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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444093

RESUMO

Respiratory diseases contribute to high healthcare utilization rates among children. Although social inequalities play a major role in these conditions, little is known about the impact of geography as a determinant of health, particularly with regard to the difference between rural and urban centers. A regional geographic analysis was conducted using health repository data on singleton births between 2005 and 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Data were aggregated according to regional health sub-zones in the province and standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) were determined for eight respiratory diseases (asthma, influenza, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, croup, pneumonia, and other upper and other lower respiratory tract infections). The results indicate that there are higher rates of healthcare utilization in northern compared to southern regions and in rural and remote regions compared to urban ones, after accounting for both material and social deprivation. Geography plays a role in discrepancies of healthcare utilization for pediatric respiratory diseases, and this can be used to inform the provision of health services and resource allocation across various regions.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alberta/epidemiologia , Criança , Geografia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444546

RESUMO

Wildfires are increasing in frequency, size, and intensity, and increasingly affect highly populated areas. Wildfire smoke impacts cardiorespiratory health; children are at increased risk due to smaller airways, a higher metabolic rate and ongoing development. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the risk of pediatric respiratory symptoms and healthcare visits following exposure to wildfire smoke. Medical and scientific databases and the grey literature were searched from inception until December 2020. Included studies evaluated pediatric respiratory-related healthcare visits or symptoms associated with wildfire smoke exposure. Prescribed burns, non-respiratory symptoms and non-pediatric studies were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool. Data are presented narratively due to study heterogeneity. Of 2138 results, 1167 titles and abstracts were screened after duplicate removal; 65 full text screens identified 5 pre-post and 11 cross-sectional studies of rural, urban and mixed sites from the USA, Australia, Canada and Spain. There is a significant increase in respiratory emergency department visits and asthma hospitalizations within the first 3 days of exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly in children < 5 years old.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
4.
Clin Transplant ; 35(10): e14404, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176163

RESUMO

The perioperative transfusion of blood products has long been linked to development of acute lung injury and associated with mortality across both medical and surgical patient populations.1,2 The need for blood product transfusion during and after lung transplantation is common and, in many instances, unavoidable. However, this practice may potentially be modifiable.3 In this systematic review, we explore and summarize what is known regarding the impact of blood product transfusion on outcomes following lung transplantation, highlighting the most recent work in this area. Overall, the majority of the literature consists of single center retrospective analyses or the work of multicenter working groups referencing the same database. In the end, there are a number of remaining questions regarding blood product transfusion and their downstream effects on graft function and survival.

5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789861

RESUMO

Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder. The severe neonatal-onset form is characterised by hyperammonaemia in the first days of life and manifests with a variety of severe symptoms. However, an index of suspicion for additional or alternative diagnoses must be maintained when the patient's presentation is out of keeping with expected manifestations and course. We present a case of a neonate with ASL deficiency and concomitant hypotonia, severe respiratory distress, pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension and congenital hypothyroidism. The patient was investigated and subsequently diagnosed with brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, caused by a mutation in the NKX2-1 gene.


Assuntos
Acidúria Argininossuccínica , Coreia , Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Acidúria Argininossuccínica/diagnóstico , Acidúria Argininossuccínica/genética , Atetose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adverse birth outcomes have important consequences for future lung health. We evaluated patterns of respiratory health services utilization in early childhood among children born preterm (PTB), small and large for gestational age at term (SGA and LGA, respectively), and appropriate-for-gestational age at term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using administrative health data of all singleton live births in Alberta, Canada between 2005-2010. Data on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits from birth to 5 years were collected for asthma, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, croup, influenza, pneumonia, and other acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections (other URTI and other LRTI, respectively). Adjusted rate ratios were estimated for respiratory ED visits and hospitalizations for adverse birth outcomes using the appropriate-for-gestational age at term group as reference. Age-specific trajectories of total respiratory health services utilization rates for each group were estimated in Poisson models. RESULTS: A total of 293,764 episodes of respiratory care from 206,994 children were analyzed. Very PTB children had the highest rates of health services use for all respiratory conditions, particularly for asthma, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis hospitalizations. Moderate/late PTB children also had elevated ED visits and hospitalizations for all respiratory conditions. Children born SGA showed high rates of ED visits for other LRTI, and of hospitalizations for bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and other URTI. Children born LGA had high rates of croup and other URTI ED visits, and of bronchiolitis and bronchiolitis hospitalizations. Age-specific trajectories showed a decreasing trend in the rates of total respiratory health service utilization from birth to five years of age for all groups studied. Children born PTB and LGA at term significantly required more respiratory health services over time compared to the reference group. CONCLUSION: Patterns of paediatric respiratory health services utilization vary according to gestational age and fetal growth.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 12(1): 50-57, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937387

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease with complex etiology. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to asthma in adulthood. Underlying potential mechanisms for the ACE-asthma relationship include stress-induced inflammatory pathways and immune dysregulation. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the 2013 Alberta ACE Survey to explore the relationship between latent ACE factors and self-reported adult asthma. We evaluated the underlying correlation structure among eight different ACEs using exploratory factor analysis. We conducted a logistic regression model to evaluate whether ACE factors retained from the factor analysis predicted self-reported asthma in adulthood. Results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We analyzed ACE survey results from 1207 participants. Factor analysis yielded four ACE latent factors: factor 1/relational violence, factor 2/negative home environment, factor 3/illness at home, and factor 4/sexual abuse. Results of the logistic regression showed that experiencing sexual abuse (OR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.89, 5.23), relational violence (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.38), and being exposed to a negative home environment (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.35) were predictive of a diagnosis of asthma in adulthood, whereas living in a household with someone experiencing illness did not show an effect (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.75, 2.56). Factor analysis provides an effectual approach to understand the long-term impact of ACEs on respiratory health. Our findings have important implications to understand the developmental origins of asthma in adulthood and inform interventions aimed at reducing the lasting negative impact of childhood adversities on future respiratory health.

9.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 165(1): 197-205, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is limited epidemiological information on swallowing dysfunction (SwD) in otherwise healthy infants and toddlers (OHITs). Cost, invasiveness, expertise, and resources constrain the repeatability and utility of instrumental diagnostic tests. A parent-reported outcomes (PRO) tool has the potential to mitigate these disadvantages. Hence, we set out to develop and validate a novel PRO tool to assess SwD in OHITs. STUDY DESIGN: A mixed-method study. SETTING: Tertiary pediatric center. METHODS: We recruited parents of OHITs with SwD and excluded those with a confounding diagnosis (syndromes or neurological impairment). Interviews were conducted and thematically analyzed to extract the relevant domains and items. A similar analytical method was performed on the reports from a systematic review and literature search. Four verification sessions of parents and experts were conducted to maintain rigor. A panel of experts assessed and established the content validity of the items using a modified Delphi technique. RESULTS: We achieved information saturation after interviewing 10 parents and generated 7 domains with 72 items. Over the course of 3 rounds of modified Delphi content validation, the domains were reduced to 3 (swallowing, breathing, and illness) containing 21 items; a content validity index of 82.1% was achieved. CONCLUSION: We validated the content of a new PRO instrument to assess SwD in OHITs. The instrument is composed of 3 primary domains representing 21 items. This tool has the potential to screen for swallowing dysfunction and can assess management outcomes specifically for this population at a community level.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Pais/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Avaliação de Sintomas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276583

RESUMO

Young children are susceptible to respiratory diseases. Inequalities exist across socioeconomic groups for paediatric respiratory health services utilization in Alberta. However, the geographic distribution of those inequalities has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to identify geographic inequalities in respiratory health services utilization in early childhood in Calgary and Edmonton, two major urban centres in Western Canada. We conducted a geographic analysis of data from a retrospective cohort of all singleton live births occurred between 2005 and 2010. We aggregated at area-level the total number of episodes of respiratory care (hospitalizations and emergency department visits) that occurred during the first five years of life for bronchiolitis, pneumonia, lower/upper respiratory tract infections, influenza, and asthma-wheezing. We used spatial filters to identify geographic inequalities in the prevalence of acute paediatric respiratory health services utilization in Calgary and Edmonton. The average health gap between areas with the highest and the lowest prevalence of respiratory health services utilization was 1.5-fold in Calgary and 1.4-fold in Edmonton. Geographic inequalities were not completely explained by the spatial distribution of socioeconomic status, suggesting that other unmeasured factors at the neighbourhood level may explain local variability in the use of acute respiratory health services in early childhood.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Unidades de Cuidados Respiratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Alberta/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Clin Case Rep ; 8(9): 1698-1703, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983480

RESUMO

Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia (UPVA) is a rare congenital vascular malformation with obliteration of the pulmonary vein. We present a case series of three siblings with variable presentation of UPVA. We suggest a dominant genetic cause based on different paternity. Identifying genetic etiology would contribute to early diagnosis and screening.

12.
Attach Hum Dev ; : 1-22, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799752

RESUMO

The Circle of Security Intensive intervention (COS-I) aims to improve child attachment security and reduce disorganisation by improving caregiver capacities, including caregiving behavior and representations. Research on COS-I effectiveness with these goals is limited and none examines if positive changes are sustained. A recently revised hybrid COS-I protocol (COS-I-RH) incorporates Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) material and individual or group delivery options. We examined (1) post intervention and follow-up changes in caregiving behavior and representations after COS-I-RH and (2) if individual or group delivery moderated changes. New Zealand parent-child dyads with relationship concerns (n=36; child age M =35 months) referred to a community-based program completed COS-I-RH. Four caregiver capacities (supportive and unsupportive parenting (CTNES), parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction (PSOC)) were measured pre- and post-treatment, and one year later. Regardless of delivery mode, after COS-I-RH, parents showed large improvements on all 4 indices of caregiving behavior and representations, maintained at one-year follow-up.

14.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 34(2): 150-160, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socio-economically deprived children face a disproportionate burden of respiratory diseases. The association between area-level material and social deprivation and emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations for paediatric respiratory diseases has not been explored. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated health inequalities in emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations for paediatric respiratory diseases according to material and social deprivation indexes. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study deterministically linked birth, ED visits and hospitalisation data, and census-based, area-level deprivation indexes for all singleton children born in the province of Alberta, Canada, between 2005 and 2010 who had at least one recorded ED visit or hospitalisation for respiratory diseases in their first five years of life. We classified ED visits and hospitalisations for seven respiratory diseases by deprivation indexes. Concentration indexes (CInd) and area-level concentration curves measured health gradients across deprivation groups. Rate ratios (RR) evaluated associations between deprivation indexes and respiratory episodes of care. RESULTS: The study cohort included 198 572 newborns. The highest CInd were found in ED visits for other acute lower respiratory tract infections (oLRTI; CInd -0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.32, -0.12) and bronchiolitis (CInd -0.21, 95% CI -0.29, -0.12), and for pneumonia hospitalisations (CInd -0.23, 95% CI -0.33, -0.13). Croup ED visits had a low inequality degree. Compared to social deprivation, the material deprivation index presented a more consistent health gradient of increased episodes of care with increasing deprivation. oLRTI ED visits (RR 2.60, 95% CI 2.34, 2.92) and pneumonia hospitalisations (RR 2.57, 95% CI 2.31, 2.86) presented the largest inequalities between the least and most materially deprived groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found a concentration of ED visits and hospitalisations for paediatric respiratory diseases in the most deprived groups. However, health inequalities are present across the material and social deprivation spectrum. Compared to the social deprivation index, the material index presented clearer paediatric respiratory health gradients.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Alberta/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/terapia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 87: 161-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26724505

RESUMO

A systematic review and meta-analysis of naturalistic driving studies involving estimates of safety-critical event risk associated with handheld device use while driving is described. Fifty-seven studies identified from targeted databases, journals and websites were reviewed in depth, and six were ultimately included. These six studies, published between 2006 and 2014, encompass seven sets of naturalistic driver data and describe original research that utilized naturalistic methods to assess the effects of distracting behaviors. Four studies involved non-commercial drivers of light vehicles and two studies involved commercial drivers of trucks and buses. Odds ratios quantifying safety-critical event (SCE) risk associated with talking, dialing, locating or answering, and texting or browsing were extracted. Stratified meta-analysis of pooled odds ratios was used to estimate SCE risk by distraction type; meta-regression was used to test for sources of heterogeneity. The results indicate that tasks that require drivers to take their eyes off the road, such as dialing, locating a phone and texting, increase SCE risk to a greater extent than tasks that do not require eyes off the road such as talking. Although talking on a handheld device did not increase SCE risk, further research is required to determine whether it indirectly influences SCE risk (e.g., by encouraging other cell phone activities). In addition, a number of study biases and quality issues of naturalistic driving studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Telefone Celular , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança , Humanos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
16.
J Leukoc Biol ; 77(1): 59-66, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15466915

RESUMO

Selectins and their ligands support leukocyte rolling, facilitating the subsequent firm adhesion and migration that occur during inflammation. TBC-1269 (Bimosiamose), a structural mimetic of natural selectin ligands, inhibits P-, E-, and L-selectin in vitro, has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and recently underwent phase II clinical trials for childhood asthma and psoriasis. We studied whether the anti-inflammatory effects of TBC-1269 could be related to leukocyte rolling in vivo. Although TBC-1269 inhibited rolling of a murine leukocyte cell line on murine P-selectin in vitro and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis in vivo, it did not alter leukocyte rolling in mouse cremaster venules. TBC-1269 reduced neutrophil recruitment in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis in wild-type and P-selectin-/- mice but not in E-selectin-/- mice. We suggest that the in vivo effects of TBC-1269 may be mediated through E-selectin but do not appear to involve leukocyte rolling.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Selectina E/fisiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Manosídeos/uso terapêutico , Mimetismo Molecular , Selectina-P/fisiologia , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Selectina E/genética , Selectina E/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Manose/análogos & derivados , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Selectina-P/genética , Selectina-P/imunologia , Peptoides/química , Peptoides/farmacologia , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Peritonite/patologia , Tioglicolatos/toxicidade , Vênulas/citologia
17.
FASEB J ; 18(1): 152-4, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14597557

RESUMO

Selectins mediate leukocyte rolling and may represent good anti-inflammatory drug targets. Detailed knowledge regarding the structure of selectin ligands has permitted development of selectin antagonists with varying specificities and activity. Efficacy of monovalent selectin antagonists may be increased by presenting them on a polymer backbone. We have synthesized a range of multivalent selectin antagonists and characterized their activity by using intravital microscopy of the mouse cremaster muscle. The monovalent inhibitor CGP77175A inhibited E-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling at a dose of 3 mg/kg. Multivalent presentation of CGP77175A on a modified polylysine backbone (degree of polymerization = 1200; 50% of the polylysines carry the inhibitor) greatly enhanced in vivo activity giving an inhibitor that produced an equivalent effect at 0.1 mg/kg. The polylysine conjugate was also longer acting than the monovalent antagonist. In spite of greatly enhanced activity against E-selectin compared with monovalent inhibitor, the multivalent inhibitor had no measurable effect on P- or L-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling.


Assuntos
Selectina E/metabolismo , Migração e Rolagem de Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Animais , Cinética , Camundongos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Polilisina/química , Polilisina/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Antígeno Sialil Lewis X
18.
Blood ; 101(8): 3249-56, 2003 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12480716

RESUMO

Selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling is one of the earliest steps of an acute inflammatory response and, as such, contributes to many inflammatory diseases. Although inhibiting leukocyte rolling with selectin antagonists is a strategy that promises far-reaching clinical benefit, the perceived value of this strategy has been limited by studies using inactive, weak, or poorly characterized antagonists. Recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1-immunoglobulin (rPSGL-Ig) is a recombinant form of the best-characterized selectin ligand (PSGL-1) fused to IgG, and is one of the best prospects in the search for effective selectin antagonists. We have used intravital microscopy to investigate the ability of rPSGL-Ig to influence leukocyte rolling in living blood vessels and find that it can reduce rolling dependent on each of the selectins in vivo. Interestingly, doses of rPSGL-Ig required to reverse pre-existing leukocyte rolling are 30-fold higher than those required to limit inflammation, suggesting additional properties of this molecule. In support of this, we find that rPSGL-Ig can bind the murine chemokine KC and inhibit neutrophil migration toward this chemoattractant in vitro.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Quimiocinas CXC , Quimiocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores Quimiotáticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Selectina E/fisiologia , Selectina L/fisiologia , Migração e Rolagem de Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/farmacologia , Selectina-P/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Quimiocina CXCL1 , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Selectina E/genética , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Peritonite/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Tioglicolatos/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
19.
FASEB J ; 16(11): 1461-2, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12205048

RESUMO

Leukocytic inflammation can be limited by inhibiting selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. In spite of intensive efforts to develop small molecule selectin inhibitors with defined structure-activity profiles, inhibition of P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling in vivo by such a compound has yet to be described. We recently reported that glycosulfopeptides (GSP), modeled on the high affinity selectin ligand PSGL-1, inhibit leukocyte binding to P-selectin in vitro. Here, we have used intravital microscopy to investigate whether GSP can inhibit P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling in vivo. Surgical preparation of the mouse cremaster muscle for intravital microscopy induced P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. Baseline rolling was recorded for 1 min followed by i.v. injection of GSP. 2-GSP-6 and 4-GSP-6 substantially reversed P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling, whereas control GSP, which are not fully glycosylated, did not. Inhibition of leukocyte rolling by 2- and 4-GSP-6 lasted 2-4 min. Clearance studies with 125I-labeled 4-GSP-6 demonstrated rapid reduction in its circulating levels concurrent with accumulation in urine. These data represent the first demonstration that a precisely defined structure based on a natural P-selectin ligand can inhibit P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling in vivo.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Selectina-P/fisiologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Cinética , Leucócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Enxofre
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