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Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493


Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.

Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12898, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732891


It is challenging to identify somatic variants from high-throughput sequence reads due to tumor heterogeneity, sub-clonality, and sequencing artifacts. In this study, we evaluated the performance of eight primary somatic variant callers and multiple ensemble methods using both real and synthetic whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing, and deep targeted sequencing datasets with the NA12878 cell line. The test results showed that a simple consensus approach can significantly improve performance even with a limited number of callers and is more robust and stable than machine learning based ensemble approaches. To fully exploit the multi-callers, we also developed a software package, SomaticCombiner, that can combine multiple callers and integrates a new variant allelic frequency (VAF) adaptive majority voting approach, which can maintain sensitive detection for variants with low VAFs.

Algoritmos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Exoma , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
Health Sci Rep ; 3(2): e155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382660


Background and aims: Guatemala has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Western hemisphere. The major risk factors in Guatemala are not well characterized, but the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) appears to be low, while the prevalence of aflatoxin (AFB1) exposure appears to be high. To examine whether AFB1 may contribute to the elevated incidence of HCC in Guatemala, this study examined the frequency of the AFB1-signature mutation in the TP53 gene (R249S) as well as other somatic mutations. In addition, we assessed whether the frequency of the TP53 mutation differed by sex. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HCC tissues were obtained from three hospitals in Guatemala City between 2016 and 2017. In addition, tumor tissues preserved in RNAlater were also obtained. Sociodemographic and clinical information including HBV and HCV status were collected. Targeted sequencing of TP53 was performed in the FFPE samples, and a panel of 253 cancer-related genes was sequenced in the RNAlater samples. Results: Ninety-one FFPE tissues were examined, from 52 men and 39 women. Median (IQR) age at diagnosis was 62 (51-70). Among those with known HBV and HCV status, two were HBV+ and three were HCV+. Overall, 47% of the HCCs had a TP53 mutation. The AFB1-signature R249S mutation was present in 24%. No overlap between the R249S mutation and HBV+ was observed in this cohort. Among 18 RNAlater samples examined, 44% had any TP53 mutation and 33% had the R249S mutation. Other somatic mutations were identified in known HCC driver genes. Conclusions: The presence of the TP53 R249S mutation in the samples studied suggests that AFB1 may contribute to the high incidence of HCC in Guatemala. The proportion of HBV+ tumors was low, suggesting that AFB1 may be associated with HCC in the absence of concomitant HBV infection. Further investigation of AFB1 and other risk factors for HCC in Guatemala is warranted.

Br J Nutr ; 116(6): 953-60, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515444


A few studies have examined the association between vitamin D and telomere length, and fewer still have examined the relationship in black or male populations. We investigated the cross-sectional association between the vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in plasma and relative leucocyte telomere length (LTL) in 1154 US radiologic technologists who were 48-93 years old (373 white females, 278 white males, 338 black females, 165 black males). Plasma 25(OH)D concentration was measured by the chemiluminescence immunoassay, and relative LTL was measured by quantitative PCR. Logistic regression was used to obtain OR and 95 % CI for long v. short (based on median) LTL in relation to continuous 25(OH)D, quartiles of 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D deficiency. We found no significant association between continuous 25(OH)D and long LTL in all participants (P trend=0·440), nor in white females (P trend=0·845), white males (P trend=0·636), black females (P trend=0·967) or black males (P trend=0·484). Vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D<30 nmol/l), however, was significantly associated with short LTL in whites (P=0·024), but not in other groups. In this population, we found little evidence to support associations between 25(OH)D and long LTL over the entire range of 25(OH)D in the overall study population or by sex and race.

Grupos de Populações Continentais , Leucócitos , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/sangue