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1.
Biomaterials ; 230: 119638, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810728

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were generated on several biomaterials from human amniotic fluid in completely xeno-free and feeder-free conditions via the transfection of pluripotent genes using a nonintegrating RNA Sendai virus vector. The effect of xeno-free culture medium on the efficiency of the establishment of human amniotic fluid stem cells from amniotic fluid was evaluated. Subsequently, the effect of cell culture biomaterials on the reprogramming efficiency was investigated during the reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into hiPSCs. Cells cultured in laminin-511, laminin-521, and Synthemax II-coated dishes and hydrogels having optimal elasticity that were engrafted with specific oligopeptides derived from vitronectin could be reprogrammed into hiPSCs with high efficiency. The reprogrammed cells expressed pluripotency proteins and had the capability to differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Human iPSCs could be generated successfully and at high efficiency (0.15-0.25%) in completely xeno-free conditions from the selection of optimal cell culture biomaterials.

2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111727, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862637

RESUMO

Blindness and vision impairment are caused by irremediable retinal degeneration in affected individuals worldwide. Cell therapy for a retinal replacement can potentially rescue their vision, specifically for those who lost the light sensing photoreceptors in the eye. As such, well-characterized retinal cells are required for the replacement purposes. Stem cell-based therapy in photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium transplantation is well received, however, the drawbacks of retinal transplantation is the limited clinical protocols development, insufficient number of transplanted cells for recovery, the selection of potential stem cell sources that can be differentiated into the target cells, and the ability of cells to migrate to the host tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) belong to a subset of mesenchymal stem cells, and are recently being studied due to its high capability of differentiating into cells of the neuronal lineage. In this review, we look into the potential uses of DPSC in treating retinal degeneration, and also the current data supporting its application.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/citologia , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Humanos , Células Fotorreceptoras/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
3.
Biomater Sci ; 7(12): 5467-5481, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656967

RESUMO

Current xeno-free and chemically defined methods for the differentiation of hPSCs (human pluripotent stem cells) into cardiomyocytes are not efficient and are sometimes not reproducible. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable and efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes for future use in cardiovascular research related to drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and disease modeling. We evaluated two representative differentiation methods that were reported previously, and we further developed original, more efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes under xeno-free, chemically defined conditions. The developed protocol successively differentiated hPSCs into cardiomyocytes, approximately 90-97% of which expressed the cardiac marker cTnT, with beating speeds and sarcomere lengths that were similar to those of a healthy adult human heart. The optimal cell culture biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs were also evaluated using extracellular matrix-mimetic material-coated dishes. Synthemax II-coated and Laminin-521-coated dishes were found to be the most effective and efficient biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs according to the observation of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes with high survival ratios, high beating colony numbers, a similar beating frequency to that of a healthy adult human heart, high purity levels (high cTnT expression) and longer sarcomere lengths similar to those of a healthy adult human heart.

4.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(45): 7110-7119, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513217

RESUMO

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), such as human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), present heterogeneous characteristics, including varying differentiation abilities and genotypes. hADSCs isolated under different conditions exhibit differences in stemness. We isolated hADSCs from human fat tissues via culture on different cell culture biomaterials including tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes and extracellular matrix protein (ECM)-coated dishes in medium supplemented with 5% or 10% serum-converted human platelet lysate (hPL) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a control. Currently, it is not clear whether xeno-free hPL in the cell culture medium promotes the ability of hMSCs such as hADSCs to differentiate into several cell lineages compared to the xenomaterial FBS. We investigated whether a synchronized effect of ECM (Matrigel, fibronectin, and recombinant vitronectin) coatings on TCPS dishes for efficient hADSC differentiation could be observed when hADSCs were cultured in hPL medium. We found that Matrigel-coated dishes promoted hADSC differentiation into osteoblasts and suppressed differentiation into chondrocytes in 10% hPL medium. Recombinant vitronectin- and fibronectin-coated dishes greatly promoted hADSC differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes in 5% and 10% hPL media. hPL promoted hADSC differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes compared to FBS on the fibronectin-coated surface and recombinant vitronectin-coated surface.

5.
Biomater Sci ; 7(10): 4345-4362, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411209

RESUMO

Recombinant vitronectin-grafted hydrogels were developed by adjusting surface charge of the hydrogels with grafting of poly-l-lysine for optimal culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) under xeno- and feeder-free culture conditions, with elasticity regulated by crosslinking time (10-30 kPa), in contrast to conventional recombinant vitronectin coating dishes, which have a fixed stiff surface (3 GPa). hESCs proliferated on the hydrogels for over 10 passages and differentiated into the cells derived from three germ layers indicating the maintenance of pluripotency. hESCs on the hydrogels differentiated into cardiomyocytes under xeno-free culture conditions with much higher efficiency (80% of cTnT+ cells) than those on conventional recombinant vitronectin or Matrigel-coating dishes just only after 12 days of induction. It is important to have an optimal design of cell culture biomaterials where biological cues (recombinant vitronectin) and physical cues (optimal elasticity) are combined for high differentiation of hESCs into specific cell lineages, such as cardiomyocytes, under xeno-free and feeder-free culture conditions.

6.
Biomaterials ; 221: 119411, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419657

RESUMO

Commonly, stem cell culture is based on batch-type culture, which is laborious and expensive. We continuously cultured human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) on thermoresponsive dish surfaces, where hPSCs were partially detached on the same thermoresponsive dish by decreasing the temperature of the thermoresponsive dish to be below the lower critical solution temperature for only 30 min. Then, the remaining cells were continuously cultured in fresh culture medium, and the detached stem cells were harvested in the exchanged culture medium. hPSCs were continuously cultured for ten cycles on the thermoresponsive dish surface, which was prepared by coating the surface with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-styrene) and oligovitronectin-grafted poly(acrylic acid-co-styrene) or recombinant vitronectin for hPSC binding sites to maintain hPSC pluripotency. After ten cycles of continuous culture on the thermoresponsive dish surface, the detached cells expressed pluripotency proteins and had the ability to differentiate into cells derived from the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the detached cells differentiated into specific cell lineages, such as cardiomyocytes, with high efficiency.

7.
Langmuir ; 35(5): 1727-1739, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925240

RESUMO

Poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET)-based materials face general biofouling issues that we addressed by grafting a copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate and sulfobetaine methacrylate, poly(GMA- r-SBMA). The grafting procedure involved a dip-coating step followed by UV-exposure and led to successful grafting of the copolymer as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. It did not modify the pore size nor the porosity of the PET membranes. In addition, their surface hydrophilicity was considerably improved, with a water contact angle falling to 30° in less than 20 s and 0° in less than 1 min. The effect of copolymer concentration in the coating bath (dip-coating procedure) and UV exposure time (UV step) were scrutinized during biofouling studies involving several bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, but also whole blood and HT1080 fibroblasts cells. The results indicate that if all conditions led to improved biofouling mitigation, due to the efficiency of the zwitterionic copolymer and grafting procedure, a higher concentration (15 mg/mL) and longer UV exposure time (at least 10 min) enhanced the grafting density which reflected on the biofouling results and permitted a better general biofouling control regardless of the nature of the biofoulant (bacteria, blood cells, fibroblasts).


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Betaína/análogos & derivados , Betaína/síntese química , Betaína/química , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Compostos de Epóxi/síntese química , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metacrilatos/síntese química , Metacrilatos/química , Polietilenotereftalatos/síntese química , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Regen Ther ; 9: 100-110, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525080

RESUMO

Introduction: Anti-tuberculosis agent rifampicin is extensively used for its effectiveness. Possible complications of tuberculosis and prolonged rifampicin treatment include kidney damage; these conditions can lead to reduced efficiency of the affected kidney and consequently to other diseases. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) can be used in conjunction with rifampicin to avert kidney damage; because of its regenerative and differentiating potentials into kidney cells. This research was designed to assess the modulatory and regenerative potentials of MSCs in averting kidney damage due to rifampicin-induced kidney toxicity in Wistar rats and their progenies. BMMSCs used in this research were characterized according to the guidelines of International Society for Cellular Therapy. Methods: The rats (male and female) were divided into three experimental groups, as follows: Group 1: control rats (4 males & 4 females); Group 2: rats treated with rifampicin only (4 males & 4 females); and Group 3: rats treated with rifampicin plus MSCs (4 males & 4 females). Therapeutic doses of rifampicin (9 mg/kg/day for 3-months) and MSCs infusions (twice/month for 3-months) were administered orally and intravenously respectively. At the end of the three months, the animals were bred together to determine if the effects would carry over to the next generation. Following breeding, the rats were sacrificed to harvest serum for biochemical analysis and the kidneys were also harvested for histological analysis and quantification of the glomeruli size, for the adult rats and their progenies. Results: The results showed some level of alterations in the biochemical indicators and histopathological damage in the rats that received rifampicin treatment alone, while the control and stem cells treated group showed apparently normal to nearly normal levels of both bio-indicators and normal histological architecture. Conclusions: Intravenous administration of MSCs yielded sensible development, as seen from biochemical indicators, histology and the quantitative cell analysis, hence implying the modulatory and regenerative properties of MSCs.

9.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 183: 127-132, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinal degeneration is a condition ensued by various ocular disorders such as artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, retrolental fibroplasia and retinitis pigmentosa which cause abnormal loss of photoreceptor cells and lead to eventual vision impairment. No efficient treatment has yet been found, however, the use of stem cell therapy such as bone marrow and embryonic stem cells has opened a new treatment modality for retinal degenerative diseases. The major goal of this study is to analyze the potential of endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow to differentiate into retinal neural cells for regenerative medicine purposes. METHODS: In this study, endothelial progenitor cells were induced in-vitro with photoreceptor growth factor (taurine) for 21 days. Subsequently, the morphology and gene expression of CRX and RHO of the photoreceptors-induced EPCs were examined through immunostaining assay. FINDINGS: The results indicated that the induced endothelial progenitor cells demonstrated positive gene expression of CRX and RHO. Our findings suggested that EPC cells may have a high advantage in cell replacement therapy for treating eye disease, in addition to other neural diseases, and may be a suitable cell source in regenerative medicine for eye disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Rodopsina/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/citologia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Rodopsina/genética , Transativadores/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
10.
J Vis Exp ; (132)2018 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443075

RESUMO

The effect of physical cues, such as the stiffness of biomaterials on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, has been investigated by several researchers. However, most of these investigators have used polyacrylamide hydrogels for stem cell culture in their studies. Therefore, their results are controversial because those results might originate from the specific characteristics of the polyacrylamide and not from the physical cue (stiffness) of the biomaterials. Here, we describe a protocol for preparing hydrogels, which are not based on polyacrylamide, where various stem, cells including human embryonic stem (ES) cells and human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be cultured. Hydrogels with varying stiffness were prepared from bioinert polyvinyl alcohol-co-itaconic acid (P-IA), with stiffness controlled by crosslinking degree by changing crosslinking time. The P-IA hydrogels grafted with and without oligopeptides derived from extracellular matrix were investigated as a future platform for stem cell culture and differentiation. The culture and passage of amniotic fluid stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, human ES cells, and human iPS cells is described in detail here. The oligopeptide P-IA hydrogels showed superior performances, which were induced by their stiffness properties. This protocol reports the synthesis of the biomaterial, their surface manipulation, along with controlling the stiffness properties and finally, their impact on stem cell fate using xeno-free culture conditions. Based on recent studies, such modified substrates can act as future platforms to support and direct the fate of various stem cells line to different linkages; and further, regenerate and restore the functions of the lost organ or tissue.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Álcool de Polivinil/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Álcool de Polivinil/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(2)2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438279

RESUMO

Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area. In cases where there is concurrent inflammation, once infection is controlled, anti-inflammatory agents are indicated to reduce ocular damage from inflammation which ensues. Despite advances in medical research; progress in the control of ocular microbial infections remains slow. The varying level of ocular tissue recovery in individuals and the incomplete visual functional restoration indicate the chief limitations of current strategies. The development of a more extensive therapy is needed to help in healing to regain vision in patients. Stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can give rise to a vast variety of cell types following proper differentiation protocol. Stem cell therapy shows promise in reducing inflammation and repairing tissue damage on the eye caused by microbial infections by its ability to modulate immune response and promote tissue regeneration. This article reviews a selected list of common infectious agents affecting the eye; which include fungi; viruses; parasites and bacteria with the aim of discussing the current antimicrobial treatments and the associated therapeutic challenges. We also provide recent updates of the advances in stem cells studies on sepsis therapy as a suggestion of optimum treatment regime for ocular microbial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(11): 10504-10514, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988379

RESUMO

The control of filariasis vectors has been enhanced in several areas, but there are main challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of cheap and eco-friendly products. The toxicity of iron (Fe0) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated yet. We studied the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Fe0 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Culex quinquefasciatus. Fe0 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles produced by green (using a Ficus natalensis aqueous extract) and chemical nanosynthesis, respectively, were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD analysis, SEM, and EDX assays. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments on Cx. quinquefasciatus, LC50 of Fe0 nanoparticles ranged from 20.9 (I instar larvae) to 43.7 ppm (pupae) and from 4.5 (I) to 22.1 ppm (pupae) for Fe2O3 nanoparticles synthesized chemically. Furthermore, the predation efficiency of the guppy fish, Poecilia reticulata, after a single treatment with sub-lethal doses of Fe0 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles was magnified. Overall, this work provides new insights about the toxicity of Fe0 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against mosquito vectors; we suggested that green and chemical fabricated nano-iron may be considered to develop novel and effective pesticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/análise , Ficus , Peixes , Ferro/análise , Mosquitos Vetores , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(11): 10471-10481, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936796

RESUMO

Anopheles stephensi acts as vector of Plasmodium parasites, which are responsible for malaria in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. Currently, malaria management is a big challenge due to the presence of insecticide-resistant strains as well as to the development of Plasmodium species highly resistant to major antimalarial drugs. Therefore, the present study focused on biosurfactant produced by two bacteria Bacillus subtilis A1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3, evaluating them for insecticidal applications against malaria mosquitoes. The produced biosurfactants were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which confirmed that biosurfactants had a lipopeptidic nature. Both biosurfactants were tested against larvae and pupae of A. stephensi. LC50 values were 3.58 (larva I), 4.92 (II), 5.73 (III), 7.10 (IV), and 7.99 (pupae) and 2.61 (I), 3.68 (II), 4.48 (III), 5.55 (IV), and 6.99 (pupa) for biosurfactants produced by B. subtilis A1 and P. stutzeri NA3, respectively. Treatments with bacterial surfactants led to various physiological changes including longer pupal duration, shorter adult oviposition period, and reduced longevity and fecundity. To the best of our knowledge, there are really limited reports on the mosquitocidal and physiological effects due to biosurfactant produced by bacterial strains. Overall, the toxic activity of these biosurfactant on all young instars of A. stephensi, as well as their major impact on adult longevity and fecundity, allows their further consideration for the development of insecticides in the fight against malaria mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/parasitologia , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Bacillus subtilis , Fertilidade , Mosquitos Vetores , Pseudomonas stutzeri , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(11): 10184-10206, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755145

RESUMO

The rapid spread of highly aggressive arboviruses, parasites, and bacteria along with the development of resistance in the pathogens and parasites, as well as in their arthropod vectors, represents a huge challenge in modern parasitology and tropical medicine. Eco-friendly vector control programs are crucial to fight, besides malaria, the spread of dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika virus, as well as other arboviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. However, research efforts on the control of mosquito vectors are experiencing a serious lack of eco-friendly and highly effective pesticides, as well as the limited success of most biocontrol tools currently applied. Most importantly, a cooperative interface between the two disciplines is still lacking. To face this challenge, we have reviewed a wide number of promising results in the field of green-fabricated pesticides tested against mosquito vectors, outlining several examples of synergy with classic biological control tools. The non-target effects of green-fabricated nanopesticides, including acute toxicity, genotoxicity, and impact on behavioral traits of mosquito predators, have been critically discussed. In the final section, we have identified several key challenges at the interface between "green" nanotechnology and classic biological control, which deserve further research attention.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos , Infecção por Zika virus/microbiologia , Animais , Dengue , Humanos , Malária , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Saúde Única , Zika virus
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(11): 10456-10470, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913784

RESUMO

The development of novel mosquito control tools is a key prerequisite to build effective and reliable Integrated Vector Management strategies. Here, we proposed a novel method using cigarette butts for the synthesis of Ag nanostructures toxic to young instars of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and microbial pathogens. The non-target impact of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment was evaluated testing them at sub-lethal doses on the predatory copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis. Cigarette butt-synthesized Ag nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as by EDX, SEM and XRD analyses. Low doses of cigarette butt extracts (with and without tobacco) showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity on An. stephensi. The LC50 of cigarette butt-synthesized Ag nanostructures ranged from 4.505 ppm (I instar larvae) to 8.070 ppm (pupae) using smoked cigarette butts with tobacco, and from 3.571 (I instar larvae) to 6.143 ppm (pupae) using unsmoked cigarette butts without tobacco. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against adults showed that unsmoked cigarette butts-based coils led to mortality comparable to permethrin-based positive control (84.2 and 91.2%, respectively). A single treatment with cigarette butts extracts and Ag nanostructures significantly reduced egg hatchability of An. stephensi. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of cigarette butt extracts (with and without tobacco) and synthesized Ag nanostructures was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of P. falciparum. The lowest IC50 values were achieved by cigarette butt extracts without tobacco, they were 54.63 µg/ml (CQ-s) and 63.26 µg/ml (CQ-r); while Ag nanostructure IC50 values were 72.13 µg/ml (CQ-s) and 77.33 µg/ml (CQ-r). In MIC assays, low doses of the Ag nanostructures inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. Finally, the predation efficiency of copepod M. aspericornis towards larvae of An. stephensi did not decrease in a nanoparticle-contaminated environment, if compared to control predation assays. Overall, the present research would suggest that an abundant hazardous waste, such as cigarette butts, can be turned to an important resource for nanosynthesis of highly effective antiplasmodials and insecticides.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/parasitologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Copépodes/química , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Praguicidas/química , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química
16.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 15(6): 673-697, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603588

RESUMO

Background: Cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) aims to obtain a structure mimicking native cartilage tissue through the combination of relevant cells, three-dimensional scaffolds, and extraneous signals. Implantation of 'matured' constructs is thus expected to provide solution for treating large injury of articular cartilage. Type I collagen is widely used as scaffolds for CTE products undergoing clinical trial, owing to its ubiquitous biocompatibility and vast clinical approval. However, the long-term performance of pure type I collagen scaffolds would suffer from its limited chondrogenic capacity and inferior mechanical properties. This paper aims to provide insights necessary for advancing type I collagen scaffolds in the CTE applications. Methods: Initially, the interactions of type I/II collagen with CTE-relevant cells [i.e., articular chondrocytes (ACs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are discussed. Next, the physical features and chemical composition of the scaffolds crucial to support chondrogenic activities of AC and MSC are highlighted. Attempts to optimize the collagen scaffolds by blending with natural/synthetic polymers are described. Hybrid strategy in which collagen and structural polymers are combined in non-blending manner is detailed. Results: Type I collagen is sufficient to support cellular activities of ACs and MSCs; however it shows limited chondrogenic performance than type II collagen. Nonetheless, type I collagen is the clinically feasible option since type II collagen shows arthritogenic potency. Physical features of scaffolds such as internal structure, pore size, stiffness, etc. are shown to be crucial in influencing the differentiation fate and secreting extracellular matrixes from ACs and MSCs. Collagen can be blended with native or synthetic polymer to improve the mechanical and bioactivities of final composites. However, the versatility of blending strategy is limited due to denaturation of type I collagen at harsh processing condition. Hybrid strategy is successful in maximizing bioactivity of collagen scaffolds and mechanical robustness of structural polymer. Conclusion: Considering the previous improvements of physical and compositional properties of collagen scaffolds and recent manufacturing developments of structural polymer, it is concluded that hybrid strategy is a promising approach to advance further collagen-based scaffolds in CTE.

17.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 107: 38-47, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050770

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a remarkable ability of long-term persistence despite vigorous host immunity and prolonged therapy. The bacteria persist in secure niches such as the mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow and reactivate the disease, leading to therapeutic failure. Many bacterial cells can remain latent within a diseased tissue so that their genetic material can be incorporated into the genetic material of the host tissue. This incorporated genetic material reproduces in a manner similar to that of cellular DNA. After the cell division, the incorporated gene is reproduced normally and distributed proportionately between the two progeny. This inherent adoption of long-term persistence and incorporating the bacterial genetic material into that of the host tissue remains and is considered imperative for microbial advancement and chemotherapeutic resistance; moreover, new evidence indicates that the bacteria might pass on genetic material to the host DNA sequence. Several studies focused on the survival mechanism of M. tuberculosis in the host immune system with the aim of helping the efforts to discover new drugs and vaccines against tuberculosis. This review explored the mechanisms through which this bacterium affects the expression of human genes. The first part of the review summarizes the current knowledge about the interactions between microbes and host microenvironment, with special reference to the M. tuberculosis neglected persistence in immune cells and stem cells. Then, we focused on how bacteria can affect human genes and their expression. Furthermore, we analyzed the literature base on the process of cell death during tuberculosis infection, giving particular emphasis to gene methylation as an inherited process in the neutralization of possibly injurious gene components in the genome. The final section discusses recent advances related to the M. tuberculosis interaction with host epigenetic circuitry.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Bacteriano , Tuberculose Latente/genética , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Morte Celular , Metilação de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Epigênese Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Células-Tronco/microbiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10962, 2017 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887536

RESUMO

Camptothecin (CPT) is an anti-cancer drug that effectively treats various cancers, including colon cancer. However, poor solubility and other drawbacks have restricted its chemotherapeutic potential. To overcome these restrictions, CPT was encapsulated in CEF (cyclodextrin-EDTA-FE3O4), a composite nanoparticle of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4), and ß-cyclodextrin was cross-linked with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This formulation improved CPT's solubility and bioavailability for cancer cells. The use of magnetically responsive anti-cancer formulation is highly advantageous in cancer chemotherapy. The chemical characterisation of CPT-CEF was studied here. The ability of this nano-compound to induce apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells was evaluated. The dose-dependent cytotoxicity of CPT-CEF was shown using MTT. Propidium iodide and Annexin V staining, mitochondrial membrane depolarisation (JC-1 dye), and caspase-3 activity were assayed to detect apoptosis in CPT-CEF-treated cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis also showed G1 phase arrest, which indicated possible synergistic effects of the nano-carrier. These study results show that CPT-CEF causes a dose-dependent cell viability reduction in HT29 and A549 cells and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via caspase-3 activation. These data strongly suggest that CPT could be used as a major nanocarrier for CPT to effectively treat colon cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Camptotecina/química , Nanoconjugados/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 8(6): 821-826, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865955

RESUMO

Ticks serve as vectors of a wide range of infectious agents deleterious to humans and animals. Tick bite prevention is based to a large extent on the use of chemical repellents and acaricides. However, development of resistance in targeted ticks, environmental pollution, and contamination of livestock meat and milk are major concerns. Recently, metal, metal oxide and carbon nanoparticles, particularly those obtained through green fabrication routes, were found to be highly effective against a wide array of arthropod pests and vectors. We summarize current knowledge on the toxicity of nanoparticles against tick vectors of medical and veterinary importance. We also discuss the toxicity of products from botanical- and bacterial-based as well as classic chemical nanosynthesis routes, showing differences in bioactivity against ticks based on the products used for the fabrication of nanoparticles. Further research is needed, to validate the efficacy of nanoparticle-based acaricides in the field and clarify mechanisms of action of nanoparticles against ticks. From a technical point of view, the literature analyzed here showed little standardization of size and weight of tested ticks, a lack of uniform methods to assess toxicity and concerns related to data analysis. Finally, an important challenge for future research is the need for ecotoxicology studies to evaluate potential negative effects on non-target organisms and site contamination arising from nanoparticle-based treatments in close proximity of livestock and farmers.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Animais , Óxidos/farmacologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/instrumentação
20.
Lab Invest ; 97(10): 1167-1179, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28869589

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in advanced countries. Stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for acute and chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. The current status of stem cell therapies for patients with myocardial infarction is discussed from a bioengineering and biomaterial perspective in this review. We describe (a) the current status of clinical trials of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) compared with clinical trials of human adult or fetal stem cells, (b) the gap between fundamental research and application of human stem cells, (c) the use of biomaterials in clinical and pre-clinical studies of stem cells, and finally (d) trends in bioengineering to promote stem cell therapies for patients with myocardial infarction. We explain why the number of clinical trials using hPSCs is so limited compared with clinical trials using human adult and fetal stem cells such as bone marrow-derived stem cells.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Bioengenharia/métodos , Bioengenharia/tendências , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco
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