastasis, however, activation of the skeletal endocannabinoid system may limit their usefulness as osteoprotective agents.


Assuntos
Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Reabsorção Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteólise/tratamento farmacológico , Osteólise/etiologia , Osteólise/metabolismo , Osteólise/patologia , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo
8.
Bioconjug Chem ; 30(6): 1665-1676, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045351

RESUMO

To reply to as yet unmet medical needs to treat osteosarcoma, a form of primary bone cancer, we conceived the 12b80 compound by covalently conjugating antineoplastic compound doxorubicin to a bone targeting hydroxybisphosphonate vector and turned it into a prodrug through a custom linker designed to specifically trigger doxorubicin release in acidic bone tumor microenvironment. Synthesis of 12b80 was thoroughly optimized to be produced at gram scale. 12b80 was evaluated in vitro for high bone support affinity, specific release of doxorubicin in acidic condition, lower cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake of the prodrug. In vivo in rodents, 12b80 displayed rapid and sustained targeting of bone tissue and tumor-associated heterotopic bone and permitted a higher doxorubicin payload in tumor bone environment compared to nonvectorized doxorubicin. Consequently, 12b80 showed much lower toxicity compared to doxorubicin, promoted strong antitumor effects on rodent orthotopic osteosarcoma, displayed a dose-response therapeutic effect, and was more potent than doxorubicin/zoledronate combination.

9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1139: 187-200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134502

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone sarcoma and is one of the cancer entities characterized by the highest level of heterogeneity in humans. This heterogeneity takes place not only at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, with heterogeneous micro-environmental components, but also at the genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic levels. Recent investigations have revealed the existence in osteosarcoma of cancer cells with stemness properties. Cancer stem cells are characterized by their specific phenotype and low cycling capacity, and are linked to drug resistance, tumour growth and the metastatic process. In addition, cancer stem cells contribute to the enrichment of tumour heterogeneity. The present manuscript will describe the main characteristic features of cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma and will discuss their impact on maintaining tumour heterogeneity. Their clinical implications will also be briefly addressed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica
10.
Stem Cells ; 37(8): 1083-1094, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977188

RESUMO

The general population is chronically exposed to multiple environmental contaminants such as pesticides. We have previously demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed in vitro to low doses of a mixture of seven common pesticides showed a permanent phenotype modification with a specific induction of an oxidative stress-related senescence. Pesticide mixture also induced a shift in MSC differentiation toward adipogenesis. Thus, we hypothesized that common combination of pesticides may induce a premature cellular aging of adult MSCs. Our goal was to evaluate if the prolonged exposure to pesticide mixture could accelerate aging-related markers and in particular deteriorate the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs. MSCs exposed to pesticide mixture, under long-term culture and obtained from aging donor, were compared by bulk RNA sequencing analysis. Aging, senescence, and immunomodulatory markers were compared. The protein expression of cellular aging-associated metabolic markers and immune function of MSCs were analyzed. Functional analysis of the secretome impacts on immunomodulatory properties of MSCs was realized after 21 days' exposure to pesticide mixture. The RNA sequencing analysis of MSCs exposed to pesticide showed some similarities with cells from prolonged culture, but also with the MSCs of an aged donor. Changes in the metabolic markers MDH1, GOT and SIRT3, as well as an alteration in the modulation of active T cells and modifications in cytokine production are all associated with cellular aging. A modified functional profile was found with similarities to aging process. Stem Cells 2019;37:1083-1094.

11.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 56, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common cancer of bone. Jaw osteosarcoma (JOS) is rare and it differs from other OS in terms of the time of occurrence (two decades later) and better survival. The aim of our work was to develop and characterize specific mouse models of JOS. METHODS: Syngenic and xenogenic models of JOS were developed in mice using mouse (MOS-J) and human (HOS1544) osteosarcoma cell lines, respectively. An orthotopic patient-derived xenograft model (PDX) was also developed from a mandibular biopsy. These models were characterized at the histological and micro-CT imaging levels, as well as in terms of tumor growth and metastatic spread. RESULTS: Homogeneous tumor growth was observed in both the HOS1544 and the MOS-J JOS models by injection of 0.25 × 106 and 0.50 × 106 tumor cells, respectively, at perimandibular sites. Histological characterization of the tumors revealed features consistent with high grade conventional osteosarcoma, and the micro-CT analysis revealed both osteogenic and osteolytic lesions. Early metastasis was encountered at day 14 in the xenogenic model, while there were no metastatic lesions in the syngenic model and in the PDX models. CONCLUSION: We describe the first animal model of JOS and its potential use for therapeutic applications. This model needs to be compared with the usual long-bone osteosarcoma models to investigate potential differences in the bone microenvironment.

13.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(1): 12-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477938
14.
Drug Discov Today ; 24(3): 763-772, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496853

RESUMO

The current main goal of diagnostic medicine is to detect crucial events in 'infinitely' small samples. The key question now is how to determine whether the rare cell events isolated and characterized from these samples reliably reflect the disease and heterogeneity of the tumor. In this review, we provide a short overview of the most recent methods developed for the isolation and characterization of rare cell events in clinical practice, with a specific focus on circulating tumor cells. We discuss the biological value to studying these cells at the single cell level and how these rare cell events can reflect tumor heterogeneity. The potential biomedical applications are also critically discussed in light of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética
15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 162: 169-176, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414937

RESUMO

Although many drugs/treatments are now available for most diseases, too often, resistance to these treatments impedes complete therapeutic success. Acquired resistance is a major problem in many pathologies but it is an acute one in cancers and infections. This is probably because these diseases often require long durations of treatment, which ascribe to the selection of resistant cells. However, the actual mechanisms implicated in the selection process are still under debate. It is becoming increasingly clear that resistance is associated with the heterogeneity of cancer cells or micro-organisms and that multiple mechanisms underlie the emergence of drug-resistant subpopulations. Recently, it has been suggested that a subpopulation of drug tolerant cells present in cancer populations and called "persisters" play a major role in this resistance. Recent studies have shown that microorganisms share similar properties. Still, how persister/tolerant cells intervene in the development of resistance is not completely elucidated but seems to be related to epigenetic changes in treated cells and the capacity of persisters to modulate and/or highjack their microenvironment. Due to the complexity of this process, the input from mathematicians, as well as new methods of bioinformatics and statistics, is necessary to fully comprehend the acquisition of resistance/tolerance deriving from and leading to the heterogeneous cell populations. The present review will give a brief overview of the most recent data available on drug tolerant cells in cancers and their similarities with microorganisms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
16.
Cell Immunol ; 343: 103711, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117898

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a rare primary bone cancer characterized by cancer cells producing calcified osteoid extracellular matrix and inducing lung metastases with a high frequency. The local microenvironment defined several tumor niches controlling the tumor growth and cell extravasation. The immune infiltrate composes one of these niches. The immune environment of osteosarcoma is mainly composed by T-lymphocytes and macrophages but also contains other subpopulations including B-lymphocytes and mast cells. Osteosarcoma cells control the recruitment and differentiation of immune infiltrating cells and establish a local immune tolerant environment favorable to the tumor growth, drug resistance and the occurrence of metastases. Osteosarcoma cells are able to affect the balance between M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes and so could control the T-lymphocyte responses via the PD-1/PDL-1 system. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells may also contribute to this immune tolerance and strengthen the immune evasion. The present review gives a brief overview of the immune components of osteosarcoma and their most recent therapeutic interests.

17.
Oncotarget ; 9(87): 35726-35741, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515265

RESUMO

The metastatic dissemination is a complex multistep process by which tumor cells from a primary site enter into the systemic circulation to finally spread at distant sites. Even if this mechanism is rare at the tumor level, it remains the major cause of Osteosarcoma-patients' relapse and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been described as novel epigenetics' genes' expression regulators actively implicated in cancer progression and dissemination. The understanding of their implication in the metastatic spreading could help clinicians to improve the outcome of osteosarcoma. We established the miRNA's expression-profile between primary bone-tumors (PTs), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and lung metastatic (META) samples from in vivo mice xenograft models. Our results show that the expression level of the miR-198 and -206 was decreased in META samples, in which the expression of the metastasis-related receptor C-Met was up-regulated. Those expression variations were validated in osteosarcoma patient biopsies from matching primary tumors and lung metastasis. We validated in vitro the endogenous miRNAs inhibitory effects on both migration and invasion, as well as we confirmed by luciferase assays that the C-Met receptor is one of their bona-fide targets. The anti-metastatic effect of these miRNAs was also validated in vivo, as their direct injections into the tumors reduce the number of lung-metastases and prolongs the overall survival of the treated animals. All together, our results suggest the absence of the miR-198 and -206 as powerful predictive biomarkers of the tumor cell dissemination and the rationale of their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of Osteosarcoma.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 331, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538990

RESUMO

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the main hypothetical cells that could give rise to vessels and in particular one subtype isolated from peripheral or cord bloods: endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). These ECFCs are clonogenic precursors committed to endothelial lineage and have robust vasculogenic properties. However, their low number and poor expansion properties when isolated from human adult bloods, currently limit their use as an autologous cell therapy product. We previously reported that osteoprotegerin (OPG), a well-characterized regulator of bone metabolism, contributes to ischemic tissue revascularization, tumor growth in vivo, and potentiates ECFCs proangiogenic properties through the secretion of SDF-1. The current study investigated the role of OPG in ECFCs differentiation and expansion from cord blood CD34+ cells. OPG increased the number of ECFCs after endothelial differentiation of CD34+ cells, enhancing the time of EPCs colonies initial appearance and the growth kinetic of endothelial cell progeny. OPG-exposed ECFCs expressed higher levels of CD34+ compared to control ECFCs. In conclusion, our findings provide novel insights into OPG in regulation of CD34+ progenitor cells. These results give new opportunities for ex vivo expansion of human ECFCs using OPG as a cell culture component for future ECFC product manufacture according to GMP.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(1)2018 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586936

RESUMO

The main cause of death from cancer is associated with the development of metastases, resulting from the inability of current therapies to cure patients at metastatic stages. Generating preclinical models to better characterize the evolution of the disease is thus of utmost importance, in order to implement effective new cancer biomarkers and therapies. Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are good candidates for generating preclinical models, making it possible to follow up the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumor tissues. This method is a non-invasive liquid biopsy that can be obtained at any stage of the disease. It partially summarizes the molecular heterogeneity of the corresponding tumors at a given time. Here, we discuss the CTC-derived models that have been generated so far, from simplified 2D cultures to the most complex CTC-derived explants (CDX models). We highlight the challenges and strengths of these preclinical tools, as well as some of the recent studies published using these models.

20.
J Clin Med ; 7(11)2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413057

RESUMO

RANKL signalization is implicated in the morphogenesis of various organs, including the skeleton. Mice invalidated for Rankl present an osteopetrotic phenotype that was less severe than anticipated, depending on RANKL's implication in morphogenesis. The hypothesis of an attenuated phenotype, as a result of compensation during gestation by RANKL of maternal origin, was thus brought into question. In order to answer this question, Rankl null mutant pups from null mutant parents were generated, and the phenotype analyzed. The results validated the presence of a more severe osteopetrotic phenotype in the second-generation null mutant with perinatal lethality. The experiments also confirmed that RANKL signalization plays a part in the morphogenesis of skeletal elements through its involvement in cell-to-cell communication, such as in control of osteoclast differentiation. To conclude, we have demonstrated that the phenotype associated with Rankl invalidation is attenuated through compensation by RANKL of maternal origin.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA