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1.
Leuk Res Rep ; 12: 100176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245276

RESUMO

GATA2 deficiency syndrome is caused by autosomal dominant, heterozygous germline mutations with widespread effects on immune, pulmonary and vascular systems. Patients commonly develop hematological abnormalities including bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We present a patient with GATA2 mutation and MDS who progressed to AML over four months. Whole exome and targeted deep sequencing identified a new p.Q61K NRAS mutation in the bone marrow at the time of AML development. Rapid development of AML is possible in the setting of germline GATA2 mutation despite stable MDS, supporting close monitoring and consideration of early allogeneic transplantation.

2.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

3.
Transplantation ; 103(10): 2144-2149, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An 11-year-old girl with dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency was proposed for potentially curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the donor being her haploidentical mother. However, end-stage liver disease caused by chronic Cryptosporidium infection required liver transplantation before HSCT. METHODS: Consequently, a staged approach of a sequential liver transplant followed by a HSCT was planned with her mother as the donor for both liver and HSCT. RESULTS: The patient successfully underwent a left-lobe orthotopic liver transplant; however, she developed a biliary leak delaying the HSCT. Notably, the recipient demonstrated 3% donor lymphocyte chimerism in her peripheral blood immediately before HSCT. Haploidentical-related donor HSCT performed 2 months after liver transplantation was complicated by the development of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus viremia, primary graft failure, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. The patient died from sinusoidal obstruction syndrome-associated multiorgan failure with Candida sepsis on day +40 following HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the many considerations inherent to planning for HSCT preceded by liver transplant in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, including the role of prolonged immunosuppression and the risk of infection before immune reconstitution. We also discuss the implications of potential recipient sensitization against donor stem cells precipitated by exposure of the recipient to the donor lymphocytes from the transplanted organ.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 848-855, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range, 0.7-27.2 years) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-135 months), 68 (84%) patients are alive. Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 11% and 10%, respectively. Causes of death were infections (n = 5), graft versus host disease (5), multiorgan failure (2), and preexistent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n = 40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced-toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared with fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs 78%; P = .049). Ninety-six percent of patients younger than 8 years at HSCT survived, compared with 78% of those 8 years and older (P = .06). Of the 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had more than 90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections, and mollusca resolved quicker than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8-deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced-toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

6.
Leuk Res ; 76: 70-75, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578959

RESUMO

Germline mutation in GATA2 can lead to GATA2 deficiency characterized by a complex multi-system disorder that can present with many manifestations including variable cytopenias, bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML), and severe immunodeficiency. Penetrance and expressivity within families is often variable. There is a spectrum of bone marrow disease in symptomatic cytopenic patients ranging from hypocellular marrows without overt dysplasia to those with definitive MDS, AML, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Relatives of probands with the same mutations may demonstrate minimal disease manifestations and normal marrows. A comprehensive clinical, hematological and genetic assessment of 25 patients with germline GATA2 mutation was performed. MDS-associated mutations were identified in symptomatic GATA2 patients both with overt MDS and in those with hypocellular/aplastic bone marrows without definitive dysplasia. Healthy relatives of probands harboring the same germline GATA2 mutations had essentially normal marrows that were overall devoid of MDS-associated mutations. The findings suggest that abnormal clonal hematopoiesis is a common event in symptomatic germline mutated GATA2 patients with MDS and also in those with hypocellular marrows without overt morphologic evidence of dysplasia, possibly indicating a pre-MDS stage warranting close monitoring for disease progression.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Medula Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hematopoese , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancitopenia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Blood Adv ; 2(23): 3553-3565, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538114

RESUMO

GATA2 deficiency is an inherited or sporadic genetic disorder characterized by distinct cellular deficiency, bone marrow failure, various infections, lymphedema, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and predisposition to myeloid malignancies resulting from heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the GATA2 gene. How heterozygous GATA2 mutations affect human hematopoietic development or cause characteristic cellular deficiency and eventual hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia is not fully understood. We used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to study hematopoietic development in the setting of GATA2 deficiency. We performed hematopoietic differentiation using iPSC derived from patients with GATA2 deficiency and examined their ability to commit to mesoderm, hemogenic endothelial precursors (HEPs), hematopoietic stem progenitor cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Patient-derived iPSC, either derived from fibroblasts/marrow stromal cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, did not show significant defects in committing to mesoderm, HEP, hematopoietic stem progenitor, or NK cells. However, HEP derived from GATA2-mutant iPSC showed impaired maturation toward hematopoietic lineages. Hematopoietic differentiation was nearly abolished from homozygous GATA2 knockout (KO) iPSC lines and markedly reduced in heterozygous KO lines compared with isogenic controls. On the other hand, correction of the mutated GATA2 allele in patient-specific iPSC did not alter hematopoietic development consistently in our model. GATA2 deficiency usually manifests within the first decade of life. Newborn and infant hematopoiesis appears to be grossly intact; therefore, our iPSC model indeed may resemble the disease phenotype, suggesting that other genetic, epigenetic, or environmental factors may contribute to bone marrow failure in these patients following birth. However, heterogeneity of PSC-based models and limitations of in vitro differentiation protocol may limit the possibility to detect subtle cellular phenotypes.


Assuntos
Deficiência de GATA2/patologia , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Adulto , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Deficiência de GATA2/genética , Edição de Genes , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesoderma/citologia , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
9.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 35(7): 1201-1207, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in a population of women with GATA2 deficiency, a genetic bone marrow failure syndrome, prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of nine women with GATA2 deficiency who underwent oocyte preservation at a research institution. Main outcomes measured include baseline fertility characteristics ((antimullerian hormone (AMH) and day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2)) and total doses of FSH and human menopausal gonadotropins (HMG), E2 on day of trigger, and total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved. RESULTS: The mean age was 24 years [16-32], mean AMH was 5.2 ng/mL [0.7-10], and day 3 mean FSH was 5.1 U/L [0.7-8.1], and E2 was 31.5 pg/mL [< 5-45]. The mean dose of FSH was 1774 IU [675-4035], and HMG was 1412 IU [375-2925] with a mean E2 of 2267 pg/mL [60.7-4030] on day of trigger. The mean total of metaphase II oocytes was 7.7 [0-15]. One patient was diagnosed with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with pulmonary embolism (PE) during COS. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to analyze the outcomes of COS in women with GATA2 deficiency. The response to ovarian stimulation suggests that oocyte cryopreservation should be considered prior to gonadotoxic therapy. However, due to the risk of potentially life-threatening complications, it is prudent that patients are properly counseled of the risks and are evaluated by a multi-disciplinary medical team prior to COS.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição GATA2/deficiência , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oócitos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Criopreservação/métodos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(6): 1250-1259, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412158

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) reverses the bone marrow failure syndrome due to GATA2 deficiency. The intensity of conditioning required to achieve reliable engraftment and prevent relapse remains unclear. Here, we describe the results of a prospective study of HSCT in 22 patients with GATA2 deficiency using a busulfan-based conditioning regimen. The study included 2 matched related donor (MRD) recipients, 13 matched unrelated donor (URD) recipients, and 7 haploidentical related donor (HRD) recipients. MRD and URD recipients received 4 days of busulfan and 4 days of fludarabine. HRD recipients received low-dose cyclophosphamide for 2 days, fludarabine for 5 days, 2 to 3 days of busulfan depending on cytogenetics, and 200 cGy total body irradiation. MRD and URD recipients received tacrolimus and short-course methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. HRD recipients received high-dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) followed by tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. At a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 9 to 50), 19 of 22 patients were alive with reversal of the disease phenotype and correction of the myelodysplastic syndrome, including eradication of cytogenetic abnormalities. Three patients died: 1 from refractory acute myelogenous leukemia, 1 from GVHD, and 1 from sepsis. There was a 26% incidence of grades III to IV acute GVHD in the MRD and URD groups and no grades III to IV acute GVHD in the HRD cohort. Similarly, there was a 46% incidence of chronic GVHD in the MRD and URD cohorts, whereas only 28% of HRD recipients developed chronic GVHD. Despite excellent overall disease-free survival (86%), GVHD remains a limitation using standard prophylaxis for GVHD. We are currently extending the use of PTCy to the MRD and URD cohorts to reduce GVHD.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de GATA2/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Deficiência de GATA2/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 31(2): 337-340, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156497

RESUMO

GATA2 deficiency is a recently described genetic disorder affecting hematopoietic stem cells and is associated with immunodeficiency, hematologic malignancy, and various cutaneous pathologies including cutaneous tumors. To explore the incidence and clinical course of melanoma in patients with germline GATA2 deficiencies, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 71 such patients and identified two with invasive melanoma. One melanoma was diagnosed early because it was associated with pruritus due to a graft-versus-tumor effect following bone marrow transplantation. The other one, a lentigo maligna melanoma, was locally excised but progressed to widespread metastasis and death several years later. Our observations and published studies of melanoma biology suggest an association between decreased GATA2 expression and melanoma progression. These findings suggest that GATA2 deficient patients may have an increased risk of melanoma and should be observed closely for new or changing skin lesions.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição GATA2/deficiência , Melanoma/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 58(3): 332-339, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238995

RESUMO

Intravenous (IV) busulfan test dose pharmacokinetics (PK) has been shown to accurately predict once-daily dose requirements and improve outcomes in adult transplant patients, but there are limited data to support this approach in children. Test doses of busulfan ∼0.8 mg/kg were infused over 2 to 3 hours, followed by serial sampling to 4-6 hours postinfusion in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (n = 5). Once-daily busulfan doses were calculated based on a myelosuppressive area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) target of ∼3700 to 4000 µmol·min/L and assumed dose-proportionality to the test dose. PK analysis was then repeated at full daily doses within 6-8 days of test dose administration. Plasma PK samples collected under test and full-dose conditions were analyzed using validated commercial assays and noncompartmental methods. In 4 out of 5 patients, PK estimates after once-daily IV busulfan administration differed in comparison to test dose estimates (AUC range -38.2% to +49.7%, clearance range -34.3% to +61.8%). Patients 1, 2, and 3 required increases in remaining daily busulfan doses to achieve AUC targets, and no adjustment was required in patient 4. Patient 5's AUC was 49.7% higher than expected, and he subsequently developed fatal sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. In our experience with pediatric patients, test dose PK failed to reliably predict daily dosing requirements with large discrepancies from predicted AUC targets. This article highlights the necessity for therapeutic drug monitoring of IV busulfan and inadvisability of relying solely on test-dose busulfan PK in pediatric patients. Furthermore, clinicians should consider strategies to expedite dose adjustments in real time.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Criança , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante Homólogo
13.
Blood ; 130(24): 2682-2688, 2017 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974505

RESUMO

Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is caused by biallelic deleterious mutations in CECR1 DADA2 results in variable autoinflammation and vasculopathy (recurrent fevers, livedo reticularis, polyarteritis nodosa, lacunar ischemic strokes, and intracranial hemorrhages), immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure. Tumor necrosis factor-α blockade is the treatment of choice for the autoinflammation and vascular manifestations. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents a potential definitive treatment. We present a cohort of 14 patients from 6 countries who received HSCT for DADA2. Indication for HSCT was bone marrow dysfunction or immunodeficiency. Six of 14 patients had vasculitis pre-HSCT. The median age at HSCT was 7.5 years. Conditioning regimens were myeloablative (9) and reduced intensity (5). Donors were HLA-matched sibling (n = 1), HLA-matched unrelated (n = 9), HLA-mismatched unrelated (n = 3), and HLA haploidentical sibling (n = 1). All patients are alive and well with no new vascular events and resolution of hematological and immunological phenotype at a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 5 months to 13 years). Plasma ADA2 enzyme activity normalized in those tested post-HSCT (7/7), as early as day +14 (myeloid engraftment). Post-HSCT hematological autoimmunity (cytopenias) was reported in 4 patients, acute graft-versus-host disease grade 1 in 2, grade 2 in 3, and grade 3-4 in 1, and moderate chronic graft-versus-host disease in 1 patient. In conclusion, in 14 patients, HSCT was an effective and definitive treatment of DADA2.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Mutação , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/enzimologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
14.
Blood ; 130(12): 1391-1393, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935643
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(6): 980-990, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288951

RESUMO

Dedicator-of-cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency, a primary immunodeficiency disease, can be reversed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, there are few reports describing the use of alternative donor sources for HSCT in DOCK8 deficiency. We describe HSCT for patients with DOCK8 deficiency who lack a matched related or unrelated donor using bone marrow from haploidentical related donors and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Seven patients with DOCK8 deficiency (median age, 20 years; range, 7 to 25 years) received a haploidentical related donor HSCT. The conditioning regimen included 2 days of low-dose cyclophosphamide, 5 days of fludarabine, 3 days of busulfan, and 200 cGy total body irradiation. GVHD prophylaxis consisted of PT/Cy 50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4 and tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil starting at day +5. The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 15 and 19 days, respectively. All patients attained >90% donor engraftment by day +30. Four subjects developed acute GVHD (1 with maximum grade 3). No patient developed chronic GVHD. With a median follow-up time of 20.6 months (range, 9.5 to 31.7 months), 6 of 7 patients are alive and disease free. Haploidentical related donor HSCT with PT/Cy represents an effective therapeutic approach for patients with DOCK8 deficiency who lack a matched related or unrelated donor.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Transplante Haploidêntico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(1): 61-66, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27924436

RESUMO

We performed allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with GATA2 deficiency and an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related spindle cell tumor involving the liver and possibly bone. He received a matched-related donor transplant with donor peripheral blood stem cells following a myeloablative conditioning regimen. He achieved rapid and high levels of donor engraftment and had complete reversal of the clinical and immunologic phenotype of MonoMAC/GATA2 deficiency and eradication of the EBV tumors after 3 years of follow-up. Thus, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant results in reconstitution of immunologic function and cure of EBV-associated malignancy in MonoMAC/GATA2 deficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/deficiência , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Tumor de Músculo Liso/diagnóstico , Tumor de Músculo Liso/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Fatores de Tempo , Quimeras de Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(10): 1112-21, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26811520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Progressive malignancy is the leading cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT). After alloHSCT, B-cell malignancies often are treated with unmanipulated donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) from the transplant donor. DLIs frequently are not effective at eradicating malignancy and often cause graft-versus-host disease, a potentially lethal immune response against normal recipient tissues. METHODS: We conducted a clinical trial of allogeneic T cells genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the B-cell antigen CD19. Patients with B-cell malignancies that had progressed after alloHSCT received a single infusion of CAR T cells. No chemotherapy or other therapies were administered. The T cells were obtained from each recipient's alloHSCT donor. RESULTS: Eight of 20 treated patients obtained remission, which included six complete remissions (CRs) and two partial remissions. The response rate was highest for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with four of five patients obtaining minimal residual disease-negative CR. Responses also occurred in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma. The longest ongoing CR was more than 30 months in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. New-onset acute graft-versus-host disease after CAR T-cell infusion developed in none of the patients. Toxicities included fever, tachycardia, and hypotension. Peak blood CAR T-cell levels were higher in patients who obtained remissions than in those who did not. Programmed cell death protein-1 expression was significantly elevated on CAR T cells after infusion. Presence of blood B cells before CAR T-cell infusion was associated with higher postinfusion CAR T-cell levels. CONCLUSION: Allogeneic anti-CD19 CAR T cells can effectively treat B-cell malignancies that progress after alloHSCT. The findings point toward a future when antigen-specific T-cell therapies will play a central role in alloHSCT.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/cirurgia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Quimeras de Transplante , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia de Células B/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Transplante Homólogo
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