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J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(13): 3731-3737, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923411


Studying the structure-property relations of tailored dipolar phenyl and biphenylphosphonic acids, we report self-assembled monolayers with a significant decrease in the work function (WF) of indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Whereas the strengths of the dipoles are varied through the different molecular lengths and the introduction of electron-withdrawing fluorine atoms, the surface energy is kept constant through the electron-donating N, N-dimethylamine head groups. The self-assembled monolayer formation and its modification of the electrodes are investigated via infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and photoelectron spectroscopy. The WF decrease in ITO correlates with increasing molecular dipoles. The lowest ever recorded WF of 3.7 eV is achieved with the fluorinated biphenylphosphonic acid.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(45): 39821-39829, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052974


Nickel oxide (NiO) is a widely used material for efficient hole extraction in optoelectronic devices. However, its surface characteristics strongly depend on the processing history and exposure to adsorbates. To achieve controllability of the electronic and chemical properties of solution-processed nickel oxide (sNiO), we functionalize its surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-cyanophenylphosphonic acid. A detailed analysis of infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chemisorption of the molecules with a nominal layer thickness of around one monolayer and gives an insight into the chemical composition of the SAM. Density functional theory calculations reveal the possible binding configurations. By the application of the SAM, we increase the sNiO work function by up to 0.8 eV. When incorporated in organic solar cells, the increase in work function and improved energy level alignment to the donor does not lead to a higher fill factor of these cells. Instead, we observe the formation of a transport barrier, which can be reduced by increasing the conductivity of the sNiO through doping with copper oxide. We conclude that the widespread assumption of maximizing the fill factor by only matching the work function of the oxide charge extraction layer with the energy levels in the active material is a too narrow approach. Successful implementation of interface modifiers is only possible with a sufficiently high charge carrier concentration in the oxide interlayer to support efficient charge transfer across the interface.

Adv Mater ; 29(30)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585293


Stable electrical doping of organic semiconductors is fundamental for the functionality of high performance devices. It is known that dopants can be subjected to strong diffusion in certain organic semiconductors. This work studies the impact of operating conditions on thin films of the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the small molecule Spiro-MeOTAD, doped with two differently sized p-type dopants. The negatively charged dopants can drift upon application of an electric field in thin films of doped P3HT over surprisingly large distances. This drift is not observed in the small molecule Spiro-MeOTAD. Upon the dopants' directional movement in P3HT, a dedoped region forms at the negatively biased electrode, increasing the overall resistance of the thin film. In addition to electrical measurements, optical microscopy, spatially resolved infrared spectroscopy, and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy are used to investigate the drift of dopants. Dopant mobilities of 10-9 to 10-8 cm2 V-1 s-1 are estimated. This drift over several micrometers is reversible and can be controlled. Furthermore, this study presents a novel memory device to illustrate the applicability of this effect. The results emphasize the importance of dynamic processes under operating conditions that must be considered even for single doped layers.