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1.
Brain ; 142(9): 2617-2630, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327001

RESUMO

The underpinnings of mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay remain elusive, often leading to late diagnosis and interventions. Here, we present data on exome and genome sequencing as well as array analysis of 13 individuals that point to pathogenic, heterozygous, mostly de novo variants in WDFY3 (significant de novo enrichment P = 0.003) as a monogenic cause of mild and non-specific neurodevelopmental delay. Nine variants were protein-truncating and four missense. Overlapping symptoms included neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). One proband presented with an opposing phenotype of microcephaly and the only missense-variant located in the PH-domain of WDFY3. Findings of this case are supported by previously published data, demonstrating that pathogenic PH-domain variants can lead to microcephaly via canonical Wnt-pathway upregulation. In a separate study, we reported that the autophagy scaffolding protein WDFY3 is required for cerebral cortical size regulation in mice, by controlling proper division of neural progenitors. Here, we show that proliferating cortical neural progenitors of human embryonic brains highly express WDFY3, further supporting a role for this molecule in the regulation of prenatal neurogenesis. We present data on Wnt-pathway dysregulation in Wdfy3-haploinsufficient mice, which display macrocephaly and deficits in motor coordination and associative learning, recapitulating the human phenotype. Consequently, we propose that in humans WDFY3 loss-of-function variants lead to macrocephaly via downregulation of the Wnt pathway. In summary, we present WDFY3 as a novel gene linked to mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability and conclude that variants putatively causing haploinsufficiency lead to macrocephaly, while an opposing pathomechanism due to variants in the PH-domain of WDFY3 leads to microcephaly.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 701-708, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879638

RESUMO

Developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD and ID) are heterogeneous phenotypes that arise in many rare monogenic disorders. Because of this rarity, developing cohorts with enough individuals to robustly identify disease-associated genes is challenging. Social-media platforms that facilitate data sharing among sequencing labs can help to address this challenge. Through one such tool, GeneMatcher, we identified nine DD- and/or ID-affected probands with a rare, heterozygous variant in the gene encoding the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRSK2. All probands have a speech delay, and most present with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral issues, and autism. Six of the nine variants are predicted to result in loss of function, and computational modeling predicts that the remaining three missense variants are damaging to BRSK2 structure and function. All nine variants are absent from large variant databases, and BRSK2 is, in general, relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation among humans. In all six probands for whom parents were available, the mutations were found to have arisen de novo. Five of these de novo variants were from cohorts with at least 400 sequenced probands; collectively, the cohorts span 3,429 probands, and the observed rate of de novo variation in these cohorts is significantly higher than the estimated background-mutation rate (p = 2.46 × 10-6). We also find that exome sequencing provides lower coverage and appears less sensitive to rare variation in BRSK2 than does genome sequencing; this fact most likely reduces BRSK2's visibility in many clinical and research sequencing efforts. Altogether, our results implicate damaging variation in BRSK2 as a source of neurodevelopmental disease.

3.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 319-330, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639322

RESUMO

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007671, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500825

RESUMO

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10-11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

6.
Neuron ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449657

RESUMO

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.

7.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) is primarily used to address specific clinical concerns by detecting risk of future disease, clarifying diagnosis, or directing treatment. Additionally, CGES makes possible the disclosure of autosomal recessive and X-linked carrier results as additional secondary findings, and research about the impact of carrier results disclosure in this context is needed. METHODS: Representatives from 11 projects in the clinical sequencing exploratory research (CSER) consortium collected data from their projects using a structured survey. The survey focused on project characteristics, which variants were offered and/or disclosed to participants as carrier results, methods for carrier results disclosure, and project-specific outcomes. We recorded quantitative responses and report descriptive statistics with the aim of describing the variability in approaches to disclosing carrier results in translational genomics research projects. RESULTS: The proportion of participants with carrier results was related to the number of genes included, ranging from 3% (three genes) to 92% (4,600 genes). Between one and seven results were disclosed to those participants who received any positive result. Most projects offered participants choices about whether to receive some or all of the carrier results. There were a range of approaches to communicate results, and many projects used separate approaches for disclosing positive and negative results. CONCLUSION: Future translational genomics research projects will need to make decisions regarding whether and how to disclose carrier results. The CSER consortium experience identifies approaches that balance potential participant interest while limiting impact on project resources.

9.
Genet Med ; 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790872

RESUMO

PurposeClinically relevant secondary variants were identified in parents enrolled with a child with developmental delay and intellectual disability.MethodsExome/genome sequencing and analysis of 789 "unaffected" parents was performed.ResultsPathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 21 genes within 25 individuals (3.2%), with 11 (1.4%) participants harboring variation in a gene defined as clinically actionable by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. These 25 individuals self-reported either relevant clinical diagnoses (5); relevant family history or symptoms (13); or no relevant family history, symptoms, or clinical diagnoses (7). A limited carrier screen was performed yielding 15 variants in 48 (6.1%) parents. Parents were also analyzed as mate pairs (n = 365) to identify cases in which both parents were carriers for the same recessive disease, yielding three such cases (0.8%), two of which had children with the relevant recessive disease. Four participants had two findings (one carrier and one noncarrier variant). In total, 71 of the 789 enrolled parents (9.0%) received secondary findings.ConclusionWe provide an overview of the rates and types of clinically relevant secondary findings, which may be useful in the design and implementation of research and clinical sequencing efforts to identify such findings.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 12 April 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.53.

10.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740699

RESUMO

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.

11.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 43, 2017 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental disabilities have diverse genetic causes that must be identified to facilitate precise diagnoses. We describe genomic data from 371 affected individuals, 309 of which were sequenced as proband-parent trios. METHODS: Whole-exome sequences (WES) were generated for 365 individuals (127 affected) and whole-genome sequences (WGS) were generated for 612 individuals (244 affected). RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were found in 100 individuals (27%), with variants of uncertain significance in an additional 42 (11.3%). We found that a family history of neurological disease, especially the presence of an affected first-degree relative, reduces the pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant identification rate, reflecting both the disease relevance and ease of interpretation of de novo variants. We also found that improvements to genetic knowledge facilitated interpretation changes in many cases. Through systematic reanalyses, we have thus far reclassified 15 variants, with 11.3% of families who initially were found to harbor a VUS and 4.7% of families with a negative result eventually found to harbor a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. To further such progress, the data described here are being shared through ClinVar, GeneMatcher, and dbGaP. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly support the value of large-scale sequencing, especially WGS within proband-parent trios, as both an effective first-choice diagnostic tool and means to advance clinical and research progress related to pediatric neurological disease.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Genômica/métodos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 117-127, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017373

RESUMO

From a GeneMatcher-enabled international collaboration, we identified ten individuals affected by intellectual disability, speech delay, ataxia, and facial dysmorphism and carrying a deleterious EBF3 variant detected by whole-exome sequencing. One 9-bp duplication and one splice-site, five missense, and two nonsense variants in EBF3 were found; the mutations occurred de novo in eight individuals, and the missense variant c.625C>T (p.Arg209Trp) was inherited by two affected siblings from their healthy mother, who is mosaic. EBF3 belongs to the early B cell factor family (also known as Olf, COE, or O/E) and is a transcription factor involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation. Structural assessment predicted that the five amino acid substitutions have damaging effects on DNA binding of EBF3. Transient expression of EBF3 mutant proteins in HEK293T cells revealed mislocalization of all but one mutant in the cytoplasm, as well as nuclear localization. By transactivation assays, all EBF3 mutants showed significantly reduced or no ability to activate transcription of the reporter gene CDKN1A, and in situ subcellular fractionation experiments demonstrated that EBF3 mutant proteins were less tightly associated with chromatin. Finally, in RNA-seq and ChIP-seq experiments, EBF3 acted as a transcriptional regulator, and mutant EBF3 had reduced genome-wide DNA binding and gene-regulatory activity. Our findings demonstrate that variants disrupting EBF3-mediated transcriptional regulation cause intellectual disability and developmental delay and are present in ∼0.1% of individuals with unexplained neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Ataxia/genética , Face/anormalidades , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mosaicismo , Transporte Proteico/genética , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Neurol Genet ; 2(6): e118, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27830187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of somatic MTOR mutations in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and of germline MTOR mutations in a broad range of epilepsies. METHODS: We collected 20 blood-brain paired samples from patients with FCD and searched for somatic variants using deep-targeted gene panel sequencing. Germline mutations in MTOR were assessed in a French research cohort of 93 probands with focal epilepsies and in a diagnostic Danish cohort of 245 patients with a broad range of epilepsies. Data sharing among collaborators allowed us to ascertain additional germline variants in MTOR. RESULTS: We detected recurrent somatic variants (p.Ser2215Phe, p.Ser2215Tyr, and p.Leu1460Pro) in the MTOR gene in 37% of participants with FCD II and showed histologic evidence for activation of the mTORC1 signaling cascade in brain tissue. We further identified 5 novel de novo germline missense MTOR variants in 6 individuals with a variable phenotype from focal, and less frequently generalized, epilepsies without brain malformations, to macrocephaly, with or without moderate intellectual disability. In addition, an inherited variant was found in a mother-daughter pair with nonlesional autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data illustrate the increasingly important role of somatic mutations of the MTOR gene in FCD and germline mutations in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy syndromes with and without brain malformation or macrocephaly.

14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(Database issue): D865-72, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24217909

RESUMO

The Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) project (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CCDS/) is a collaborative effort to maintain a dataset of protein-coding regions that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assemblies by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Ensembl genome annotation pipelines. Identical annotations that pass quality assurance tests are tracked with a stable identifier (CCDS ID). Members of the collaboration, who are from NCBI, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the University of California Santa Cruz, provide coordinated and continuous review of the dataset to ensure high-quality CCDS representations. We describe here the current status and recent growth in the CCDS dataset, as well as recent changes to the CCDS web and FTP sites. These changes include more explicit reporting about the NCBI and Ensembl annotation releases being compared, new search and display options, the addition of biologically descriptive information and our approach to representing genes for which support evidence is incomplete. We also present a summary of recent and future curation targets.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Éxons , Genômica , Humanos , Internet , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 42(Database issue): D756-63, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24259432

RESUMO

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database is a collection of annotated genomic, transcript and protein sequence records derived from data in public sequence archives and from computation, curation and collaboration (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). We report here on growth of the mammalian and human subsets, changes to NCBI's eukaryotic annotation pipeline and modifications affecting transcript and protein records. Recent changes to NCBI's eukaryotic genome annotation pipeline provide higher throughput, and the addition of RNAseq data to the pipeline results in a significant expansion of the number of transcripts and novel exons annotated on mammalian RefSeq genomes. Recent annotation changes include reporting supporting evidence for transcript records, modification of exon feature annotation and the addition of a structured report of gene and sequence attributes of biological interest. We also describe a revised protein annotation policy for alternatively spliced transcripts with more divergent predicted proteins and we summarize the current status of the RefSeqGene project.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genômica , Mamíferos/genética , Animais , Eucariotos/genética , Éxons , Genoma , Genômica/normas , Humanos , Internet , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , RNA/química , Padrões de Referência
16.
Mol Biol Cell ; 20(17): 3888-95, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19570917

RESUMO

Fos and Jun are components of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and play crucial roles in the regulation of many cellular, developmental, and physiological processes. Caenorhabditis elegans fos-1 has been shown to act in uterine and vulval development. Here, we provide evidence that C. elegans fos-1 and jun-1 control ovulation, a tightly regulated rhythmic program in animals. Knockdown of fos-1 or jun-1 blocks dilation of the distal spermathecal valve, a critical step for the entry of mature oocytes into the spermatheca for fertilization. Furthermore, fos-1 and jun-1 regulate the spermathecal-specific expression of plc-1, a gene that encodes a phospholipase C (PLC) isozyme that is rate-limiting for inositol triphosphate production and ovulation, and overexpression of PLC-1 rescues the ovulation defect in fos-1(RNAi) worms. Unlike fos-1, regulation of ovulation by jun-1 requires genetic interactions with eri-1 and lin-15B, which are involved in the RNA interference pathway and chromatin remodeling, respectively. At least two isoforms of jun-1 are coexpressed with fos-1b in the spermatheca, and different AP-1 dimers formed between these isoforms have distinct effects on the activation of a reporter gene. These findings uncover a novel role for FOS-1 and JUN-1 in the reproductive system and establish C. elegans as a model for studying AP-1 dimerization.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ovulação/fisiologia , Fosfoinositídeo Fosfolipase C/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Mutação , Fosfoinositídeo Fosfolipase C/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/química , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
17.
Methods ; 45(3): 185-91, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18586101

RESUMO

Protein interactions are essential components of signal transduction in cells. With the progress in genome-wide yeast two hybrid screens and proteomics analyses, many protein interaction networks have been generated. These analyses have identified hundreds and thousands of interactions in cells and organisms, creating a challenge for further validation under physiological conditions. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay is such an assay that meets this need. The BiFC assay is based on the principle of protein fragment complementation, in which two non-fluorescent fragments derived from a fluorescent protein are fused to a pair of interacting partners. When the two partners interact, the two non-fluorescent fragments are brought into proximity and an intact fluorescent protein is reconstituted. Hence, the reconstituted fluorescent signals reflect the interaction of two proteins under study. Over the past six years, the BiFC assay has been used for visualization of protein interactions in living cells and organisms, including our application of the BiFC assay to the transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have demonstrated that BiFC analysis in C. elegans provides a direct means to identify and validate protein interactions in living worms and allows visualization of temporal and spatial interactions. Here, we provide a guideline for the implementation of BiFC analysis in living worms and discuss the factors that are critical for BiFC analysis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/análise , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos da radiação , Transfecção , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
18.
Nat Protoc ; 3(4): 588-96, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18388940

RESUMO

The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay is a powerful tool for visualizing and identifying protein interactions in living cells. This assay is based on the principle of protein-fragment complementation, using two nonfluorescent fragments derived from fluorescent proteins. When two fragments are brought together in living cells by tethering each to one of a pair of interacting proteins, fluorescence is restored. Here, we provide a protocol for a Venus-based BiFC assay to visualize protein interactions in the living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. We discuss how to design appropriate C. elegans BiFC cloning vectors to enable visualization of protein interactions using either inducible heat shock promoters or native promoters; transform the constructs into worms by microinjection; and analyze and interpret the resulting data. When expression of BiFC fusion proteins is induced by heat shock, the fluorescent signals can be visualized as early as 30 min after induction and last for 24 h in transgenic animals. The entire procedure takes 2-3 weeks to complete.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Plasmídeos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica
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