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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Chron Respir Dis ; 16: 1479973119832025, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836794

RESUMO

While there are both ethical and practical imperatives to address health inequity issues related to chronic disease management for persons with social complexity, existing programs often do not appropriately address the needs of these individuals. This leads to low levels of participation in programs, suboptimal chronic disease management, and higher health-care utilization. The aims of this project were to describe the challenges related to availability, accessibility, and acceptability faced by socially complex patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were eligible, but declined enrollment in a traditional Chronic Disease Management Program (CDMP). Using a qualitative descriptive study approach informed by a health equity lens, interviews with participants, managers, and a focus group with providers were used to gather data addressing the above aims. Qualitative data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke's theoretical thematic analysis approach. The ability of participants to manage chronic disease was profoundly influenced by contextual and personal factors, such as poverty, disability, personal attitudes and beliefs (including shame, mistrust, and hopelessness), and barriers inherent in the organization of the health-care system. The existing chronic disease management program did not adequately address the most critical needs of socially complex patients. Challenges with accessibility and acceptability of chronic disease management and health services played important roles in the ways these socially complex participants managed their chronic illness. The individualistic approach to self-management of chronic illness inherent in conventional CDMP can be poorly aligned with the needs, capacity, and circumstances of many socially complex patients. Innovative models of care that promote incremental and guided approaches to enhancing health and improving self-efficacy need further development and evaluation.

3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(3): 169-174, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects specific subpopulations in the United States, including individuals born in HBV-endemic countries and persons engaging in high-risk behaviors. METHODS: The 2003-2013 HBV registry data and surveillance investigations for Philadelphia, PA were matched to death certificate data to examine demographic, risk factor, and cause of death characteristics among HBV-infected populations. Bivariate analysis compared investigated foreign-born (FB) and US-born chronic HBV individuals. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations between HBV-status, birth origin, demographic information, and liver-related death. RESULTS: Of 773 investigated HBV-infected individuals, 159 were US-born and 614 were FB and of primarily non-Hispanic Asian descent. Behavioral risk factors were more often reported by US-born individuals. HBV-infected FB decedents were twice as likely as US-born decedents to have a liver-related cause of death, whereas HIV/AIDS and drug overdose were more likely causes of death among those born in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: There are two HBV-infected populations in Philadelphia: 1) FB individuals most likely infected at birth or during early childhood and 2) US-born individuals with behaviors suggestive of risk-related HBV acquisition. These findings illustrate the need for both FB and US-born individuals with ongoing risk behaviors to receive routine HBV screening, vaccination if indicated, and medical care for outcomes of chronic HBV infection.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/etnologia , Hepatopatias/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Hepatite B/mortalidade , Humanos , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parto , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
4.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 571-580, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875172

RESUMO

Information hierarchies are difficult to express when real-world space or time constraints force traversing the hierarchy in linear presentations, such as in educational books and classroom courses. We present booc.io, which allows linear and non-linear presentation and navigation of educational concepts and material. To support a breadth of material for each concept, booc.io is Web based, which allows adding material such as lecture slides, book chapters, videos, and LTIs. A visual interface assists the creation of the needed hierarchical structures. The goals of our system were formed in expert interviews, and we explain how our design meets these goals. We adapt a real-world course into booc.io, and perform introductory qualitative evaluation with students.

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