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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established CV disease or at high CV risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalisation and CV death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of T2DM.

3.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 573, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060801

RESUMO

Uncovering cellular responses from heterogeneous genomic data is crucial for molecular medicine in particular for drug safety. This can be realized by integrating the molecular activities in networks of interacting proteins. As proof-of-concept we challenge network modeling with time-resolved proteome, transcriptome and methylome measurements in iPSC-derived human 3D cardiac microtissues to elucidate adverse mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity measured with four different drugs (doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin and daunorubicin). Dynamic molecular analysis at in vivo drug exposure levels reveal a network of 175 disease-associated proteins and identify common modules of anthracycline cardiotoxicity in vitro, related to mitochondrial and sarcomere function as well as remodeling of extracellular matrix. These in vitro-identified modules are transferable and are evaluated with biopsies of cardiomyopathy patients. This to our knowledge most comprehensive study on anthracycline cardiotoxicity demonstrates a reproducible workflow for molecular medicine and serves as a template for detecting adverse drug responses from complex omics data.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094495

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation, and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Further, genetic predisposition and clonal hematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Also, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumors and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the 2 pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. Also, preclinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and CV end points, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.

5.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046850

RESUMO

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis. At present, the reason why some patients recover without residual myocardial injury whereas others develop dilated cardiomyopathy is unclear. The relative roles of the pathogen, host genomics and environmental factors in disease progression and healing are still under discussion, including which viruses are active inducers and which are only bystanders. As a consequence, treatment strategies are not well established. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with a special focus on virus-induced and virus-associated myocarditis. Furthermore, we identify knowledge gaps, appraise the available experimental models and propose future directions for the field. The current knowledge and open questions regarding the cardiovascular effects associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also discussed. This Review is the result of scientific cooperation of members of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, the Heart Failure Society of America and the Japanese Heart Failure Society.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15701, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973263

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is currently untreated. Therapeutics development demands effective diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction in animal models mimicking human pathology, which requires appropriate anaesthetics. Here, we investigated which anaesthetic, ketamine/xylazine or isoflurane, could be used to reveal diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF-diseased obese ZSF1 rats by echocardiography. First, diastolic dysfunction was confirmed by pressure-volume loops in obese compared to lean control ZSF1 rats. In echocardiography, ketamine/xylazine, unlike isoflurane, was able to demonstrate impaired relaxation in obese ZSF1 rats, as reflected by impaired early (E) and late (A) filling peak velocities, decreased E/A ratio, and a prolonged deceleration and isovolumic relaxation time. Interestingly, ketamine/xylazine induced a wider separation of both tissue and pulsed wave Doppler-derived echocardiographic waves required for diastolic dysfunction diagnosis, potentially by reducing the heart rate (HR), while isoflurane resulted in merged waves. To assess whether HR-lowering alone explained the differences between the anaesthetics, echocardiography measurements under isoflurane with and without the HR-lowering drug ivabradine were compared. However, diastolic dysfunction could not be diagnosed in ivabradine-treated obese ZSF1 rats. In summary, ketamine/xylazine compared to isoflurane is the anaesthetic of choice to detect diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography in rodent HFpEF, which was only partly mediated by HR-lowering.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997547

RESUMO

Background - Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and conduction disorders. Still, one-third of the patients with DCM do not respond to CRT. This study aims to depict the underlying cardiac pathophysiological processes of non-response to CRT in DCM patients using endomyocardial biopsies (EMB). Methods - Within the Maastricht and Innsbruck registries of DCM patients, 99 patients underwent EMB before CRT implantation, with histological quantification of fibrosis and inflammation, where inflammation was defined as >14 infiltrating cells/mm2. Echocardiographic left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction ≥15% after 6 months was defined as response to CRT. RNA was isolated from cardiac biopsies of a representative subset of responders and non-responders. Results - Sixty-seven patients responded (68%), whereas 32 (32%) did not respond to CRT. Cardiac inflammation prior to implantation was negatively associated with response to CRT (25% of responders, 47% of non-responders; odds ratio 0.3 [0.12-0.76]; p=0.01). EMB fibrosis did not relate to CRT response. Cardiac inflammation improved the robustness of prediction beyond well-known clinical predictors of CRT response (likelihood ratio test p<0.001). Cardiac transcriptomic profiling of EMB reveals a strong pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic signature in the hearts of non-responders compared to responders. In particular, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, COL5A1, POSTN, CTGF, LOX, TGFß1, PDGFRA, TNC, BGN and TSP2 were significantly higher expressed in the hearts of non-responders. Conclusions - Cardiac inflammation along with a transcriptomic profile of high expression of combined pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes are associated with a poor response to CRT in DCM patients.

8.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964378

RESUMO

In the last decade, cardio-oncology has become a discipline on its own, with tremendous research going on to unravel the mechanisms underpinning different manifestations of cardiotoxicity caused by anticancer drugs. Although this domain is much broader than the effect of chemotherapy alone, a lot of questions about anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity remain unknown. In this invited review, we provide insights in molecular mechanisms behind anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and put it in a clinical framework emphasizing the need for patients to understand, detect, and treat this detrimental condition.

10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 476-487, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis is a first-tier test in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Electrical phenotypes are common in genetic DCM, but their exact contribution to the clinical course and outcome is unknown. We determined the prevalence of pathogenic gene variants in a large unselected DCM population and determined the role of electrical phenotypes in association with outcome. METHODS: This study included 689 patients with DCM from the Maastricht Cardiomyopathy Registry, undergoing genetic evaluation using a 48 cardiomyopathy-associated gene-panel, echocardiography, endomyocardial biopsies, and Holter monitoring. Upon detection of a pathogenic variant in a patient with DCM, familial segregation was performed. Outcome was defined as cardiovascular death, heart transplantation, heart failure hospitalization, and/or occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias. RESULTS: A (likely) pathogenic gene variant was found in 19% of patients, varying from 36% in familial to 13% in nonfamilial DCM. Family segregation analysis showed familial disease in 46% of patients with DCM who were initially deemed nonfamilial by history. Overall, 18% of patients with a nongenetic risk factor had a pathogenic gene variant. Almost all pathogenic gene variants occurred in just 12 genes previously shown to have robust disease association with DCM. Genetic DCM was independently associated with electrical phenotypes such as atrial fibrillation, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and atrioventricular block and inversely correlated with the presence of a left bundle branch block (P<0.01). After a median follow-up of 4 years, event-free survival was reduced in genetic versus patients with nongenetic DCM (P=0.01). This effect on outcome was mediated by the associated electrical phenotypes of genetic DCM (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One in 5 patients with an established nongenetic risk factor or a nonfamilial disease still carries a pathogenic gene variant. Genetic DCM is characterized by a profile of electrical phenotypes (atrial fibrillation, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and atrioventricular block), which carries increased risk for adverse outcomes. Based on these findings, we envisage a broader role for genetic testing in DCM.

11.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 115(5): 53, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748289

RESUMO

In heart failure, a functional block of complex I of the respiratory chain provokes superoxide generation, which is transformed to H2O2 by dismutation. The Krebs cycle produces NADH, which delivers electrons to complex I, and NADPH for H2O2 elimination via isocitrate dehydrogenase and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). At high NADH levels, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) is a major source of superoxide in skeletal muscle mitochondria with low NNT activity. Here, we analyzed how α-KGDH and NNT control H2O2 emission in cardiac mitochondria. In cardiac mitochondria from NNT-competent BL/6N mice, H2O2 emission is equally low with pyruvate/malate (P/M) or α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) as substrates. Complex I inhibition with rotenone increases H2O2 emission from P/M, but not α-KG respiring mitochondria, which is potentiated by depleting H2O2-eliminating capacity. Conversely, in NNT-deficient BL/6J mitochondria, H2O2 emission is higher with α-KG than with P/M as substrate, and further potentiated by complex I blockade. Prior depletion of H2O2-eliminating capacity increases H2O2 emission from P/M, but not α-KG respiring mitochondria. In cardiac myocytes, downregulation of α-KGDH activity impaired dynamic mitochondrial redox adaptation during workload transitions, without increasing H2O2 emission. In conclusion, NADH from α-KGDH selectively shuttles to NNT for NADPH formation rather than to complex I of the respiratory chain for ATP production. Therefore, α-KGDH plays a key role for H2O2 elimination, but is not a relevant source of superoxide in heart. In heart failure, α-KGDH/NNT-dependent NADPH formation ameliorates oxidative stress imposed by complex I blockade. Downregulation of α-KGDH may, therefore, predispose to oxidative stress in heart failure.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621569

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) imaging is an important tool in baseline risk assessment and detection of CV disease in oncology patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer therapies. This position statement examines the role of echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, nuclear cardiac imaging and computed tomography in the management of cancer patients. The Imaging and Cardio-Oncology Study Groups of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and the Cardio-Oncology Council of the ESC have evaluated the current evidence for the value of modern CV imaging in the cardio-oncology field. The most relevant echocardiographic parameters, including global longitudinal strain and three-dimensional ejection fraction, are proposed. The protocol for baseline pre-treatment evaluation and specific surveillance algorithms or pathways for anthracycline chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, BCr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors are presented. The indications for CV imaging after completion of oncology treatment are considered. The typical consequences of radiation therapy and the possibility of their identification in the long term are also summarized. Special populations are discussed including female survivors planning pregnancy, patients with carcinoid disease, patients with cardiac tumours and patients with right heart failure. Future directions and ongoing CV imaging research in cardio-oncology are discussed.

13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1805-1819, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638021

RESUMO

Vast parts of mammalian genomes are actively transcribed, predominantly giving rise to non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts including microRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs among others. Contrary to previous opinions that most of these RNAs are non-functional molecules, they are now recognized as critical regulators of many physiological and pathological processes including those of the cardiovascular system. The discovery of functional ncRNAs has opened up new research avenues aiming at understanding ncRNA-related disease mechanisms as well as exploiting them as novel therapeutics in cardiovascular therapy. In this review, we give an update on the current progress in ncRNA research, particularly focusing on cardiovascular physiological and disease processes, which are under current investigation at the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart. This includes a range of topics such as extracellular vesicle-mediated communication, neurohormonal regulation, inflammation, cardiac remodelling, cardio-oncology as well as cardiac development and regeneration, collectively highlighting the wide-spread involvement and importance of ncRNAs in the cardiovascular system.

14.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1820-1834, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683451

RESUMO

In western countries, cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in the ageing population. Recent epidemiological data suggest that cancer is more frequent in patients with prevalent or incident CV disease, in particular, heart failure (HF). Indeed, there is a tight link in terms of shared risk factors and mechanisms between HF and cancer. HF induced by anticancer therapies has been extensively studied, primarily focusing on the toxic effects that anti-tumour treatments exert on cardiomyocytes. In this Cardio-Oncology update, members of the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart discuss novel evidence interconnecting cardiac dysfunction and cancer via pathways in which cardiomyocytes may be involved but are not central. In particular, the multiple roles of cardiac stromal cells (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells are highlighted. Also, the gut microbiota is depicted as a new player at the crossroads between HF and cancer. Finally, the role of non-coding RNAs in Cardio-Oncology is also addressed. All these insights are expected to fuel additional research efforts in the field of Cardio-Oncology.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592317

RESUMO

AIM: Diagnosing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the non-acute setting remains challenging. Natriuretic peptides have limited value for this purpose, and a multitude of studies investigating novel diagnostic circulating biomarkers have not resulted in their implementation. This review aims to provide an overview of studies investigating novel circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis of HFpEF and determine their risk of bias (ROB). METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search for studies investigating novel diagnostic HFpEF circulating biomarkers in humans was performed up until 21 April 2020. Those without diagnostic performance measures reported, or performed in an acute heart failure population were excluded, leading to a total of 28 studies. For each study, four reviewers determined the ROB within the QUADAS-2 domains: patient selection, index test, reference standard, and flow and timing. At least one domain with a high ROB was present in all studies. Use of case-control/two-gated designs, exclusion of difficult-to-diagnose patients, absence of a pre-specified cut-off value for the index test without the performance of external validation, the use of inappropriate reference standards and unclear timing of the index test and/or reference standard were the main bias determinants. Due to the high ROB and different patient populations, no meta-analysis was performed. CONCLUSION: The majority of current diagnostic HFpEF biomarker studies have a high ROB, reducing the reproducibility and the potential for clinical care. Methodological well-designed studies with a uniform reference diagnosis are urgently needed to determine the incremental value of circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis of HFpEF.

16.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488580

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of echocardiographic markers of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in comparison with the gold standard of cardiac catheterization. Diagnosing HFpEF is challenging, as symptoms are non-specific and often absent at rest. A clear need exists for sensitive echocardiographic markers to diagnose HFpEF. We systematically searched for studies testing the diagnostic value of novel echocardiographic markers for HFpEF and LVDD. Two investigators independently reviewed the studies and assessed the risk of bias. Results were meta-analysed when four or more studies reported a similar diagnostic measure. Of 353 studies, 20 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The risk of bias was high especially in the patients' selection domain. The highest diagnostic performance was demonstrated by a multivariable model combining echocardiographic, clinical and arterial function markers with an area under the curve of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98). A meta-analysis of four studies indicated a reasonable diagnostic performance for left atrial strain with an AUC of 0.83 (0.70-0.95), a specificity of 93% (95% CI, 90-97%) and a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 59-96%). Moreover, the addition of exercise E/e' improved the sensitivity of HFpEF diagnostic algorithms up to 90%, compared with 60 and 34% of guidelines alone. Despite the heterogeneity of the included studies, this review supported the current multivariable-based approach for the diagnosis of HFpEF and LVDD and showed a potential diagnostic role for exercise echocardiography and left atrial strain. Larger well-designed studies are needed to evaluate the incremental value of novel diagnostic tools to current diagnostic algorithms.

17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1158-1168, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure (HF), and mortality in community-dwelling women and men. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 8226 adults from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort (1997-1998) were enrolled in a prospective observational study (mean age: 49 years; 50.2% women). Sex-specific associations of cTnT levels with future clinical outcomes were evaluated using adjusted Cox-regression models. RESULTS: Measurable cTnT levels (≥3 ng/L) were detected in 1102 women (26.7%) and in 2396 men (58.5%). Baseline cTnT levels were associated with a greater risk of developing CVD in women than men [Hazard ratio (HRwomen), 1.48 per unit increase in log2-cTnT; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.81 vs HRmen, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.35; Pinteraction<.001]. Similar sex-related differences were observed for HF (Pinteraction= .005) and mortality (Pinteraction= .008). Further, compared with referent category (cTnT <3 ng/L), women with cTnT levels greater than or equal to 6 ng/L had a significantly increased risk for CVD (HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.45 to 3.64), HF (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.80), and mortality (HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.52 to 4.61), whereas men with cTnT levels greater than or equal to 6 ng/L had a significantly increased risk only for CVD (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.13). CONCLUSION: Baseline cTnT levels were associated with future CVD, HF, and mortality in both sexes, and these associations were stronger in women. Future studies are needed to determine the value of cTnT in early diagnosis of CVD, particularly in women.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365197

RESUMO

Echocardiography is a reliable and reproducible method to assess non-invasively cardiac function in clinical and experimental research. Significant progress in the development of echocardiographic equipment and transducers has led to the successful translation of this methodology from humans to rodents, allowing for the scoring of disease severity and progression, testing of new drugs, and monitoring cardiac function in genetically modified or pharmacologically treated animals. However, as yet, there is no standardization in the procedure to acquire echocardiographic measurements in small animals. This position paper focuses on the appropriate acquisition and analysis of echocardiographic parameters in adult mice and rats, and provides reference values, representative images and videos for the accurate and reproducible quantification of left ventricular function in healthy and pathological conditions.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367341

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single greatest cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inciting 85% of CVD fatalities is heart failure, often resulting in or from a myocardial infarction. Early detection along with pharmacological treatment and lifestyle adaptation can result in better prognosis. Biomarkers are molecular or physiological measures that indicate disease presence, status, and severity. However, not all forms of heart failure are created equal. Current mainstay biomarkers for heart failure, including NT-pro-BNP and ejection fraction, lack sensitivity for many patients. Circulating white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are emerging as surrogate biopsies, reflecting molecular changes in the heart. We discuss the advantages of PBMCs over other sources, as well as limitations and considerations. We urge medical center biobanks to collect, isolate and store circulating white blood cells as a rich source of biomarkers to catalyze the discovery of novel diagnostic tools for heart failure.

20.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 115(4): 39, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451732

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex heterogeneous disease for which our pathophysiological understanding is still limited and specific prevention and treatment strategies are lacking. HFpEF is characterised by diastolic dysfunction and cardiac remodelling (fibrosis, inflammation, and hypertrophy). Recently, microvascular dysfunction and chronic low-grade inflammation have been proposed to participate in HFpEF development. Furthermore, several recent studies demonstrated the occurrence of generalized lymphatic dysfunction in experimental models of risk factors for HFpEF, including obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and aging. Here, we review the evidence for a combined role of coronary (micro)vascular dysfunction and lymphatic vessel alterations in mediating key pathological steps in HFpEF, including reduced cardiac perfusion, chronic low-grade inflammation, and myocardial oedema, and their impact on cardiac metabolic alterations (oxygen and nutrient supply/demand imbalance), fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte stiffness. We focus primarily on HFpEF caused by metabolic risk factors, such as obesity, T2DM, hypertension, and aging.

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