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1.
Autism Res ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634588

RESUMO

GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and is essential to the balance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Reductions in GABA are proposed to result in an overly excitatory cortex that may cause, or contribute to, symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study employed a cross-sectional design to explore GABA+ differences in ASD and the impact of age, comparing 4-12 year olds with ASD (N = 24) to typically developing children (N = 35). GABA+ concentration was measured using edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the left parietal lobe. This study used a mixed model to investigate group differences between children with ASD and typically developing children. There was a significant difference in GABA+ levels between the groups, a significant effect of age and interaction between age and diagnostic group. The ASD group showed an association between GABA+ and age, with GABA+ levels gradually increasing with age (r = 0.59, p = 0.003). Typically developing children did not show age-related change in GABA+ concentration (r = 0.09, p = 0.60). By the age of 9, children with ASD showed GABA+ levels that were comparable to their typically developing peers. This study suggests that children with ASD have initially lower levels of GABA+ in the left parietal lobe compared to typically developing children, and that these initially lower levels of GABA+ increase with age in ASD within this region. It is suggested that this developmental shift of GABA+ levels within the left parietal lobe provides a possible explanation for the previously found reductions in childhood that does not persist in adults. LAY SUMMARY: This study measured levels of GABA in the left parietal lobe using magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with ASD and typically developing children. GABA levels were initially lower in the ASD group, and increased with age, while GABA did not change with age in the typically developing group. This suggests that alterations in GABA signaling may be associated with ASD in childhood.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23502, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culturally diverse populations (including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, people of diverse genders and sexualities, and culturally and linguistically diverse people) in nonurban areas face compounded barriers to accessing mental health care. Health information technologies (HITs) show promising potential to overcome these barriers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify how best to improve a mental health and well-being HIT for culturally diverse Australians in nonurban areas. METHODS: We conducted 10 co-design workshops (N=105 participants) in primary youth mental health services across predominantly nonurban areas of Australia and conducted template analysis on the workshop outputs. Owing to local (including service) demographics, the workshop participants naturalistically reflected culturally diverse groups. RESULTS: We identified 4 main themes: control, usability, affirmation, and health service delivery factors. The first 3 themes overlap with the 3 basic needs postulated by self-determination theory (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and describe participant recommendations on how to design an HIT. The final theme includes barriers to adopting HITs for mental health care and how HITs can be used to support care coordination and delivery. Hence, it describes participant recommendations on how to use an HIT. CONCLUSIONS: Although culturally diverse groups have specific concerns, their expressed needs fall broadly within the relatively universal design principles identified in this study. The findings of this study provide further support for applying self-determination theory to the design of HITs and reflect the tension in designing technologies for complex problems that overlap multiple medical, regulatory, and social domains, such as mental health care. Finally, we synthesize the identified themes into general recommendations for designing HITs for mental health and provide concrete examples of design features recommended by participants.

3.
Mol Autism ; 12(1): 11, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a strong research imperative to investigate effective treatment options for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Elevated social anxiety, difficulties with social functioning and poor mental health have all been identified as core treatment targets for this group. While theoretical models posit a strong bidirectionality between social anxiety and ASD social functioning deficits, few interventions have targeted both domains concurrently. Of the two group interventions previously conducted with adolescents and adults with ASD, significant results have only been observed in either social anxiety or social functioning, and have not generalised to changes in overall mood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit, tolerability and acceptability of a group cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention in young adults with ASD. Primary treatment outcomes were social anxiety symptoms and social functioning difficulties; secondary outcomes were self-reported mood and overall distress. METHOD: Ten groups of participants completed an eight-week, modified group CBT intervention targeting both social anxiety and social functioning, that included social skills training, exposure tasks and behavioural experiment components. Seventy-eight adolescents and young adults with ASD, without intellectual impairment, aged between 16 and 38 (M = 22.77; SD = 5.31), were recruited from the community, Headspace centres and the Autism Clinic for Translational Research at the Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney. Outcomes (social anxiety, social functioning and mood) were measured pre- and post-intervention via self-report questionnaires (administered either online or through the return of hard-copy booklets), and participants were invited to provide anonymous feedback on the intervention (at the mid-point and end of the intervention). RESULTS: Participants demonstrated statistically significant improvements on all outcome measures in response to the intervention. Specifically, social anxiety symptoms decreased (p < .001), and specific subdomains of social functioning improved post-intervention, particularly in social motivation (p = .032) and restricted interests and repetitive behaviours (p = .025). Self-reported symptom improvements also generalised to mood (depression, anxiety and stress; p < .05). All improvements demonstrated small effect sizes. Participant feedback was positive and indicated strong satisfaction with the program. LIMITATIONS: The absence of a control group and follow-up measures, reliance on self-report instruments as outcome measures and the exclusion of those with intellectual disability represent significant limitations to this study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that a group CBT intervention appears to be a beneficial intervention for self-reported social anxiety, social functioning and overall mental health in adolescents and young adults with ASD. The stand-alone nature of the intervention combined with positive participant feedback indicates it was well tolerated, has potential clinical utility and warrants further study in a randomised-controlled, follow-up design.

4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434563

RESUMO

The acute sickness response (ASR) is a stereotyped set of symptoms including fatigue, pain, and disturbed mood, which are present in most acute infections. The immunological mechanisms of the ASR are conserved, with variations in severity determined partly by the pathogen, but also by polymorphisms in host genes. The ASR was characterised in three different serologically-confirmed acute infections in Caucasians (n = 484) across four symptom domains or endophenotypes (termed 'Fatigue', 'Musculoskeletal pain', 'Mood disturbance', and 'Acute sickness'). Correlations were sought with functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NLRP3 inflammasone pathway and severity of the endophenotypes. Individuals with severe Fatigue, Musculoskeletal pain, or Mood endophenotypes were more likely to have prior episodes of significant fatigue (11.4 vs. 3.8%, p = 0.07), pain (14.3 vs. 1.2%, p = 0.001), or Mood disturbance (13 vs 1%, p=0.001), suggesting trait characteristics. The high functioning allele of the rs35829419 SNP in NLRP3 was more common in those with severe Fatigue (OR = 13.3, 95% CI: 1.7-104), particularly in a dominant inheritance pattern (OR = 13.4, 95% CI: 1.8-586.3). In a multivariable analysis assuming dominant inheritance, both rs35829419 and the rs4848306 SNP in Interleukin(IL)-1ß, were independently associated with severe Fatigue (OR = 29.6, 95% CI: 2.6-330.9 and OR = 13, 95% CI: 2.7-61.8, respectively). The severity of fatigue in acute infection is influenced by genetic polymorphisms in NLRP3 and IL-1ß.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and oxidative stress in older adults at risk for dementia. It also aimed to explore the influence of physical activity on the relationship between obesity and oxidative stress in this at risk cohort. METHODS: Older adults at risk for dementia underwent comprehensive medical, neuropsychological, and psychiatric assessment. At risk was defined as participants with subjective or mild cognitive impairment. Glutathione was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the left hippocampus and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and classified as healthy (BMI <25 kg/m2) or overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). RESULTS: Sixty-five older adults (mean age=66.2 y) were included for analysis. The overweight/obese group had significantly greater glutathione in the hippocampus compared with the healthy weight group (t=-2.76, P=0.008). No significant difference in glutathione was observed between groups in the anterior or posterior cingulate. In the overweight/obese group, a higher BMI was associated with a diabetes diagnosis and lower total time engaging in physical activity (r=-0.36, P=0.025), however, glutathione did not correlate with activity levels across groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that changes in in vivo markers of oxidative stress are present in overweight/obese older adults at risk for dementia. Future research should explore the relationship with diabetes and the longitudinal relationship between BMI and oxidative stress, and response to therapeutic interventions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Migrant status is one of the most replicated and robust risk factors for developing a psychotic disorder. This study aimed to determine whether migrant status in people identified as Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis (UHR) was associated with risk of transitioning to a full-threshold psychotic disorder. METHODS: Hazard ratios for the risk of transition were calculated from five large UHR cohorts (n = 2166) and were used to conduct a meta-analysis using the generic inverse-variance method using a random-effects model. RESULTS: 2166 UHR young people, with a mean age of 19.1 years (SD ± 4.5) were included, of whom 221 (10.7%) were first-generation migrants. A total of 357 young people transitioned to psychosis over a median follow-up time of 417 days (I.Q.R.147-756 days), representing 17.0% of the cohort. The risk of transition to a full-threshold disorder was not increased for first-generation migrants, (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.62-1.89); however, there was a high level of heterogeneity between studies The hazard ratio for second-generation migrants to transition to a full-threshold psychotic disorder compared to the remainder of the native-born population was 1.03 (95% CI 0.70-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis did not find a statistically significant association between migrant status and an increased risk for transition to a full-threshold psychotic disorder; however, several methodological issues could explain this finding. Further research should focus on examining the risk of specific migrant groups and also ensuring that migrant populations are adequately represented within UHR clinics.

7.
JMIR Aging ; 4(1): e21461, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the population is aging rapidly; therefore, there is a growing interest in strategies to support and maintain health and well-being in later life. Although familiarity with technology and digital literacy are increasing among this group, some older adults still lack confidence in their ability to use web-based technologies. In addition, age-related changes in cognition, vision, hearing, and perception may be barriers to adoption and highlight the need for digital tools developed specifically to meet the unique needs of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to understand the use of technology by older adults in general and identify the potential barriers to and facilitators of the adoption of health information technologies (HITs) to support the health and well-being of older adults to facilitate implementation and promote user uptake. In addition, this study aims to co-design and configure the InnoWell Platform, a digital tool designed to facilitate better outcomes for people seeking mental health services, to meet the needs of adults 50 years and older and their supportive others (eg, family members, caregivers) to ensure the accessibility, engagement, and appropriateness of the technology. METHODS: Participants were adults 50 years and older and those who self-identified as a supportive other (eg, family member, caregiver). Participants were invited to participate in a 3-hour participatory design workshop using a variety of methods, including prompted discussion, creation of descriptive artifacts, and group-based development of user journeys. RESULTS: Four participatory design workshops were conducted, including a total of 21 participants, each attending a single workshop. Technology use was prevalent, with a preference indicated for smartphones and computers. Factors facilitating the adoption of HITs included personalization of content and functionality to meet and be responsive to a consumer's needs, access to up-to-date information from reputable sources, and integration with standard care practices to support the relationship with health professionals. Concerns regarding data privacy and security were the primary barriers to the use of technology to support mental health and well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Although HITs have the potential to improve access to cost-effective and low-intensity interventions at scale for improving and maintaining mental health and well-being, several strategies may improve the uptake and efficacy of technologies by the older adult community, including the use of co-design methodologies to ensure usability, acceptability, and appropriateness of the technology; support in using and understanding the clinical applications of the technology by a digital navigator; and ready availability of education and training materials.

8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 68, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the widely acknowledged potential for health information technologies to improve the accessibility, quality and clinical safety of mental health care, implementation of such technologies in services is frequently unsuccessful due to varying consumer, health professional, and service-level factors. The objective of this co-design study was to use process mapping (i.e. service mapping) to illustrate the current consumer journey through primary mental health services, identify barriers to and facilitators of quality mental health care, and highlight potential points at which to integrate the technology-enabled solution to optimise the provision of care based on key service performance indicators. METHODS: Interactive, discussion-based workshops of up to six hours were conducted with representative stakeholders from each participating service, including health professionals, service managers and administrators from Open Arms - Veterans & Families Counselling Service (Sydney), a counselling service for veterans and their families, and five headspace centres in the North Coast Primary Health Network, primary youth mental health services. Service maps were drafted and refined in real time during the workshops. Through both group discussion and the use of post-it notes, participants worked together to evaluate performance indicators (e.g. safety) at each point in the consumer journey (e.g. intake) to indicate points of impact for the technology-enabled solution, reviewing and evaluating differing opinions in order to reach consensus. RESULTS: Participants (n=84 across participating services) created service maps illustrating the current consumer journey through the respective services and highlighting barriers to and facilitators of quality mental health care. By consensus, the technology-enabled solution as facilitated by the InnoWell Platform was noted to enable the early identification of risk, reduce or eliminate lengthy intake processes, enable routine outcome monitoring to revise treatment plans in relation to consumer response, and serve as a personal data record for consumers, driving person-centred, coordinated care. CONCLUSIONS: Service mapping was shown to be an effective methodology to understand the consumer's journey through a service and served to highlight how the co-designed technology-enabled solution can optimise service pathways to improve the accessibility, quality and clinical safety of care relative to key service performance indicators, facilitating the delivery of the right care.

9.
Sleep ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428761

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence demonstrates pronounced alterations in rest-activity functioning in older adults at-risk for dementia. White matter degeneration, poor cardiometabolic functioning and depression have also been linked to greater risk of decline, however limited studies have examined white matter in relation to rest-activity functioning in at-risk older adults. METHODS: We investigated associations between non-parametric actigraphy measures and white matter microarchitecture using whole-brain fixel-based analysis of diffusion weighted imaging in older adults (aged 50 years or older) at-risk for cognitive decline and dementia. The fixel-based metrics assessed were fibre density, fibre cross-section and combined fibre-density and cross-section. Interactions between rest-activity functioning and known clinical risk factors, specifically body mass index (BMI), vascular risk factors, depressive symptoms and self-reported exercise, and their association with white matter properties were then investigated. RESULTS: Sixty-seven older adults were included (mean=65.78 years, SD=7.89). Lower relative amplitude, poorer 24-hour synchronisation and earlier onset of the least active 5-hour period were associated with reductions in markers of white matter atrophy in widespread regions, including cortico-subcortical and cortical association pathways. Preliminary evidence was also found indicating more pronounced white matter alterations in those with lower amplitude and higher BMI (ß=0.25, 95%CI [0.05,0.46]), poorer 24-hour synchronisation and more vascular risk factors (ß=0.17, 95%CI [-0.02,0.36]) and earlier onset of inactivity and greater depressive symptoms (ß=0.17, 95%CI [0.03,0.30]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the complex interplay between rest-activity rhythms, white matter and clinical risk factors in individuals at-risk for dementia that should be considered in future studies.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e038787, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, the literature on personalised and measurement-based mental healthcare is inadequate with major gaps in the development and evaluation of 21st century service models. Clinical presentations of mental ill health in young people are heterogeneous, and clinical and functional outcomes are often suboptimal. Thus, treatments provided in a person-centred and responsive fashion are critical to meet the unique needs of young people and improve individual outcomes. Personalised care also requires concurrent assessment of factors relating to outcomes and underlying neurobiology. This study builds on a completed feasibility study and will be the first to incorporate clinical, cognitive, circadian, metabolic and hormonal profiling with personalised and measurement-based care in a cohort of young people admitted to hospital. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective, transdiagnostic, observational study will be offered to all young people between the ages of 16 and 30 years admitted to the inpatient unit of the participating centre. In total, 400 participants will be recruited. On admission to hospital, young people will undergo clinical and diagnostic assessment, cognitive testing, self-report questionnaires, metabolic and hormonal data collection, and anthropomorphic measurements. Participants will wear an actigraphy watch for at least 1 week during admission to measure circadian patterns and sleep-wake cycles. A feedback session between clinician and participant will occur after clinical and other laboratory assessments to tailor individual treatment plans, explain the ongoing process of measurement-based care, and provide participant and family education. Associations between cognitive impairments, disturbed sleep-wake behaviours, circadian rhythms, clinical symptoms and functional impairments will be evaluated to improve the understanding of parameters affecting clinical outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Sydney (HREC USYD 2015/867) and St Vincent's Hospital (HREC SVH 17/045). This study will be published on completion in a peer-reviewed journal.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 289-296, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment is recognised as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in adults. The current study aims to determine whether neurocognitive deficits also predict ongoing or emergent suicidal behaviour in young people with affective disorders. METHODS: Participants were aged 12-30 years and presented to early intervention youth mental health clinics between 2008 and 2018. In addition to clinical assessment a standardised neurocognitive assessment was conducted at baseline. Clinical data was extracted from subsequent visits using a standardised proforma. RESULTS: Of the 635 participants who met inclusion criteria (mean age 19.6 years, 59% female, average follow up 476 days) 104 (16%) reported suicidal behaviour during care. In 5 of the 10 neurocognitive domains tested (cognitive flexibility, processing speed, working memory, verbal memory and visuospatial memory) those with suicidal behaviour during care were superior to clinical controls. Better general neurocognitive function remained a significant predictor (OR=1.94, 95% CI 1.29- 2.94) of suicidal behaviour in care after controlling for other risk factors. LIMITATIONS: The neurocognitive battery used was designed for use with affective and psychotic disorders and may not have detected some deficits more specific to suicidal behaviour. CONCLUSION: Contrary to expectations, better neurocognitive functioning predicts suicidal behaviour during care in young people with affective disorders. While other populations with suicidal behaviour, such as adults with affective disorders or young people with psychotic disorders, tend to experience neurocognitive deficits which may limit their capacity to engage in some interventions, this does not appear to be the case for young people with affective disorders.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 431-437, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disturbed sleep and irregular sleep-wake patterns have been associated with poor outcomes in older adults. Sleep regularity however has not been studied in a sample with current or remitted major depression. METHODS: 138 participants (63.8±8.6 years; n=27 current major depression, n=64 remitted, and n=47 healthy controls) were monitored using wrist-worn actigraphy. The Sleep Regularity Index (SRI), sleep-wake fragmentation and stability, sleep onset and offset timing, number of awakenings and measures from cosinor analysis were computed. RESULTS: Compared with controls, older adults with current depression had lower SRI (p < 0.01), lower relative amplitude (p < 0.05), and higher activity during sleeping and post-midnight hours (p < 0.05). Older adults with remitted depression displayed lower activity during the day (p < 0.05), showed reduced average activity and lower amplitude than controls. Total sleep time, sleep timing, and number of awakenings did not differ between groups. All groups differed significantly in self-reported sleep quality and depression severity. LIMITATIONS: Longitudinal studies which examine how sleep-wake patterns change based on depressive episode recency, severity and how medications may influence these patterns are needed. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with current or remitted major depression do not differ from controls on traditional sleep metrics but do report poor quality sleep and show differences in sleep regularity and rest-activity patterns. Reducing the risk of poor outcomes in both groups may be aided by interventions that help promote sleep regularity and increased activity.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 425, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293520

RESUMO

It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from family and twin studies suggests that mood and anxiety disorders, and related temperamental factors may share common etiologic factors. We examine the familial aggregation and coaggregation of anxiety disorder subtypes and anxiety-related temperamental traits, and their association with mood disorders. METHODS: A total of 477 probands and 549 first-degree adult relatives from a large community based family study of affective spectrum disorders completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews and self-reported assessments of temperamental traits including: negative affectivity on the 'Positive and Negative Affect Schedule' (PANAS), neuroticism anxiety on the 'Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire' (ZKPQ), and anxiety sensitivity on the 'Anxiety Sensitivity Index' (ASI). RESULTS: The anxiety-related temperamental traits of negative affectivity, neuroticism anxiety and anxiety sensitivity had significant familial specificity, even after controlling for comorbid mood and anxiety disorders in probands and relatives. Yet, these traits in probands did not predict anxiety disorders in relatives. Although some anxiety subtypes were familial, there were no longer familial links between anxiety disorder subtypes (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety or panic disorder) after controlling for mood disorder subtypes in probands and relatives. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional interviews were used to estimate disorders, and self-report measures were used for temperamental traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous research regarding familial overlap between anxiety subtypes and mood disorders, however their shared liability cannot be fully explained by anxiety-related temperamental traits. These findings suggest that anxiety-related temperamental traits may indicate a vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders or a potential consequence of these conditions.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A priority for health services is to reduce self-harm in young people. Predicting self-harm is challenging due to their rarity and complexity, however this does not preclude the utility of prediction models to improve decision-making regarding a service response in terms of more detailed assessments and/or intervention. The aim of this study was to predict self-harm within six-months after initial presentation. METHOD: The study included 1962 young people (12-30 years) presenting to youth mental health services in Australia. Six machine learning algorithms were trained and tested with ten repeats of ten-fold cross-validation. The net benefit of these models were evaluated using decision curve analysis. RESULTS: Out of 1962 young people, 320 (16%) engaged in self-harm in the six months after first assessment and 1642 (84%) did not. The top 25% of young people as ranked by mean predicted probability accounted for 51.6% - 56.2% of all who engaged in self-harm. By the top 50%, this increased to 82.1%-84.4%. Models demonstrated fair overall prediction (AUROCs; 0.744-0.755) and calibration which indicates that predicted probabilities were close to the true probabilities (brier scores; 0.185-0.196). The net benefit of these models were positive and superior to the 'treat everyone' strategy. The strongest predictors were (in ranked order); a history of self-harm, age, social and occupational functioning, sex, bipolar disorder, psychosis-like experiences, treatment with antipsychotics, and a history of suicide ideation. CONCLUSION: Prediction models for self-harm may have utility to identify a large sub population who would benefit from further assessment and targeted (low intensity) interventions. Such models could enhance health service approaches to identify and reduce self-harm, a considerable source of distress, morbidity, ongoing health care utilisation and mortality.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Curva ROC , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
16.
Autism Res ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225622

RESUMO

Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is considered a common marker of autonomic dysfunction that contributes to poor health outcomes. While some studies have suggested that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show reduced HRV, research is yet to consider whether this may be associated with medication use and symptom severity. This study examined the relationship between resting state HRV, medication use and symptom severity in children diagnosed with ASD. Children with ASD (N = 86), aged between 3 and 12 years (M = 8.09), were compared to 44 neurotypical children of similar age (M = 7.15). Laboratory assessment of HRV involved 5 min of non-invasive baseline electrocardiogram assessments while participants viewed an age-appropriate non-verbal animated video. Time-domain and frequency-domain HRV measures were analyzed. ASD symptom severity was assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2). Results indicated that children with ASD exhibited reduced resting HRV relative to neurotypical children. Subsequent analyses within the ASD group suggested that this group difference was greater in children who were taking psychotropic medication (N = 36). Our data also provides tentative evidence of a relationship between HRV and social impairment symptoms in children with ASD, with more severe repetitive behaviors (as measured by the ADOS-2) associated with decreased resting HRV. Overall, these findings suggest that HRV may be atypical in children with ASD and suggest the importance of exploring HRV as a risk factor for cardiovascular health in this group. LAY SUMMARY: Cardiac activity, such as heart rate variability (HRV), can provide insight into the autonomic nervous system. This study reports on the association between resting-state HRV and autonomic nervous system activity in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical children. These results may help us understand what underlies autonomic nervous system dysfunction and the potential pathophysiological mechanisms leading to increased cardiovascular risk in ASD.

17.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; : 111218, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162289

RESUMO

The present study investigated differences in white matter (WM) integrity between 96 young people with affective and/or psychotic symptoms classified at an early stage of mental disorder (i.e. 'attenuated syndrome'; stage 1b), 85 young people classified at a more advanced stage of mental disorder (i.e. 'discrete disorder'; stage 2), and 81 demographically matched healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. The relationship between WM integrity (indexed by fractional anisotropy; FA) across the tracts and neuropsychological functioning was also investigated. A significant reduction in FA was identified in those with more advanced disorder in the body of the corpus callosum. Clinical stage groups were associated with significant neuropsychological impairment, which was significantly greater in those with discrete disorders. Compared to those in the earlier stage of disorder, participants at the later clinical stage showed decreased FA in the body of the corpus callosum that was associated with worse performance in attentional set formation maintenance, shifting and flexibility. These results provide further support for clinical staging of mental disorder and highlight the potential for utilising neuroanatomical biomarkers to support the classification of stages of mental disorder in the future.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 280(Pt A): 180-188, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Young people with mental disorders present with diverse social, vocational, physical, and developmental needs. However, multifaceted interventions are rare. We examine the effectiveness of a clinical trial targeting social participation and physical well-being in young people accessing clinical services. METHODS: The 'Youth Early-intervention Study' ('YES') was an unblinded, two-phase, pilot randomized controlled trial offered as an adjunct to standard clinical care, consisting of group activities. Mixed effects models were used to examine functional outcomes over time measured by the 'Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale', 'Functioning Assessment Short Test', and 'Brief Disability Questionnaire' (items 7 and 8). RESULTS: 133 participants aged 14-25 were recruited. 87 participants completed both arms and 83 participants completed a 12-month post-trial assessment. Functioning improved across all outcomes. While diagnoses differed in functioning at baseline (lower functioning in psychotic and bipolar disorders compared to depression), they did not differ in the rate of improvement across any measure. Randomization groups did not differ in baseline functioning or the rate of improvement, suggesting a non-specific impact of the intervention. Engagement with education increased from 11% at baseline to 51% at 12-months post-trial and full-time employment increased from 8% at baseline to 20% at 12-months post-trial. LIMITATIONS: Small sample, no control group, and unmeasured potential moderators (e.g. neurocognitive impairment). CONCLUSIONS: 'YES' was effective and preliminary positive outcomes were observed across all functional outcomes. Future studies should compare the 'YES' intervention to a treatment-as-usual control condition and conduct a multi-centre trial across early intervention service sites.

19.
JMIR Ment Health ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206051

RESUMO

UNSTRUCTURED: Mental health service demand is projected to rapidly increase as a direct and indirect result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that young people are disproportionately disadvantaged by mental illness and will face further challenges from COVID-19, it is crucial that the appropriate mental health care be delivered to them as early as possible. Integrating digital health solutions into mental health service delivery pathways has the potential to greatly increase efficiencies, allowing for the provision of 'right care, first time'. We propose an innovative digital health solution for demand management intended for use by primary youth mental health services, comprised of: 1) a youth mental health model of care (i.e. BMC Youth Model); and 2) a health information technology specifically designed to deliver this model of care (e.g. the InnoWell Platform), as well as an operational protocol of how this solution could be applied to primary youth mental health service delivery processes. By 'flipping' conventional service delivery models of majority in-clinic and minority online-delivered care to a model where online-delivered care is the default, this digital health solution offers a scalable way of delivering quality youth mental health care, both in response to public health crises (such as COVID-19) and ongoingly into the future.

20.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(11): e18759, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health information technologies (HITs) are becoming increasingly recognized for their potential to provide innovative solutions to improve the delivery of mental health services and drive system reforms for better outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the baseline results of a study designed to systematically monitor and evaluate the impact of implementing an HIT, namely the InnoWell Platform, into Australian mental health services to facilitate the iterative refinement of the HIT and the service model in which it is embedded to meet the needs of consumers and their supportive others as well as health professionals and service providers. METHODS: Data were collected via web-based surveys, semistructured interviews, and a workshop with staff from the mental health services implementing the InnoWell Platform to systematically monitor and evaluate its impact. Descriptive statistics, Fisher exact tests, and a reliability analysis were used to characterize the findings from the web-based surveys, including variability in the results between the services. Semistructured interviews were coded using a thematic analysis, and workshop data were coded using a basic content analysis. RESULTS: Baseline data were collected from the staff of 3 primary youth mental health services (n=18), a counseling service for veterans and their families (n=23), and a helpline for consumers affected by eating disorders and negative body image issues (n=6). As reported via web-based surveys, staff members across the services consistently agreed or strongly agreed that there was benefit associated with using technology as part of their work (38/47, 81%) and that the InnoWell Platform had the potential to improve outcomes for consumers (27/45, 60%); however, there was less certainty as to whether their consumers' capability to use technology aligned with how the InnoWell Platform would be used as part of their mental health care (11/45, 24% of the participants strongly disagreed or disagreed; 15/45, 33% were neutral; and 19/45, 42% strongly agreed or agreed). During the semistructured interviews (n=3) and workshop, participants consistently indicated that the InnoWell Platform was appropriate for their respective services; however, they questioned whether the services' respective consumers had the digital literacy required to use the technology. Additional potential barriers to implementation included health professionals' digital literacy and service readiness for change. CONCLUSIONS: Despite agreement among participants that HITs have the potential to result in improved outcomes for consumers and services, service readiness for change (eg, existing technology infrastructure and the digital literacy of staff and consumers) was noted to potentially impact the success of implementation, with less than half (20/45, 44%) of the participants indicating that their service was ready to implement new technologies to enhance mental health care. Furthermore, participants reported mixed opinions as to whether it was their responsibility to recommend technology as part of standard care.

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