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1.
Acute Med Surg ; 9(1): e717, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028156

RESUMO

Aim: Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological emergency. There is insufficient evidence regarding which antiepileptic therapy is most effective in patients with benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive SE. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate intravenous phenytoin (PHT) and other intravenous antiepileptic medications for SE. Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in humans up to August 2019. We compared outcomes between intravenous PHT and other intravenous medications. The important primary composite outcomes were the successful clinical cessation of seizures, mortality, and neurological outcomes at discharge. The reliability of the level of evidence for each outcome was compared using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: A total of 1,103 studies were identified from the databases, and 10 RCTs were included in the analysis. The ratio of successful clinical seizure cessation was significantly lower (risk ratio [RR] 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.97) for patients treated with intravenous PHT than with other medications. When we compared mortality and neurological outcomes at discharge, we observed no significant differences between patients treated with PHT and those treated with other medications. The RRs were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.55-2.08) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.72-1.15) for mortality and neurological outcomes at discharge, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings showed that intravenous PHT was significantly inferior to other medications in terms of the cessation of seizures. No significant differences were observed in mortality or neurological outcomes between PHT and other medications.

2.
Diagn Interv Imaging ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the survival benefits of a workflow in which an interventional radiology (IR) team participates in a primary trauma survey on patients with hemodynamically unstable trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted between 2012 and 2019 at a single institution. Patients who underwent an IR procedure as the initial hemostasis were assigned to the hemodynamically stable group (HSG) or hemodynamically unstable group (HUG). The primary and secondary outcomes were survival at hospital discharge compared with the probability of survival (Ps) and the time course. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients (100 men, 60 women; median age, 57.5 years [interquartile range (IQR): 31.5-72 years]) with an injury severity score of 24 (IQR: 13.75-34) were included. A total of 125 patients were included in the HSG group and 35 patients in the HUG group. The observational survival rate was significantly greater than the Ps rate by 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-8.4%; P = 0.005) in HSG and by 24.6% in HUG (95% CI: 16.9-32.3%; P < 0.001). The observational survival rate was significantly greater than Ps in HUG than in HSG (P < 0.001). The median time to initiate IR procedures and the median procedure time in HUG were 54 min [IQR: 45-66 min] and 48 min [IQR: 30-85 min], respectively; both were significantly shorter than those in the HSG. CONCLUSION: A trauma workflow utilizing an IR team in a primary survey is associated with improved survival of patients with hemodynamically unstable trauma when compared with Ps with a shorter time course.

3.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e694, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567577

RESUMO

Aim: This study describes the clinical characteristics and outcomes as well as the prognostic factors of patients with accidental hypothermia (AH) using Japan's nationwide registry data. Methods: The Hypothermia study 2018 and 2019, which included patients aged 18 years or older with a body temperature of 35°C or less, was a multicenter registry conducted at 87 and 89 institutions throughout Japan, with data collected from December 2018 to February 2019 and December 2019 to February 2020, respectively. Results: In total, 1363 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1194 were analyzed in this study. The median (interquartile range) age was 79 (68-87) years, and the median (interquartile range) body temperature at the emergency department was 30.8°C (28.4-33.6°C). Forty-three percent of patients with AH had a mild condition, 35.2% moderate, and 21.9% severe. AH occurred in an indoor setting in 73.4% and was caused by acute medical illness in 49.3% of patients. A total of 101 (8.5%) patients suffered from cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival at the hospital. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 24.5%, the median (interquartile range) intensive care unit stay was 4 (2-7) days, and the median (interquartile range) hospital stay was 13 (4-27) days. In the multivariable logistic analysis, the prognostic factors were age (≥75 years old), male, activities of daily living (needing total assistance), cause of AH (trauma, alcohol), Glasgow Coma Scale score, and potassium level (>5.5 mEq/L). Conclusion: The mortality rate of AH was 24.5% in Japan. The prognostic factors developed in this study may be useful for the early prediction, prevention, and awareness of severe AH.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501316

RESUMO

Intensive care unit survivors experience prolonged physical impairments, cognitive impairments, and mental health problems, commonly referred to as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). Previous studies reported the prevalence, assessment, and prevention of PICS, including the ABCDEF bundle approach. Although the management of PICS has been advanced, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed an additional challenge to PICS. The prevalence of PICS after COVID-19 extensively varied with 28-87% of cases pertaining to physical impairments, 20-57% pertaining to cognitive impairments, and 6-60% pertaining to mental health problems after 1-6 months after discharge. Each component of the ABCDEF bundle is not sufficiently provided from 16% to 52% owing to the highly transmissible nature of the virus. However, new data are emerging about analgesia, sedation, delirium care, nursing care, early mobilization, nutrition, and family support. In this review, we summarize the recent data on PICS and its new challenge in PICS after COVID-19 infection.

5.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e659, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484801

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members. As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

6.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 507, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been associated with a risk of adverse outcomes, and mortality in patients with various conditions. However, there have been few studies on whether or not frailty is associated with mortality in patients with accidental hypothermia (AH). In this study, we aim to determine this association in patients with AH using Japan's nationwide registry data. METHODS: The data from the Hypothermia STUDY 2018&19, which included patients of ≥18 years of age with a body temperature of ≤35 °C, were obtained from a multicenter registry for AH conducted at 120 institutions throughout Japan, collected from December 2018 to February 2019 and December 2019 to February 2020. The clinical frailty scale (CFS) score was used to determine the presence and degree of frailty. The primary outcome was the comparison of mortality between the frail and non-frail patient groups. RESULTS: In total, 1363 patients were included in the study, of which 920 were eligible for the analysis. The 920 patients were divided into the frail patient group (N = 221) and non-frail patient group (N = 699). After 30-days of hospitalization, 32.6% of frail patients and 20.6% of non-frail patients had died (p < 0.001). Frail patients had a significantly higher risk of 90-day mortality (Hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.17; p < 0.001). Based on the Cox proportional hazards analysis using multiple imputation, after adjustment for age, potassium level, lactate level, pH value, sex, CPK level, heart rate, platelet count, location of hypothermia incidence, and rate of tracheal intubation, the HR was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.25-2.29; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that frailty was associated with mortality in patients with AH. Preventive interventions for frailty may help to avoid death caused by AH.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Hipotermia , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipotermia/diagnóstico , Japão/epidemiologia
7.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 53, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433491

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members.As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

8.
Resusc Plus ; 7: 100140, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223396

RESUMO

Objectives: Several studies have examined the association between advanced airway management (AAM) and survival for arrest that is non-shockable, noncardiac in origin, or due to suffocation; however, the efficacy of prehospital AAM compared with no AAM following foreign body removal by emergency medical services (EMS) has not been examined. We aimed to compare neurological outcomes in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO) managed with and without AAM after foreign body removal. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study used all emergency transportation data of Japan and the All-Japan Utstein Registry. We included patients with OHCA aged ≥18 years undergoing resuscitation and removal of airway foreign bodies by EMS from January 2015 to December 2017. The exposure of interest was prehospital AAM by EMS after foreign body removal, and the primary outcome was a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (i.e., a cerebral performance category of 1-2). Results: Overall, 329,098 adults had OHCAs and 23,060 had foreign bodies removed from their airways; 3681 adult patients met our eligibility criteria and were divided as: AAM (2045) and non-AAM (1636) groups. Propensity score matching resulted in 1210 matched pairs with balanced baseline characteristics between the groups. The rate of favorable neurological outcome was significantly lower in the AAM group than in the non-AAM group (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.19-0.62). However, survival was not significantly different between the two groups (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.84-1.37). Conclusions: We have not demonstrated the benefit of AAM for patients with OHCA due to FBAO. Further study will be required to confirm the efficacy of AAM for those patients.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264977

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the value of quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) combined with other risk factors in predicting in-hospital mortality in patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected infection. This post-hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter study dataset included 34 emergency departments across Japan (December 2017 to February 2018). We included adult patients (age ≥16 years) who presented to the emergency department with suspected infection. qSOFA was calculated and recorded by senior emergency physicians when they suspected an infection. Different types of sepsis-related risk factors (demographic, functional, and laboratory values) were chosen from prior studies. A logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive value of qSOFA for in-hospital mortality in models based on the following combination of predictors: 1) qSOFA-Only; 2) qSOFA+Age; 3) qSOFA+Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS); 4) qSOFA+Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI); 5) qSOFA+lactate levels; 6) qSOFA+Age+CCI+CFS+lactate levels. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and other key clinical statistics at Youden's index, where the sum of sensitivity and specificity is maximized. Following prior literature, an AUC >0.9 was deemed to indicate high accuracy; 0.7-0.9, moderate accuracy; 0.5-0.7, low accuracy; and 0.5, a chance result. Of the 951 patients included in the analysis, 151 (15.9%) died during hospitalization. The AUC for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.627 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.580-0.673) for the qSOFA-Only model. Addition of other variables only marginally improved the model's AUC; the model that included all potentially relevant variables yielded an AUC of only 0.730 (95% CI: 0.687-0.774). Other key statistic values were similar among all models, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.55-0.65 and 0.60-0.75, respectively. In this post-hoc data analysis from a prospective multicenter study based in Japan, combining qSOFA with other sepsis-related risk factors only marginally improved the model's predictive value.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sepse/mortalidade
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067550

RESUMO

A single-center retrospective cohort study examined the association between molar malocclusion status at ICU admission and loss of activities of daily living (ADL) at hospital discharge among acutely ill patients. Patients were assigned to the bilateral occlusion group or malocclusion group (N = 227 and 93, respectively). The following data were collected from electronic medical records: age, sex, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) on admission, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ score, confirmed diagnosis (neurological disorders or others), CFS at hospital discharge, and occlusion condition. Patients who were frail at admission (CFS > 5) were excluded from analysis, and ADL loss was defined as CFS > 5 at hospital discharge. Multivariate analysis showed malocclusion was independently associated with ADL loss [OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.13-3.64; p = 0.02]. For those aged 65 and older, malocclusion was significantly associated with both ADL loss [OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.44-7.32; p < 0.01] and the incidence of delirium [OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.14-5.95; p = 0.02]. Malocclusion on ICU admission was associated with ADL loss in critically ill patients, and was associated with ADL loss and the incidence of delirium in the elderly. Poor oral health was a poor prognostic factor among critically ill patients.

11.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(4): 285-291, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical frailty scale (CFS) score has been validated as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people. Older people are at a higher risk of sepsis and have a higher mortality rate. However, the association of frailty on outcomes in patients with sepsis has not been completely examined. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the association between CFS and outcomes in patients with sepsis. DESIGN: This was a multicenter prospective cohort substudy. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 37 emergency departments from across Japan. The patients (age ≥16 years) were included in this study if they had suspected infection at an emergency department during December 2017-February 2018. OUTCOME MEASURE AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, stratified by the CFS score categories. The secondary outcomes were the duration of hospital stay, number of ICU-free days (ICUFDs) and number of ventilator-free days (VFDs). MAIN RESULTS: A total of 917 patients were included. The median age was 79 years. The CFS score was associated with an increased risk of 28-day mortality and with a higher likelihood of long-term hospital stay and short-term VFDs and ICUFDs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the CFS score was a predictor of 28-day mortality [odds ratio (OR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.42]. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported that in patients with suspected sepsis in the emergency department, frailty may be associated with poor prognosis and length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Adolescente , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11031, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040091

RESUMO

Trauma patients die from massive bleeding due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype in the early phase, which transforms to DIC with a thrombotic phenotype in the late phase of trauma, contributing to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and a consequently poor outcome. This is a sub-analysis of a multicenter prospective descriptive cross-sectional study on DIC to evaluate the effect of a DIC diagnosis on the survival probability and predictive performance of DIC scores for massive transfusion, MODS, and hospital death in severely injured trauma patients. A DIC diagnosis on admission was associated with a lower survival probability (Log Rank P < 0.001), higher frequency of massive transfusion and MODS and a higher mortality rate than no such diagnosis. The DIC scores at 0 and 3 h significantly predicted massive transfusion, MODS, and hospital death. Markers of thrombin and plasmin generation and fibrinolysis inhibition also showed a good predictive ability for these three items. In conclusion, a DIC diagnosis on admission was associated with a low survival probability. DIC scores obtained immediately after trauma predicted a poor prognosis of severely injured trauma patients.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Coagulação Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Fibrinólise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
13.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968411

RESUMO

Aim: A lack of known guidelines for the provision of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) to patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has led to variability in practice between hospitals even in the same country. Because variability in ECPR practice has not been completely examined, we aimed to describe the variability in ECPR practice in patients with OHCA from the emergency department (ED) to the intensive care units (ICU). Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire to examine variability in ECPR practice was completed in January 2020 by 36 medical institutions who participated in the SAVE-J II study. Institutional demographics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, initial resuscitation management, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) initiation, initial ECMO management, intra-aortic balloon pumping/endotracheal intubation/management during coronary angiography, and computed tomography criteria were recorded. Results: We received responses from all 36 institutions. Four institutions (11.1%) had a hybrid emergency room. Cardiovascular surgery was always involved throughout the entire ECMO process in only 14.7% of institutions; 60% of institutions had formal inclusion criteria and 50% had formal exclusion criteria. In two-thirds of institutions, emergency physicians carried out cannulation. Catheterization room was the leading location of cannulation (48.6%) followed by ED (31.4%). The presence of formal exclusion criteria significantly increased with increasing ECPR volume (P for trend <0.001). Intra-aortic balloon pumping was routinely initiated in only 25% of institutions. Computed tomography was routinely carried out before coronary angiography in 25% of institutions. Conclusions: We described the variability in ECPR practice in patients with OHCA from the ED to the ICU.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9501, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947902

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a machine learning-based mortality prediction model for hospitalized heat-related illness patients. After 2393 hospitalized patients were extracted from a multicentered heat-related illness registry in Japan, subjects were divided into the training set for development (n = 1516, data from 2014, 2017-2019) and the test set (n = 877, data from 2020) for validation. Twenty-four variables including characteristics of patients, vital signs, and laboratory test data at hospital arrival were trained as predictor features for machine learning. The outcome was death during hospital stay. In validation, the developed machine learning models (logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest, XGBoost) demonstrated favorable performance for outcome prediction with significantly increased values of the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPR) of 0.415 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.336-0.494], 0.395 [CI 0.318-0.472], 0.426 [CI 0.346-0.506], and 0.528 [CI 0.442-0.614], respectively, compared to that of the conventional acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE)-II score of 0.287 [CI 0.222-0.351] as a reference standard. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values were also high over 0.92 in all models, although there were no statistical differences compared to APACHE-II. This is the first demonstration of the potential of machine learning-based mortality prediction models for heat-related illnesses.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , APACHE , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Shock ; 56(4): 507-513, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978606

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Glycemic control strategies for sepsis have changed significantly over the last decade, but their impact on dysglycemia and its associated outcomes has been poorly understood. In addition, there is controversy regarding the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia in sepsis. To evaluate the incidence and risks of dysglycemia under current strategy, we conducted a preplanned subanalysis of the sepsis cohort in a prospective, multicenter FORECAST study. A total of 1,140 patients with severe sepsis, including 259 patients with pre-existing diabetes, were included. Median blood glucose levels were approximately 140 mg/dL at 0 and 72 h indicating that blood glucose was moderately controlled. The rate of initial and late hyperglycemia was 27.3% and 21.7%, respectively. The rate of early hypoglycemic episodes during the initial 24 h was 13.2%. Glycemic control was accompanied by a higher percentage of initial and late hyperglycemia but not with early hypoglycemic episodes, suggesting that glycemic control was targeted at excess hyperglycemia. In nondiabetic patients, late hyperglycemia (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval; P value: 1.816, 1.116-2.955, 0.016) and early hypoglycemic episodes (1.936, 1.180-3.175, 0.009) were positively associated with in-hospital mortality. Further subgroup analysis suggested that late hyperglycemia and early hypoglycemic episodes independently, and probably synergistically, affect the outcomes. In diabetic patients, however, these correlations were not observed. In conclusion, a significantly high incidence of dysglycemia was observed in our sepsis cohort under moderate glycemic control. Late hyperglycemia in addition to early hypoglycemia was associated with poor outcomes at least in nondiabetic patients. More sophisticated approaches are necessary to reduce the incidence of these serious complications.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 660367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842515

RESUMO

Background: Advanced Life Support (ALS) is regarded to be associated with improved survival in pre-hospital trauma care when compared to Basic Life Support (BLS) irrespective of lack of evidence. The aim of this study is to ascertain ALS improves survival for trauma in prehospital settings when compared to BLS. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for published controlled trials (CTs), and observational studies that were published until Aug 2017. The population of interest were adults (>18 years old) trauma patients who were transported by ground transportation and required resuscitation in prehospital settings. We compared outcomes between the ALS and BLS groups. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were neurological outcome and time spent on scene. Results: We identified 2,502 studies from various databases and 10 studies were included in the analysis (two CTs, and eight observational studies). The outcomes were not statistically significant between the ALS and BLS groups (pooled OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.36 for mortality, pooled OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.42 for good neurological outcomes, pooled mean difference -0.96; 95% CI-6.64 to 4.72 for on-scene time) in CTs. In observational studies, ALS prolonged on-scene time and increased mortality (pooled OR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.31 to 1.86 for mortality, and pooled mean difference, 1.26; 95% CI: 0.07 to 2.45 for on-scene time). Conclusions: In prehospital settings, the present study showed no advantages of ALS on the outcomes in patients with trauma compared to BLS.

17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 169-175, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of accidental hypothermia (AH) is low, and the length of hospital stay in patients with AH remains poorly understood. The present study explored which factors were related to prolonged hospitalization among patients with AH using Japan's nationwide registry data. METHODS: The data from the Hypothermia STUDY 2018, which included patients ≥18 years old with a body temperature ≤ 35 °C, were obtained from a multicenter registry for AH conducted at 89 institutions throughout Japan, collected from December 1, 2018, to February 28, 2019. The patients were divided into a "short-stay patients" group (within 7 days) and "long-stay patients" group (more than 7 days). A logistic regression analysis after multiple imputation was performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for prolonged hospitalization with age, frailty, location, causes underlying the hypothermia, temperature, pH, potassium level, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score as independent variables. RESULTS: In total, 656 patients were included in the study, of which 362 were eligible for the analysis. The median length of hospital stay was 17 days. Of the 362 patients, 265 (73.2%) stayed in the hospital for more than 7 days. The factors associated with prolonged hospitalization were frailty (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.10; p = 0.027), the occurrence of indoor (OR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.58-6.46; p = 0.001), alcohol intoxication (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.56; p = 0.004), pH (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.76; p = 0.029), potassium level (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00-1.85; p = 0.048), and DIC score (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.13-2.10; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, indoor situation, alcohol intoxication, pH value, potassium level, and DIC score were factors contributing to prolonged hospitalization in patients with AH. Preventing frailty may help reduce the length of hospital stay in patients with AH. In addition, measuring the pH value and potassium level by an arterial blood gas analysis at the ED is recommended for the early evaluation of AH.


Assuntos
Hipotermia/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
18.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 19, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on hyperoxemia among patients with trauma has been limited, other than traumatic brain injuries. This study aimed to elucidate whether hyperoxemia during resuscitation of patients with trauma was associated with unfavorable outcomes. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a prospective observational study was carried out at 39 tertiary hospitals in 2016-2018 in adult patients with trauma and injury severity score (ISS) of > 15. Hyperoxemia during resuscitation was defined as PaO2 of ≥ 300 mmHg on hospital arrival and/or 3 h after arrival. Intensive care unit (ICU)-free days were compared between patients with and without hyperoxemia. An inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPW) analysis was conducted to adjust patient characteristics including age, injury mechanism, comorbidities, vital signs on presentation, chest injury severity, and ISS. Analyses were stratified with intubation status at the emergency department (ED). The association between biomarkers and ICU length of stay were then analyzed with multivariate models. RESULTS: Among 295 severely injured trauma patients registered, 240 were eligible for analysis. Patients in the hyperoxemia group (n = 58) had shorter ICU-free days than those in the non-hyperoxemia group [17 (10-21) vs 23 (16-26), p < 0.001]. IPW analysis revealed the association between hyperoxemia and prolonged ICU stay among patients not intubated at the ED [ICU-free days = 16 (12-22) vs 23 (19-26), p = 0.004], but not among those intubated at the ED [18 (9-20) vs 15 (8-23), p = 0.777]. In the hyperoxemia group, high inflammatory markers such as soluble RAGE and HMGB-1, as well as low lung-protective proteins such as surfactant protein D and Clara cell secretory protein, were associated with prolonged ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperoxemia until 3 h after hospital arrival was associated with prolonged ICU stay among severely injured trauma patients not intubated at the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR, UMIN000019588 . Registered on November 15, 2015.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia/etiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670557

RESUMO

Disseminated intravascular coagulation, a severe clinical condition caused by an underlying disease, involves a markedly continuous and widespread activation of coagulation in the circulating blood and the formation of numerous microvascular thrombi. A snakebite, including that of the Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus), demonstrates this clinical condition. Thus, an animal model using Yamakagashi venom was constructed. Yamakagashi venom was administered to rats, and its lethality and the changes in blood coagulation factors were detected after venom injection. When 300 µg venom was intramuscularly administered to 12-week-old rats, (1) they exhibited hematuria with plasma hemolysis and died within 48 h; (2) Thrombocytopenia in the blood was observed in the rats; (3) irreversible prolongation of prothrombin time in the plasma to the measurement limit occurred; (4) fibrinogen concentration in the plasma irreversibly decreased below the measurement limit; and (5) A transient increase in the plasma concentration of D-dimer was observed. In this model, a fixed amount of Rhabdophis tigrinus venom injection resulted in the clinical symptom similar to the human pathology with snakebite. The use of the rat model is very effective in validating the therapeutic effect of human disseminated intravascular coagulation condition due to snakebite.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Colubridae , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Venenos de Serpentes , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hematúria/etiologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Mordeduras de Serpentes/sangue , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5347, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674716

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown inconsistent prognostic accuracy for mortality with both quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. We aimed to validate the accuracy of qSOFA and the SIRS criteria for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with suspected infection in the emergency department. A prospective study was conducted including participants with suspected infection who were hospitalised or died in 34 emergency departments in Japan. Prognostic accuracy of qSOFA and SIRS criteria for in-hospital mortality was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Of the 1060 participants, 402 (37.9%) and 915 (86.3%) had qSOFA ≥ 2 and SIRS criteria ≥ 2 (given thresholds), respectively, and there were 157 (14.8%) in-hospital deaths. Greater accuracy for in-hospital mortality was shown with qSOFA than with the SIRS criteria (AUROC: 0.64 versus 0.52, difference + 0.13, 95% CI [+ 0.07, + 0.18]). Sensitivity and specificity for predicting in-hospital mortality at the given thresholds were 0.55 and 0.65 based on qSOFA and 0.88 and 0.14 based on SIRS criteria, respectively. To predict in-hospital mortality in patients visiting to the emergency department with suspected infection, qSOFA was demonstrated to be modestly more accurate than the SIRS criteria albeit insufficiently sensitive.Clinical Trial Registration: The study was pre-registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000027258).

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