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1.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 517, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard treatment for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer [BCLC] B). However, it often leads to a poor prognosis and decreased hepatic function especially in patients with BCLC substage B2. Lenvatinib (LEN) was demonstrated to be efficacious in these patients in the REFLECT phase 3 trial. We therefore aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LEN as a first-line treatment for the patients with HCC at BCLC substage B2. METHODS: This prospective observational study used LEN in TACE-naïve patients with HCC at BCLC substage B2 and preserved hepatic function. The primary endpoint was overall survival. A one-year survival rate threshold of 60% and an expected survival rate of 78%, based on previous reports of TACE, was assumed for setting the sample size. With a one-sided α-type error of 5% and 70% detection power, 25 patients were required over a 2-year enrollment period and 10-month follow-up period. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were enrolled in this study from June 2018 to June 2020. The 1-year survival rate was 71.0% (90% confidence interval, 68.4-73.6%). Median overall and progression-free survival periods were 17.0 and 10.4 months, and the objective response rates according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST) version 1.1 and modified RECIST criteria were 22.6% and 70.0%, respectively. Common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (68%), hypertension (65%), anorexia (61%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (39%), and thrombocytopenia (32%) of any grade; aspartate aminotransferase increased (23%), alanine aminotransferase increased (16%), and grade ≥ 3 proteinuria (13%). Treatment interruption and dose reduction were required in 61% and 81% of patients, respectively. LEN was discontinued in 29 patients due to disease progression (n = 17), AEs (n = 9), conversion to curative treatments (n = 2), and sudden death (n = 1), whereas post-LEN treatments were administered in 18 patients, including systemic chemotherapy (n = 11), TACE (n = 6), transarterial infusion (n = 1) and clinical trial (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that LEN provides treatment benefits as an initial therapeutic in patients with BCLC substage B2 HCC with a safety profile comparable to that previously reported.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Fenilureia , Estudos Prospectivos , Quinolinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
JGH Open ; 6(1): 29-35, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35071785

RESUMO

AIMS: There is a paucity of comparative data on the use of sorafenib and lenvatinib for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. We assessed the real-world treatment outcomes between using sorafenib and lenvatinib for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in the multiple molecular-targeted therapy era. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 386 patients treated with sorafenib or lenvatinib as the first-line therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma at multiple centers. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline and tumor characteristics between the two groups. Propensity score matching identified 110 patients in each treatment group. The median overall survival was similar between lenvatinib and sorafenib (14.8 and 13.0 months, respectively; P = 0.352). The median progression-free survival was longer with lenvatinib than with sorafenib (7.6 and 3.9 months, respectively; P < 0.001). The overall response rate (P < 0.001) and disease control rate (P = 0.015), as defined by the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, were significantly better with lenvatinib than with sorafenib. The median overall survival was longer in patients who received subsequent treatment than in those who did not in the sorafenib group (23.1 and 5.7 months, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas the median overall survival with or without subsequent treatment did not differ significantly in the lenvatinib group (17.8 and 14.7 months, respectively; P = 0.439). CONCLUSION: Overall survival with sorafenib and lenvatinib was not significantly different. However, patients who received subsequent treatments had longer overall survival than those who received only first-line treatment with sorafenib, whereas lenvatinib did not show this effect.

3.
Hepatol Res ; 52(3): 269-280, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761470

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of clinical factors on the safety and efficacy of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (ATZ + BV) treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC). METHOD: Ninety-four u-HCC patients who were treated with ATZ + BV at multiple centers were enrolled. We defined Child-Pugh (CP)-A patients who received ATZ + BV treatment as a first line therapy as the 'meets the broad sense of the IMbrave150 criteria' group (B-IMbrave150-in, n = 46), and patients who received ATZ + BV treatment as a later line therapy or CP-B patients (regardless of whether ATZ + BV was a first line or later line therapy) as the B-IMbrave150-out group (n = 48). Patients were retrospectively analyzed for adverse events (AEs) and treatment outcomes according to their clinical characteristics, including neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at baseline. RESULTS: The overall incidence of AEs was 87.2% (82/94 patients). The frequency of interruption of ATZ + BV treatment due to fatigue was higher in CP-B than CP-A patients (p = 0.030). Objective response (OR) rates of the B-IMbrave150-in group (28.3%, 39.1%) were significantly higher than those of the B-IMbrave150-out group (8.3%, 18.8%; p = 0.0157, 0.0401) using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and modified RECIST, respectively. In multivariate analysis, NLR (hazard ratio (HR), 4.591; p = 0.0160) and B-IMbrave150 criteria (HR, 4.108; p = 0.0261) were independent factors associated with the OR of ATZ + BV treatment using RECIST. CONCLUSION: In real-world practice, ATZ + BV treatment might offer significant benefits in patients who meet B-IMbrave150 criteria or have low NLR.

4.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci ; 29(4): 439-448, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lusutrombopag effectively increases platelet count in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. However, no multicenter studies analyzing the effects of Lusutrombopag on patients with mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count > 50 000/µL) have been performed. In this study, we aimed to clarify the efficacy of Lusutrombopag on these patients by unifying background factors by propensity score matching. METHODS: A total of 139 patients with thrombocytopenia were enrolled, and matched for age, sex, etiology, disease, treatment, liver function, renal function, peripheral blood count, and spleen index. The primary endpoint was to compare the increase in platelet count from baseline between the high-platelet group (>50 000/µL) and the low-platelet group (<50 000/µL) after Lusutrombopag treatment, using propensity score matching. The secondary endpoint was to clarify platelet transfusion avoidance rate and adverse events, moreover, to identify independent predictors associated with the increase in platelet count. RESULTS: The mean increase in platelet count was 67 000/µL vs 48 000/µL in all patients (high- vs low-platelet group, P = .024), and 64 000/µL vs 48 000/µL (P = .12) after propensity score matching. The increase in platelet count and the platelet transfusion avoidance rate tended to be higher in the high-platelet group. There was no significant difference between adverse events. Predictors associated with an increase in platelet count were sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and spleen index by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Lusutrombopag has a little stronger effect in patients with mild thrombocytopenia than those with severe thrombocytopenia and showed a more substantial effect in patients with impaired renal function and small spleen.


Assuntos
Receptores de Trombopoetina , Trombocitopenia , Cinamatos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pontuação de Propensão , Tiazóis , Trombocitopenia/complicações
5.
Intern Med ; 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897151

RESUMO

We herein report a rare case of torsion of a wandering spleen in a patient with myeloproliferative disease. A 66-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital with abdominal pain and a fever. She had a medical history of polycythemia and secondary myelofibrosis. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography showed an enlarged spleen without enhancement in the lower pelvic region. The clinical diagnosis was severe torsion of a wandering spleen in a patient with myeloproliferative disease, necessitating surgical intervention. Splenectomy was performed after de-rotating to revascularize the spleen. After the operation, the platelet count gradually increased, and aspirin was administered to prevent thrombosis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787743

RESUMO

This review focuses on ultrasonography (US) to diagnose patients with complications in portal hypertension. Clinicians first use US to evaluate patients with suspected portal hypertension, because US is quick, simple, and radiation free. US is necessary for grading and performing paracentesis for ascites. Doppler US-based detection of reverse splanchnic vein flow or the presence of a spontaneous portosystemic shunt is highly specific in patients with cirrhosis. Since it is important to estimate spleen size in patients with portal hypertension, spleen size is usually measured by US. Spleen volume can be more accurately measured with 3D-US. Estimation of viable residual splenic volume after partial splenic embolization should be limited to cases with total splenic volume less than 1000 ml. Portal vein thrombosis is often detected during the US examination performed when symptoms first appear or during the follow-up. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography is an excellent noninvasive screening test in patients with pulmonary portal hypertension who can undergo it. By measuring the maximum and minimum diastolic blood flow velocities in the renal arteries using renal color Doppler US, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) can be calculated. The PI and RI in cirrhotic patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis, and showed a significant positive correlation with the Child-Pugh Score. In conclusion, US is an essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with portal hypertension.

7.
Dig Dis ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the influence of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphism for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the role of the PNPLA3 polymorphism for the development of LC and its complications by the findings of genetic examinations. METHODS: Patients with LC caused by virus (n = 157), alcohol (n = 104), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 106), or autoimmune disease (n = 33) and without LC (n = 128) were enrolled. LC were composed of the present and absent of complications, such as variceal bleeding, hepatic ascites, and/or hepatic encephalopathy. To assess the role of the PNPLA3 polymorphism, odds ratio (OR) for the rs738409 variant was calculated for the patients between (i) with LC and without LC in the entire cohort, and (ii) the present and absent of complications in the patients with LC. RESULTS: There was a significant difference among the patients without LC and those with alcohol, NAFLD related LC in the frequency of G alleles (p < 0.001, both). According to complications of LC, the OR for NAFLD related cirrhosis significantly increased in the presence of the two mutated alleles (OR = 3.165; p = 0.046) when the wild type was used as the reference. However, there were no significant risks for the complications in the virus and alcohol related cirrhosis unless there was a presence of G alleles. CONCLUSION: The PNPLA3 polymorphism was associated with the risk of NAFLD related LC and its complications.

8.
Dig Dis ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the additional effect on the recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) after oral L-carnitine administration are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the additional effects of L-carnitine in patients who were receiving rifaximin for HE. METHODS: This randomized study comprised a screening visit and a 12-week treatment period. Patients who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were randomized to either group A (additional rifaximin) or group B (additional L-carnitine and rifaximin). Group A received 1,200 mg/day of rifaximin. Group B received 1,500 mg/day of L-carnitine and rifaximin at 1,200 mg/day. The endpoints were the changes in the portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE) index and the admission rate from the baseline for the duration of the study in both groups. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients were randomized to either group A (n = 42) or group B (n = 41). In group A, the PSE index decreased from 0.35 ± 0.09 at baseline to 0.27 ± 0.11 on the final evaluation day (p = 0.001). In group B, the PSE index decreased from 0.37 ± 0.09 at baseline to 0.24 ± 0.11 on the final evaluation day (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant reduction in the PSE index in group A compared to that in group B (p = 0.202), the admission rates were 30.9% and 9.8% in groups A and B, respectively. Additional L-carnitine significantly reduced the admission rate (p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: L-Carnitine addition reduced the risk of hospitalization for patients who received rifaximin for HE.

9.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(7): 593-619, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231046

RESUMO

The first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis was published in 2010, and the second edition was published in 2015 by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE). The revised third edition was recently published in 2020. This version has become a joint guideline by the JSGE and the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH). In addition to the clinical questions (CQs), background questions (BQs) are new items for basic clinical knowledge, and future research questions (FRQs) are newly added clinically important items. Concerning the clinical treatment of liver cirrhosis, new findings have been reported over the past 5 years since the second edition. In this revision, we decided to match the international standards as much as possible by referring to the latest international guidelines. Newly developed agents for various complications have also made great progress. In comparison with the latest global guidelines, such as the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), we are introducing data based on the evidence for clinical practice in Japan. The flowchart for nutrition therapy was reviewed to be useful for daily medical care by referring to overseas guidelines. We also explain several clinically important items that have recently received focus and were not mentioned in the last editions. This digest version describes the issues related to the management of liver cirrhosis and several complications in clinical practice. The content begins with a diagnostic algorithm, the revised flowchart for nutritional therapy, and refracted ascites, which are of great importance to patients with cirrhosis. In addition to the updated antiviral therapy for hepatitis B and C liver cirrhosis, the latest treatments for non-viral cirrhosis, such as alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH/NASH) and autoimmune-related cirrhosis, are also described. It also covers the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis complications, namely gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome and acute kidney injury, hepatic encephalopathy, portal thrombus, sarcopenia, muscle cramp, thrombocytopenia, pruritus, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and vitamin D deficiency, including BQ, CQ and FRQ. Finally, this guideline covers prognosis prediction and liver transplantation, especially focusing on several new findings since the last version. Since this revision is a joint guideline by both societies, the same content is published simultaneously in the official English journal of JSGE and JSH.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão
10.
Hepatol Res ; 51(9): 968-978, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269502

RESUMO

AIM: There are limited data from prospective studies showing the clinical usefulness of the new criteria for sarcopenia in liver disease produced by the Japan Society of Hepatology. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this new criteria for prognosis in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This prospective study was performed at six centers. The 300 enrolled patients, aged more than 20 years with liver cirrhosis, were evaluated over a 3-year period for skeletal muscle mass index and grip strength. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Japan Society of Hepatology criteria by grip strength and computed tomography-based skeletal muscle mass index values. We investigated the correlation between sarcopenia and the survival rate of cirrhotic patients. RESULTS: Among the 300 assessed patients there were 99 (33%) patients with sarcopenia. The number of deaths in the sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups was 34 (34.3%) and 38 (18.9%), respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis confirmed that sarcopenia, decompensated phase, albumin-bilirubin grade, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stage 3/4 were independent factors correlated with death in patients with liver cirrhosis during the observation period. The interaction between sarcopenia and the presence of HCC was statistically significant (p < 0.001), and the presence of HCC had the highest hazard ratio of 6.665 for deaths in cirrhotic patients when non-sarcopenia and the absence of HCC were used as references. CONCLUSIONS: The new Japan Society of Hepatology criteria for sarcopenia are accurate predictors of poor prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis.

11.
Hepatol Res ; 51(7): 725-749, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228859

RESUMO

The first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis was published in 2010, and the second edition was published in 2015 by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE). The revised third edition was recently published in 2020. This version has become a joint guideline by the JSGE and the Japanese Society of Hepatology (JSH). In addition to the clinical questions (CQs), background questions (BQs) are new items for basic clinical knowledge, and future research questions (FRQs) are newly added clinically important items. Concerning the clinical treatment of liver cirrhosis, new findings have been reported over the past 5 years since the second edition. In this revision, we decided to match the international standards as much as possible by referring to the latest international guidelines. Newly developed agents for various complications have also made great progress. In comparison with the latest global guidelines, such as the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), we are introducing data based on the evidence for clinical practice in Japan. The flowchart for nutrition therapy was reviewed to be useful for daily medical care by referring to overseas guidelines. We also explain several clinically important items that have recently received focus and were not mentioned in the last editions. This digest version describes the issues related to the management of liver cirrhosis and several complications in clinical practice. The content begins with a diagnostic algorithm, the revised flowchart for nutritional therapy, and refracted ascites, which are of great importance to patients with cirrhosis. In addition to the updated antiviral therapy for hepatitis B and C liver cirrhosis, the latest treatments for non-viral cirrhosis, such as alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH/NASH) and autoimmune-related cirrhosis, are also described. It also covers the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis complications, namely gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome and acute kidney injury, hepatic encephalopathy, portal thrombus, sarcopenia, muscle cramp, thrombocytopenia, pruritus, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and vitamin D deficiency, including BQ, CQ and FRQ. Finally, this guideline covers prognosis prediction and liver transplantation, especially focusing on several new findings since the last version. Since this revision is a joint guideline by both societies, the same content is published simultaneously in the official English journal of JSGE and JSH.

12.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(4): 1233-1239, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024039

RESUMO

In November 2020, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab became available for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and its efficacy is expected as a new treatment option for HCC. However, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) associated with the administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors is a major concern in clinical practice. We reported a case of irAE-induced myocarditis after the treatment for HCC. Based on the symptoms and echocardiographic findings, we suspected irAE-induced myocarditis and acute heart failure, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for further investigation and treatment. From starting the patient on therapy with methylprednisolone succinate sodium, the laboratory data and symptoms tended to improve. The patient was discharged to home on the 25th day of treatment. Because the number of patients with irAE myocarditis is expected to increase in clinical practice in the near future, further accumulation and investigation of cases are necessary.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Miocardite , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente
13.
Intern Med ; 60(21): 3427-3433, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967143

RESUMO

We herein report a rare case of cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) complicated with liver cirrhosis. A 20-year-old Japanese man with CHH was found incidentally to have liver cirrhosis and an esophageal varix. This patient had been treated for infections due to immunodeficiency since early childhood. He ultimately died of liver failure at 31 years of age. An autopsy revealed an abnormality of the interlobular bile ducts and intrahepatic cholestasis. Liver cirrhosis was thought to have been caused by chronic intrahepatic cholestasis due to biliary duct hypoplasia and changes in the intestinal microbiome. Therefore, CHH may cause biliary cirrhosis due to multiple effects.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática , Doença de Hirschsprung , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Adulto , Colestase Intra-Hepática/complicações , Colestase Intra-Hepática/diagnóstico , Evolução Fatal , Cabelo/anormalidades , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Adulto Jovem
15.
Dig Dis ; 39(3): 234-242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To make an accurate estimate of the response to thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists for thrombocytopenia associated with chronic liver disease, we evaluated the influence of antiplatelet autoantibodies on the response to lusutrombopag in thrombocytopenic patients with liver disease. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at 2 hospitals. Thrombocytopenic patients with liver disease received oral lusutrombopag 3.0 mg once daily for up to 7 days. We analyzed changes in platelet counts from baseline to the maximum platelet count on days 9-14. The definition of clinical response was a platelet count of ≥5 × 104/µL with an increased platelet count of ≥2 × 104/µL from baseline. We assessed the correlation between the response to treatment drug and antiplatelet autoantibodies measured by anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells. RESULTS: Thirty patients received the trial drug. There were 25 responders and 5 nonresponders. The median change in platelet counts was 3.9 × 104/µL (95% CI 2.8-4.6, p < 0.0001). The correlation between change in platelet counts and the frequency of the anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells was moderate (r = 0.414, 95% CI 0.064-0.674, p = 0.023). In multivariate analysis of factors affecting the change in platelet counts, the anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells were identified as an independent factor (regression coefficient [B] = 0.089; CI 0.021-0.157, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells may be a predictor for TPO receptor agonists in patients with chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/complicações , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/imunologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Plaquetas/patologia , Cinamatos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Tamanho do Órgão , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Prospectivos , Baço/patologia , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/complicações
16.
Dig Dis ; 39(3): 225-233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the characteristics and prognosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients with immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-positive plasma cell infiltration. METHODS: We enrolled 84 AIH patients. The number of IgG- and IgG4-positive plasma cells was immunohistochemically counted per high-power field in the portal area. Patients with 3 or more IgG4-positive plasma cells on average and a ratio of IgG4 to IgG-positive plasma cells ≥5% were defined as IgG4-associated AIH (IgG4-AIH), and their clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were compared to those of the remaining classical-AIH patients. RESULTS: Ten (11.9%) and 74 patients (88.1%) were categorized as IgG4-AIH and classical-AIH patients, respectively. The median age of the IgG4-AIH patients was 67 years, the majority was female (80.0%), and the distribution was similar to that of the classical-AIH patients. The IgG4-AIH patients exhibited significantly more severe phenotypes in portal inflammation, interface hepatitis, fibrosis, and rosette formation. All clinical laboratory data were similar except for serum IgG4 levels, which were higher in IgG4-AIH patients (168.5 vs. 22.9 mg/dL, p = 0.014). During a median follow-up period of 139 months, the relapse rate was significantly lower in the IgG4-AIH group than in the classical-AIH group (11.1 vs. 49.2%; p = 0.048). Twelve (16.2%) and 6 (8.1%) classical-AIH patients underwent liver-related events and liver-related deaths, respectively. In contrast, none of the IgG4-AIH patients progressed to severe liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: The IgG4-AIH patients had more severe inflammation and advanced fibrosis in the liver. However, their prognosis was not poor compared to that of classical-AIH patients. IgG4-AIH may have a phenotype distinct from classical-AIH.


Assuntos
Hepatite Autoimune/imunologia , Hepatite Autoimune/patologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hepatite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hepatol Res ; 51(2): 201-215, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270323

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the safety, efficacy, and prognostic impact of clinical factors associated with lenvatinib treatment in highly advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with tumor thrombus in the main portal vein trunk (VP4) or tumor with more than 50% liver occupation (tm50%LO). METHODS: A total of 61 highly advanced HCC patients (41 patients with tm50%LO and 20 patients with VP4) who were treated with lenvatinib at multicenter were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed for treatment outcomes according to their clinical status, including tumor morphology. RESULTS: The most frequent grade ≥3 adverse event in tm50%LO HCC was elevated aspartate aminotransferase (17.1%). Objective response rates were 37.5% and 0% in tm50%LO HCC patients with Child-Pugh grade (CP)-A and CP-B, respectively, and 26.7% and 0% in VP4 HCC patients with CP-A and CP-B, respectively. Estimated median progression-free survival and overall survival were 132 days and 229 days, and 101 days and 201 days in patients with tm50%LO and VP4, respectively. In multivariate analysis, modified albumin-bilirubin grade (hazard ratio 0.372, 95% CI 0.157-0.887; p = 0.0241) and tumor morphology (hazard ratio 0.322, 95% CI 0.116-0.889; p = 0.0287) were independently associated with progression-free survival in patients with tm50%LO HCC. In VP4 HCC, median progression-free survival was worse in CP-B (57 days) than in CP-A patients (137 days, p = 0.0462). CONCLUSIONS: Lenvatinib treatment offers a benefit in highly advanced HCC (tm50%LO or VP4) patients with good liver function or nodular-type tumor. The various characteristics identified in this study might be useful as indicators of lenvatinib treatment in highly advanced HCC with tm50%LO or VP4, which are considered very refractory cancers.

18.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol ; 13: 385-396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the safety, efficacy and prognostic impact of clinical factors related to lenvatinib treatment in Child-Pugh class A (CP-A) and class B (CP-B) patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC). METHODS: Patients with u-HCC who were treated with lenvatinib at multiple centers in Japan were retrospectively analyzed for treatment outcomes according to their respective CP status. Radiological objective response (OR) was assessed using modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) guidelines. RESULTS: Baseline demographic parameters were comparable between 126 (69.6%) patients with CP-A disease and 55 patients (30.4%) with CP-B disease. Frequency of lenvatinib-related adverse events, including decreased appetite (P=0.034), diarrhea (P=0.040), elevated serum bilirubin (P=0.016) and vomiting (P=0.009), were higher in CP-B than in CP-A patients. Relative dose intensity (RDI) was significantly higher in CP-A (0.69) than CP-B patients (0.50, P <0.001). Furthermore, OR rate (44.0%) was markedly higher in CP-A5 patients as compared to CP-A6 (25.5%), CP-B7 (22.2%), and CP-B8 patients (5.3%), respectively (P=0.002). In multivariable analysis, performance status (0 vs 1, 2, P=0.026), CP class (A vs B, P=0.045) and RDI (≥0.7 vs <0.7, P=0.034) were identified as factors associated with response to lenvatinib treatment. Overall survival (OS) at 12 months was significantly different between CP-A (66.3%) and CP-B patients (30.0%, P=0.002), and between CP 5-7 (59.2%) and CP 8 patients (34.8%, P=0.003). In multivariable analysis, CP class (A vs B, P=0.007) and Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage (B vs C, P=0.002) were associated with OS following lenvatinib treatment. CONCLUSION: Lenvatinib treatment offers significant benefits in patients with good liver function in real-world practice. The various characteristics identified in this study might be helpful as clinical predictors of response to lenvatinib and survival in clinical practice. Further studies are required to address eligibility for lenvatinib treatment in CP 7 patients.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17054, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051476

RESUMO

We investigated whether or not nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) rs2070744 genotypes can affect the response for lenvatinib treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the relation of the NOS3 rs2070744 genotypes to the tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) as the response for lenvatinib. We also examined the association between fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene polymorphisms, a potential feature of lenvatinib, and the response. There were no significant differences between the studies for either PFS or OS, even though patients with the TT genotype had a longer mean PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.60; p = 0.069) and mean OS (HR 0.46; p = 0.075) than those with the TC/CC genotypes. However, patients with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) combination pattern of the NOS3 rs2070744 TC/CC and FGFR4 rs351855 CT/TT genotypes had a significantly shorter mean PFS (HR 2.56; p = 0.006) and mean OS (HR 3.36; p = 0.013) than those with the other genotypes. The NOS3 rs2070744 genotypes did not influence the clinical response. However, the SNP combination pattern of the NOS3 rs2070744 and FGFR4 rs351855 genotypes may be helpful as treatment effect predictors and prognostic factors for HCC patients treated with lenvatinib.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/análise , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética
20.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1255-1263, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838474

RESUMO

AIM: Esophageal variceal ligation (EVL) is usually carried out to decrease the risk of hemorrhage. Several complications have been reported with the procedure, including bleeding from ligation-induced esophageal ulcers or heartburn. However, there is scant evidence for gastroesophageal reflux caused by EVL. The aim of this study was to assess 24-h pH monitoring in the esophagogastric junction before and after EVL and the bleeding rate for 18 months. METHODS: We undertook this single-center prospective trial in Kitasato University Hospital (Sagamihara, Japan). We included patients with cirrhosis who were Child-Pugh classification A or B, without uncontrollable hepatocellular carcinoma, and had F2 or larger esophageal varices, and/or were red color sign (RC) positive. The study period was from July 2012 through September 2017 for 32 patients enrolled in this study and followed up until March 2019. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were: median Child-Pugh score, 6; and mean age, 64.3 years. Before and after EVL, the median 24-h under pH 4 holding time percentages of all patients were 0.6% (range, 0-5.6%) and 0.95% (range, 0-50.6%), respectively, without a significant difference (P = 0.107). We could not find any G3 or G4 adverse events during this study, and 75% of the patients who had already suffered from moderate gastroesophageal reflux became worse after EVL (P = 0.18) and required antacid therapies. There were no patients with hemorrhage from esophageal varices. CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal variceal ligation for esophageal varices did not significantly change gastroesophageal reflux. Therefore, acid suppressive therapy might be unnecessary for patients who do not suffer from gastroesophageal reflux after EVL.

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