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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 706-718, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564435

RESUMO

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used to diagnose diabetes and assess glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. However, nonglycemic determinants, including genetic variation, may influence how accurately HbA1c reflects underlying glycemia. Analyzing the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) sequence data in 10,338 individuals from five studies and four ancestries (6,158 Europeans, 3,123 African-Americans, 650 Hispanics, and 407 East Asians), we confirmed five regions associated with HbA1c (GCK in Europeans and African-Americans, HK1 in Europeans and Hispanics, FN3K and/or FN3KRP in Europeans, and G6PD in African-Americans and Hispanics) and we identified an African-ancestry-specific low-frequency variant (rs1039215 in HBG2 and HBE1, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03). The most associated G6PD variant (rs1050828-T, p.Val98Met, MAF = 12% in African-Americans, MAF = 2% in Hispanics) lowered HbA1c (-0.88% in hemizygous males, -0.34% in heterozygous females) and explained 23% of HbA1c variance in African-Americans and 4% in Hispanics. Additionally, we identified a rare distinct G6PD coding variant (rs76723693, p.Leu353Pro, MAF = 0.5%; -0.98% in hemizygous males, -0.46% in heterozygous females) and detected significant association with HbA1c when aggregating rare missense variants in G6PD. We observed similar magnitude and direction of effects for rs1039215 (HBG2) and rs76723693 (G6PD) in the two largest TOPMed African American cohorts, and we replicated the rs76723693 association in the UK Biobank African-ancestry participants. These variants in G6PD and HBG2 were monomorphic in the European and Asian samples. African or Hispanic ancestry individuals carrying G6PD variants may be underdiagnosed for diabetes when screened with HbA1c. Thus, assessment of these variants should be considered for incorporation into precision medicine approaches for diabetes diagnosis.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 843, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696834

RESUMO

Five sequence variants in SLC16A11 (rs117767867, rs13342692, rs13342232, rs75418188, and rs75493593), which occur in two non-reference haplotypes, were recently shown to be associated with diabetes in Mexicans from the SIGMA consortium. We aimed to determine whether these previous findings would replicate in the HCHS/SOL Mexican origin group and whether genotypic effects were similar in other HCHS/SOL groups. We analyzed these five variants in 2492 diabetes cases and 5236 controls from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), which includes U.S. participants from six diverse background groups (Mainland groups: Mexican, Central American, and South American; and Caribbean groups: Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Dominican). We estimated the SNP-diabetes association in the six groups and in the combined sample. We found that the risk alleles occur in two non-reference haplotypes in HCHS/SOL, as in the SIGMA Mexicans. The haplotype frequencies were very similar between SIGMA Mexicans and the HCHS/SOL Mainland groups, but different in the Caribbean groups. The SLC16A11 sequence variants were significantly associated with risk for diabetes in the Mexican origin group (P = 0.025), replicating the SIGMA findings. However, these variants were not significantly associated with diabetes in a combined analysis of all groups, although the power to detect such effects was 85% (assuming homogeneity of effects among the groups). Additional analyses performed separately in each of the five non-Mexican origin groups were not significant. We also analyzed (1) exclusion of young controls and, (2) SNP by BMI interactions, but neither was significant in the HCHS/SOL data. The previously reported effects of SLC16A11 variants on diabetes in Mexican samples was replicated in a large Mexican-American sample, but these effects were not significant in five non-Mexican Hispanic/Latino groups sampled from U.S. populations. Lack of replication in the HCHS/SOL non-Mexicans, and in the entire HCHS/SOL sample combined may represent underlying genetic heterogeneity. These results indicate a need for future genetic research to consider heterogeneity of the Hispanic/Latino population in the assessment of disease risk, but add to the evidence suggesting SLC16A11 as a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(1): 188-200, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901700

RESUMO

Background: The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to implement an integrative approach to characterize the molecular basis of this interaction. Design: We conducted an epigenome-wide scan on 80 participants carrying either the rs5082 CC or TT genotypes and consuming either a low-SFA (<22 g/d) or high-SFA diet (≥22 g/d), matched for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes status in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). We then validated the findings in selected participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study (n = 379) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 243). Transcription and metabolomics analyses were conducted to determine the relation between epigenetic status, APOA2 mRNA expression, and blood metabolites. Results: In the BPRHS, we identified methylation site cg04436964 as exhibiting significant differences between CC and TT participants consuming a high-SFA diet, but not among those consuming low-SFA. Similar results were observed in the GOLDN Study and the FHS. Additionally, in the FHS, cg04436964 methylation was negatively correlated with APOA2 expression in the blood of participants consuming a high-SFA diet. Furthermore, when consuming a high-SFA diet, CC carriers had lower APOA2 expression than those with the TT genotype. Lastly, metabolomic analysis identified 4 pathways as overrepresented by metabolite differences between CC and TT genotypes with high-SFA intake, including tryptophan and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathways. Interestingly, these pathways were linked to rs5082-specific cg04436964 methylation differences in high-SFA consumers. Conclusions: The epigenetic status of the APOA2 regulatory region is associated with SFA intake and APOA2 -265T>C genotype, promoting an APOA2 expression difference between APOA2 genotypes on a high-SFA diet, and modulating BCAA and tryptophan metabolic pathways. These findings identify potential mechanisms by which this highly reproducible gene-diet interaction influences obesity risk, and contribute new insights to ongoing investigations of the relation between SFA and human health. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03452787.

5.
J Nutr Intermed Metab ; 8: 1-7, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), an atherogenic metabolite species, has emerged as a possible new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Animal studies have shown that circulating TMAO levels are regulated by genetic and environmental factors. However, large-scale human studies have failed to replicate the observed genetic associations, and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation have never been examined in relation to TMAO levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from the family-based Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) to investigate the heritable determinants of plasma TMAO in humans. TMAO was not associated with other plasma markers of cardiovascular disease, e.g. lipids or inflammatory cytokines. We first estimated TMAO heritability at 27%, indicating a moderate genetic influence. We used 1000 Genomes imputed data (n=626) to estimate genome-wide associations with TMAO levels, adjusting for age, sex, family relationships, and study site. The genome-wide study yielded one significant hit at the genome-wide level, located in an intergenic region on chromosome 4. We subsequently quantified epigenome-wide DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium array on CD4+ T-cells. We tested for association of methylation loci with circulating TMAO (n=847), adjusting for age, sex, family relationships, and study site as the genome-wide study plus principal components capturing CD4+ T-cell purity. Upon adjusting for multiple testing, none of the epigenetic findings were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence suggesting that neither genetic nor epigenetic factors play a critical role in establishing circulating TMAO levels in humans.

6.
J Lipid Res ; 57(12): 2200-2207, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777315

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the increased plasma TG concentration after consuming a high-fat meal, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Individual responses to a meal high in fat vary greatly, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors. However, only a few loci have been associated with TG-PPL response. Heritable epigenomic changes may be significant contributors to the unexplained inter-individual PPL variability. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 979 subjects with DNA methylation measured from CD4+ T cells, who were challenged with a high-fat meal as a part of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study. Eight methylation sites encompassing five genes, LPP, CPT1A, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, were significantly associated with PPL response at an epigenome-wide level (P < 1.1 × 10-7), but no methylation site reached epigenome-wide significance after adjusting for baseline TG levels. Higher methylation at LPP, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, and lower methylation at CPT1A methylation were correlated with an increased TG-PPL response. These PPL-associated methylation sites, also correlated with fasting TG, account for a substantially greater amount of phenotypic variance (14.9%) in PPL and fasting TG (16.3%) when compared with the genetic contribution of loci identified by our previous genome-wide association study (4.5%). In summary, the epigenome is a large contributor to the variation in PPL, and this has the potential to be used to modulate PPL and reduce CVD.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Período Pós-Prandial
7.
Genes Nutr ; 11: 23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a well-documented public health issue with both genetic and environmental determinants. Populations living at far northern latitudes are vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency and its health sequelae, although consumption of traditional native dietary pattern rich in fish and marine mammals may buffer the effects of reduced sunlight exposure. To date, few studies have investigated the genetics of vitamin D metabolism in circumpolar populations or considered genediet interactions with fish and n-3 fatty acid intake. METHODS: We searched for genomic regions exhibiting linkage and association with circulating levels of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in 982 Yup'ik individuals from the Center for Alaska Native Health Research Study. We also investigated potential interactions between genetic variants and a biomarker of traditional dietary intake, the δ15N value. RESULTS: We identified several novel regions linked with circulating vitamin D and PTH as well as replicated a previous linkage finding on 2p16.2 for vitamin D. Bioinformatic analysis revealed multiple candidate genes for both PTH and vitamin D, including CUBN, MGAT3, and NFKBIA. Targeted association analysis identified NEBL as a candidate gene for vitamin D and FNDC3B for PTH. We observed significant associations between a variant in MXD1 and vitamin D only when an interaction with the δ15N value was included. Finally, we integrated pathway level information to illustrate the biological validity of the proposed candidate genes. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence of linkage between several biologically plausible genomic regions and vitamin D metabolism in a circumpolar population. Additionally, these findings suggest that a traditional dietary pattern may modulate genetic effects on circulating vitamin D.

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