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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805415

RESUMO

Multi-gene assays often include UGT1A1 and, in certain instances, may report associated toxicity risks for irinotecan, belinostat, pazopanib, and nilotinib. However, guidance for incorporating UGT1A1 results into therapeutic decision-making is mostly lacking for these anticancer drugs. We summarized meta-analyses, genome-wide association studies, clinical trials, drug labels, and guidelines relating to the impact of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on irinotecan, belinostat, pazopanib, or nilotinib toxicities. For irinotecan, UGT1A1*28 was significantly associated with neutropenia and diarrhea, particularly with doses ≥ 180 mg/m2, supporting the use of UGT1A1 to guide irinotecan prescribing. The drug label for belinostat recommends a reduced starting dose of 750 mg/m2 for UGT1A1*28 homozygotes, though published studies supporting this recommendation are sparse. There was a correlation between UGT1A1 polymorphisms and pazopanib-induced hepatotoxicity, though further studies are needed to elucidate the role of UGT1A1-guided pazopanib dose adjustments. Limited studies have investigated the association between UGT1A1 polymorphisms and nilotinib-induced hepatotoxicity, with data currently insufficient for UGT1A1-guided nilotinib dose adjustments.

3.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428770

RESUMO

The value of utilizing a multigene pharmacogenetic panel to tailor pharmacotherapy is contingent on the prevalence of prescribed medications with an actionable pharmacogenetic association. The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) has categorized over 35 gene-drug pairs as "level A," for which there is sufficiently strong evidence to recommend that genetic information be used to guide drug prescribing. The opportunity to use genetic information to tailor pharmacotherapy among adult patients was determined by elucidating the exposure to CPIC level A drugs among 11 Implementing Genomics In Practice Network (IGNITE)-affiliated health systems across the US. Inpatient and/or outpatient electronic-prescribing data were collected between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016 for patients ≥ 18 years of age who had at least one medical encounter that was eligible for drug prescribing in a calendar year. A median of ~ 7.2 million adult patients was available for assessment of drug prescribing per year. From 2011 to 2016, the annual estimated prevalence of exposure to at least one CPIC level A drug prescribed to unique patients ranged between 15,719 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15,658-15,781) in 2011 to 17,335 (CI: 17,283-17,386) in 2016 per 100,000 patients. The estimated annual exposure to at least 2 drugs was above 7,200 per 100,000 patients in most years of the study, reaching an apex of 7,660 (CI: 7,632-7,687) per 100,000 patients in 2014. An estimated 4,748 per 100,000 prescribing events were potentially eligible for a genotype-guided intervention. Results from this study show that a significant portion of adults treated at medical institutions across the United States is exposed to medications for which genetic information, if available, should be used to guide prescribing.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029411, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315113

RESUMO

Importance: Genotype-guided prescribing in pediatrics could prevent adverse drug reactions and improve therapeutic response. Clinical pharmacogenetic implementation guidelines are available for many medications commonly prescribed to children. Frequencies of medication prescription and actionable genotypes (genotypes where a prescribing change may be indicated) inform the potential value of pharmacogenetic implementation. Objective: To assess potential opportunities for genotype-guided prescribing in pediatric populations among multiple health systems by examining the prevalence of prescriptions for each drug with the highest level of evidence (Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium level A) and estimating the prevalence of potential actionable prescribing decisions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study of prescribing prevalences in 16 health systems included electronic health records data from pediatric inpatient and outpatient encounters from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. The health systems included academic medical centers with free-standing children's hospitals and community hospitals that were part of an adult health care system. Participants included approximately 2.9 million patients younger than 21 years observed per year. Data were analyzed from June 5, 2018, to April 14, 2020. Exposures: Prescription of 38 level A medications based on electronic health records. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual prevalence of level A medication prescribing and estimated actionable exposures, calculated by combining estimated site-year prevalences across sites with each site weighted equally. Results: Data from approximately 2.9 million pediatric patients (median age, 8 [interquartile range, 2-16] years; 50.7% female, 62.3% White) were analyzed for a typical calendar year. The annual prescribing prevalence of at least 1 level A drug ranged from 7987 to 10 629 per 100 000 patients with increasing trends from 2011 to 2014. The most prescribed level A drug was the antiemetic ondansetron (annual prevalence of exposure, 8107 [95% CI, 8077-8137] per 100 000 children). Among commonly prescribed opioids, annual prevalence per 100 000 patients was 295 (95% CI, 273-317) for tramadol, 571 (95% CI, 557-586) for codeine, and 2116 (95% CI, 2097-2135) for oxycodone. The antidepressants citalopram, escitalopram, and amitriptyline were also commonly prescribed (annual prevalence, approximately 250 per 100 000 patients for each). Estimated prevalences of actionable exposures were highest for oxycodone and ondansetron (>300 per 100 000 patients annually). CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 substrates were more frequently prescribed than medications influenced by other genes. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that opportunities for pharmacogenetic implementation among pediatric patients in the US are abundant. As expected, the greatest opportunity exists with implementing CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic guidance for commonly prescribed antiemetics, analgesics, and antidepressants.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Perfil Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/classificação , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
5.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 13: 217-226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765043

RESUMO

Introduction: Clinical adoption of genomic medicine has lagged behind the pace of scientific discovery. Practice-based resources can help overcome implementation challenges. Methods: In 2015, the IGNITE (Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE) Network created an online genomic medicine implementation resource toolbox that was expanded in 2017 to incorporate the ability for users to create targeted implementation guides. This expansion was led by a multidisciplinary team that developed an evidence-based, structured framework for the guides, oversaw the technical process/build, and pilot tested the first guide, CYP2C19-Clopidogrel Testing Implementation. Results: Sixty-five resources were collected from 12 institutions and categorized according to a seven-step implementation framework for the pilot CYP2C19-Clopidogrel Testing Implementation Guide. Five months after its launch, 96 CYP2C19-Clopidogrel Testing Implementation Guides had been created. Eighty percent of the resources most frequently selected by users were created by IGNITE to fill an identified resource gap. Resources most often included in guides were from the test reimbursement (22%), Implementation support gathering (22%), EHR integration (17%), and genetic testing workflow steps (17%). Conclusion: Lessons learned from this implementation guide development process provide insight for prioritizing development of future resources and support the value of collaborative efforts to create resources for genomic medicine implementation.

8.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(2): 91-99, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015062

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics, ie, the study of how an individual's genomic profile influences his or her response to drugs, has emerged as a clinical tool to optimize drug therapy. Certain variants in some genes increase the risk of severe, life-threatening adverse effects from certain drugs. Integrating pharmacogenomics into clinical practice to assist in drug selection and dosing has the potential to improve the outcomes of treatment, reduce the risk of drug-induced morbidity and death, and be cost-effective.


Assuntos
Codeína/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Farmacogenética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Medicina de Precisão , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/metabolismo , Clopidogrel/metabolismo , Codeína/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor , Testes Genéticos/economia , Genótipo , Humanos , Farmacogenética/economia , Farmacogenética/educação , Farmacogenética/organização & administração , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/metabolismo
10.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(3): 563-570, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549389

RESUMO

A risk mitigation strategy was implemented to determine if a higher prophylactic voriconazole dosage in patients with CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer neutropenic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reduces the incidence of subtherapeutic trough concentrations. Patients with AML (n = 263) were preemptively genotyped for CYP2C19*2, *3, and *17 alleles as part of a single-center prospective, interventional, quality improvement study. CYP2C19 rapid metabolizers (CYP2C19*1/*17) were recommended to receive interventional voriconazole 300 mg twice daily, ultrarapid metabolizers (CYP2C19*17/*17) were recommended to avoid voriconazole, and all others received the standard prophylactic dosage of 200 mg twice daily. In this real-world setting, 202 patients (76.8%) were prescribed prophylactic voriconazole, and of these patients 176 (87.1%) received CYP2C19-guided prophylactic dosing. Voriconazole trough concentrations were obtained for 41 of the 58 (70.7%) CYP2C19 rapid metabolizers prescribed prophylactic voriconazole. Interventional voriconazole resulted in higher plasma trough concentrations (median 2.7 µg/mL) compared with the standard prophylactic dosage (median 0.6 µg/mL; P = 0.001). Subtherapeutic concentrations were avoided in 83.8% of CYP2C19 rapid metabolizers receiving interventional dosage compared to 46.2% receiving standard dosage (P = 0.02). CYP2C19 genotyping to preemptively guide prophylactic voriconazole dosing is feasible and may be a potential strategy for reducing the risk of subtherapeutic trough concentrations that potentiate breakthrough fungal infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Voriconazol/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Gestão de Riscos , Voriconazol/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2255-2263, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A number of institutions have clinically implemented CYP2D6 genotyping to guide drug prescribing. We compared implementation strategies of early adopters of CYP2D6 testing, barriers faced by both early adopters and institutions in the process of implementing CYP2D6 testing, and approaches taken to overcome these barriers. METHODS: We surveyed eight early adopters of CYP2D6 genotyping and eight institutions in the process of adoption. Data were collected on testing approaches, return of results procedures, applications of genotype results, challenges faced, and lessons learned. RESULTS: Among early adopters, CYP2D6 testing was most commonly ordered to assist with opioid and antidepressant prescribing. Key differences among programs included test ordering and genotyping approaches, result reporting, and clinical decision support. However, all sites tested for copy-number variation and nine common variants, and reported results in the medical record. Most sites provided automatic consultation and had designated personnel to assist with genotype-informed therapy recommendations. Primary challenges were related to stakeholder support, CYP2D6 gene complexity, phenotype assignment, and sustainability. CONCLUSION: There are specific challenges unique to CYP2D6 testing given the complexity of the gene and its relevance to multiple medications. Consensus lessons learned may guide those interested in pursuing similar clinical pharmacogenetic programs.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Farmacogenética/métodos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/farmacologia , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/tendências , Fenótipo
13.
J Am Coll Clin Pharm ; 2(3): 303-313, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984775

RESUMO

Precision pharmacotherapy encompasses the use of therapeutic drug monitoring; evaluation of liver and renal function, genomics, and environmental and lifestyle exposures; and analysis of other unique patient or disease characteristics to guide drug selection and dosing. This paper articulates real-world clinical applications of precision pharmacotherapy, focusing exclusively on the emerging field of clinical pharmacogenomics. This field is evolving rapidly, and clinical pharmacists now play an invaluable role in the clinical implementation, education, and research applications of pharmacogenomics. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of pharmacogenomics in clinical pharmacy practice, together with recommendations on how the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) can support the advancement of clinical pharmacogenomics implementation, education, and research. Commonalities among successful clinical pharmacogenomics implementation and education programs are identified, with recommendations for how ACCP can leverage and advance these common themes. Opportunities are also provided to support the research needed to move the practice and application of pharmacogenomics forward.

14.
Diagn Pathol ; 13(1): 77, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RAF family activating fusions have been described as a potentially targetable molecular finding in a subset of soft tissue sarcomas. To further expand upon the landscape of this genetic feature, we describe a novel MTAP-RAF1 activating fusion identified in a S100 positive soft tissue sarcoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51 year old man underwent excision of a soft tissue mass in his foot. Pathology revealed a spindle cell neoplasm with S100 positivity, ultimately classified as a soft tissue sarcoma, not otherwise specified. Comprehensive molecular profiling was performed to help establish the diagnosis and revealed a novel MTAP-RAF1 fusion that includes the tyrosine kinase domain of RAF1. CONCLUSIONS: Our report adds to the spectrum of fusion-driven RAF activation observed in soft tissue sarcomas and lends additional evidence that RAF activation plays an important role in some soft tissue sarcomas. Identification of novel fusions involving the MAPK/ERK pathway in sarcomas may provide new avenues for precision medicine strategies involving targeted kinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/genética , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Fusão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(24): 6195-6203, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osimertinib was initially approved for T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and, more recently, for first-line treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC. However, resistance mechanisms to osimertinib have been incompletely described. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using cohorts from The University of Texas MD Anderson Lung Cancer Moonshot GEMINI and Moffitt Cancer Center lung cancer databases, we collected clinical data for patients treated with osimertinib. Molecular profiling analysis was performed at the time of progression in a subset of the patients. RESULTS: In the 118 patients treated with osimertinib, 42 had molecular profiling at progression. T790M was preserved in 21 (50%) patients and lost in 21 (50%). EGFR C797 and L792 (26%) mutations were the most common resistance mechanism and were observed exclusively in T790M-preserved cases. MET amplification was the second most common alteration (14%). Recurrent alterations were observed in 22 genes/pathways, including PIK3CA, FGFR, and RET. Preclinical studies confirmed MET, PIK3CA, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as potential resistance drivers. Alterations of cell-cycle genes were associated with shorter median progression-free survival (PFS, 4.4 vs. 8.8 months, P = 0.01). In 76 patients with progression, osimertinib was continued in 47 cases with a median second PFS (PFS2) of 12.6 months; 21 patients received local consolidation radiation with a median PFS of 15.5 months. Continuation of osimertinib beyond progression was associated with a longer overall survival compared with discontinuation (11.2 vs. 6.1 months, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Osimertinib resistance is associated with diverse, predominantly EGFR-independent genomic alterations. Continuation of osimertinib after progression, alone or in conjunction with radiotherapy, may provide prolonged clinical benefit in selected patients.See related commentary by Devarakonda and Govindan, p. 6112.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Acrilamidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 68: 7-13, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535047

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pain is one of the most burdensome symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment, and opioids are the cornerstone of pain management. Opioid therapy is empirically selected, and patients often require adjustments in therapy to effectively alleviate pain or ameliorate adverse drug effects that interfere with quality of life. There are data suggesting CYP2D6 genotype may contribute to inter-patient variability in response to opioids through its effects on opioid metabolism. Therefore, we aim to determine if CYP2D6 genotype-guided opioid prescribing results in greater reductions in pain and symptom severity and interference with daily living compared to a conventional prescribing approach in patients with cancer. METHODS: Patients with solid tumors with metastasis and a self-reported pain score ≥ 4/10 are eligible for enrollment and randomized to a genotype-guided or conventional pain management strategy. For patients in the genotype-guided arm, CYP2D6 genotype information is integrated into opioid prescribing decisions. Patients are asked to complete questionnaires regarding their pain, symptoms, and quality of life at baseline and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after enrollment. The primary endpoint is differential change in pain severity by treatment strategy (genotype-guided versus conventional pain management). Secondary endpoints include change in pain and symptom interference with daily living. CONCLUSION: Pharmacogenetic-guided opioid selection for cancer pain management has potential clinical utility, but current evidence is limited to retrospective and observational studies. Precision Medicine Guided Treatment for Cancer Pain is a pragmatic clinical trial that seeks to determine the utility of CYP2D6 genotype-guided opioid prescribing in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer , Neoplasias/complicações , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/patologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Farmacogenética/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Clin Transl Sci ; 11(1): 71-76, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749586

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing (WES) has the potential of identifying secondary findings that are predictive of poor pharmacotherapy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate patients' wishes regarding the reporting of secondary pharmacogenomic findings. WES results (n = 106 patients) were retrospectively reviewed to determine the number of patients electing to receive secondary pharmacogenomic results. Phenotypes were assigned based on Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines. The percent of patients with a predicted phenotype associated with a gene-based CPIC dosing recommendation was determined. Ninety-nine patients (93.4%) elected to receive secondary pharmacogenomic findings. For each gene-drug pair analyzed, the number of patients with an actionable phenotype ranged from two (2%) to 43 patients (43.4%). Combining all gene-drug pairs, 84 unique patients (84.8%) had an actionable phenotype. A prospective multidisciplinary practice model was developed for integrating secondary pharmacogenomic findings into clinical practice. Our model highlights a unique collaboration between physician-geneticists, pharmacists, and genetic counselors.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Modelos Organizacionais , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Aconselhamento Genético/organização & administração , Aconselhamento Genético/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Variantes Farmacogenômicos/genética , Fenótipo , Médicos/organização & administração , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0185471, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to medication regimens and medical record inconsistencies result in incomplete knowledge of medication therapy in polypharmacy patients. By quantitatively identifying medications in the blood of patients and reconciling detected medications with the medical record, we have defined the severity of this knowledge gap and created a path toward optimizing medication therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to detect and/or quantify 38 medications across a broad range of chronic diseases to obtain a comprehensive survey of patient adherence, medical record accuracy, and exposure variability in two patient populations. In a retrospectively tested 821-patient cohort representing U.S. adults, we found that 46% of medications assessed were detected in patients as prescribed in the medical record. Of the remaining medications, 23% were detected, but not listed in the medical record while 30% were prescribed to patients, but not detected in blood. To determine how often each detected medication fell within literature-derived reference ranges when taken as prescribed, we prospectively enrolled a cohort of 151 treatment-regimen adherent patients. In this cohort, we found that 53% of medications that were taken as prescribed, as determined using patient self-reporting, were not within the blood reference range. Of the medications not in range, 83% were below and 17% above the lower and upper range limits, respectively. Only 32% of out-of-range medications could be attributed to short oral half-lives, leaving extensive exposure variability to result from patient behavior, undefined drug interactions, genetics, and other characteristics that can affect medication exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to assess compliance, medical record accuracy, and exposure as determinants of real-world treatment and response. Variation in medication detection and exposure is greater than previously demonstrated, illustrating the scope of current therapy issues and opening avenues that warrant further investigation to optimize medication therapy.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Lung Cancer ; 111: 135-138, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838384

RESUMO

Cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as a noninvasive technique for detecting targetable mutations. We describe two lung adenocarcinoma cases that show the clinical utility of supplementing tumor biopsy molecular interrogation with ctDNA NGS. For both cases, ctDNA NGS identified actionable mutations that were previously not reported by molecular interrogation of tissue. Explanations are provided for the observed differences between ctDNA and tumor biopsy genomic results along with considerations for reconciling findings. Case 1 consisted of a patient with multiple lesions in the left and right lung that was initially suspected to be related to malignancy. A tumor biopsy was positive for EGFR-mutated lung cancer. ctDNA NGS reported an activating KRAS mutation, which was unexpected given the rare occurrence of EGFR/KRAS co-mutations. Radiologic imaging and ctDNA NGS resulted in the diagnoses of synchronous EGFR-mutated left lung cancer and KRAS-mutated right lung cancer. The second case describes a patient who was negative for RET rearrangements by tissue interrogation, but positive for a RET-KIF5B fusion by ctDNA NGS. Further tissue analysis demonstrated heterogeneity was the cause of differing results. We demonstrate that supplementing tumor biopsies with ctDNA NGS has a crucial role in patient care. Understanding the causes of differing ctDNA and tumor biopsy genomic results is essential for reconciling findings and application to precision medicine management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Tumoral Circulante , DNA de Neoplasias , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Idoso , Biópsia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética
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