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1.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(10): 1003-1009, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The magnitude of increased risk of stroke in women with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains uncertain. HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the risk of ischemic stroke and death in women and men with AF, and the risk associated with individual non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 231 077 (48.1% women) nonselected patients with AF not receiving oral anticoagulation from 2006 to 2014. Data from cross-linked national Swedish registers. The outcome was the first occurrence of ischemic stroke or death. Median age was 82 and 75 years in women and men, respectively. Mean follow-up was 2.5 years. RESULTS: Hazard ratios, adjusted for non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factors, for women vs men were 1.53, 95% CI: 1.49-1.58 for ischemic stroke and 1.24, 95% CI: 1.22-1.26 for death, respectively. When divided into age groups the differences in ischemic stroke rates between women and men were attenuated. In patients with only one non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factor allotted 1 point, ischemic stroke rates per 100 person-years were 1.22 in women (n = 9838) and 1.02 in men (n = 15 609), respectively, P < .006. In both women and men, age of 65 to 74 years was associated with higher ischemic stroke risk compared to other non-sex CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk factors allotted 1 point. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of ischemic stroke was 1.5-fold higher in women compared to men but this association appears to be the result of confounding by age. In the low risk end, the CHA2 DS2 -VASc risk score underestimates the ischemic stroke risk conferred by age 65 to 74 years, while it overestimates the risk conferred by female sex.

2.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(1): 27-34, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972712

RESUMO

We explored associations between INR measures and clinical outcomes in patients with AF using warfarin, and whether INR history predicted future INR measurements. We included patients in ARISTOTLE who were randomized to and received warfarin. Among patients who had events, we included those with ≥ 3 INR values in the 180 days prior to the event, with the most recent ≤ 60 days prior to the event, who were on warfarin at the time of event (n = 545). Non-event patients were included in the control group if they had ≥ 180 days of warfarin exposure with ≥ 3 INR measurements (n = 7259). The median (25th, 75th) number of INR values per patient was 29 (21, 38) over a median follow-up of 1.8 years. A total of 87% had at least one INR value < 1.5; 49% had at least one value > 4.0. The last INRs before events (median 14 [24, 7] days) were < 3.0 for at least 75% of patients with major bleeding and > 2.0 for half of patients with ischemic stroke. Historic time in therapeutic range (TTR) was weakly associated with future TTR (R2 = 0.212). Historic TTR ≥ 80% had limited predictive ability to discriminate future TTR ≥ 80% (C index 0.61). In patients with AF receiving warfarin, most bleeding events may not have been preventable despite careful INR control. Our findings suggest that INRs collected through routine management are not sufficiently predictive to provide reassurance about future time in therapeutic range or to prevent subsequent outcomes, and might be over-interpreted in clinical practice.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 380(16): 1509-1524, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate antithrombotic regimens for patients with atrial fibrillation who have an acute coronary syndrome or have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are unclear. METHODS: In an international trial with a two-by-two factorial design, we randomly assigned patients with atrial fibrillation who had an acute coronary syndrome or had undergone PCI and were planning to take a P2Y12 inhibitor to receive apixaban or a vitamin K antagonist and to receive aspirin or matching placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death or hospitalization and a composite of ischemic events. RESULTS: Enrollment included 4614 patients from 33 countries. There were no significant interactions between the two randomization factors on the primary or secondary outcomes. Major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was noted in 10.5% of the patients receiving apixaban, as compared with 14.7% of those receiving a vitamin K antagonist (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.81; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority), and in 16.1% of the patients receiving aspirin, as compared with 9.0% of those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.59 to 2.24; P<0.001). Patients in the apixaban group had a lower incidence of death or hospitalization than those in the vitamin K antagonist group (23.5% vs. 27.4%; hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.93; P = 0.002) and a similar incidence of ischemic events. Patients in the aspirin group had an incidence of death or hospitalization and of ischemic events that was similar to that in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation and a recent acute coronary syndrome or PCI treated with a P2Y12 inhibitor, an antithrombotic regimen that included apixaban, without aspirin, resulted in less bleeding and fewer hospitalizations without significant differences in the incidence of ischemic events than regimens that included a vitamin K antagonist, aspirin, or both. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; AUGUSTUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02415400.).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos
4.
Circulation ; 139(20): 2292-2300, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines caution against the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with extremely high (>120 kg) or low (≤60 kg) body weight because of a lack of data in these populations. METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation; n=18 201), a randomized trial comparing apixaban with warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, we estimated the randomized treatment effect (apixaban versus warfarin) stratified by body weight (≤60, >60-120, >120 kg) using a Cox regression model and tested the interaction between body weight and randomized treatment. The primary efficacy and safety outcomes were stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding. RESULTS: Of the 18 139 patients with available weight and outcomes data, 1985 (10.9%) were in the low-weight group (≤60 kg), 15 172 (83.6%) were in the midrange weight group (>60-120 kg), and 982 (5.4%) were in the high-weight group (>120 kg). The treatment effect of apixaban versus warfarin for the efficacy outcomes of stroke/systemic embolism, all-cause death, or myocardial infarction was consistent across the weight spectrum (interaction P value>0.05). For major bleeding, apixaban had a better safety profile than warfarin in all weight categories and even showed a greater relative risk reduction in patients in the low (≤60 kg; HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.82) and midrange (>60-120 kg) weight groups (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61-0.83; interaction P value=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that apixaban is efficacious and safe across the spectrum of weight, including in low- (≤60 kg) and high-weight patients (>120 kg). The superiority on efficacy and safety outcomes of apixaban compared with warfarin persists across weight groups, with even greater reductions in major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation with low to normal weight as compared with high weight. The superiority of apixaban over warfarin in regard to efficacy and safety for stroke prevention seems to be similar in patients with atrial fibrillation across the spectrum of weight, including in low- and very high-weight patients. Thus, apixaban appears to be appropriate for patients with atrial fibrillation irrespective of body weight. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(2): e010107, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651032

RESUMO

Background Cardiac biomarkers and left ventricular hypertrophy ( LVH ) are related to the risk of stroke and death in patients with atrial fibrillation. We investigated the interrelationship between LVH and cardiac biomarkers and their independent associations with outcomes. Methods and Results Plasma samples were obtained at baseline in 5275 patients with atrial fibrillation in the RE - LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial. NT -proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), cardiac troponin I and T, and growth differentiation factor-15 were determined using high-sensitivity (hs) assays. LVH was defined by ECG . Cox models were adjusted for baseline characteristics, LVH , and biomarkers. LVH was present in 1257 patients. During a median follow-up of 2.0 years, 165 patients developed a stroke and 370 died. LVH was significantly ( P<0.0001) associated with higher levels of all biomarkers in linear regression analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics. Geometric mean ratios (95% CIs) were as follows: NT -pro BNP , 1.32 (1.25-1.38); hs cardiac troponin I, 1.67 (1.57-1.78); hs troponin T, 1.38 (1.32-1.44); and growth differentiation factor-15, 1.09 (1.05-1.12). For stroke, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) per 50% increase were as follows: NT -pro BNP, 1.09 (1.00-1.19); hs cardiac troponin I, 1.09 (1.03-1.15); hs troponin T, 1.14 (1.06-1.24); and growth differentiation factor-15, 1.22 (1.08-1.38) (all P<0.05). For death, hazard ratios (95% CIs) were as follows: NT -pro BNP , 1.24 (1.17-1.31); hs cardiac troponin I, 1.13 (1.10-1.17); hs troponin T, 1.28 (1.23-1.34); and growth differentiation factor-15, 1.31 (1.22-1.42) (all P<0.0001). LVH was not significantly associated with stroke or death after adjustment for biomarkers. Conclusions Cardiac biomarkers are significantly associated with LVH . The prognostic value of biomarkers for stroke and death is not affected by LVH . The prognostic information of LVH is attenuated in the presence of cardiac biomarkers. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 00262600.

6.
Am Heart J ; 208: 123-131, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) often have multi-morbidity, defined as ≥3 comorbid conditions. Multi-morbidity is associated with polypharmacy, adverse events, and frailty potentially altering response to anticoagulation. We sought to describe the prevalence of multi-morbidity among older patients with AF and determine the association between multi-morbidity, clinical outcomes, and the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin. METHODS: In this post-hoc subgroup analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial, we studied enrolled patients age ≥ 55 years (n = 16,800). Patients were categorized by the number of comorbid conditions at baseline: no multi-morbidity (0-2 comorbid conditions), moderate multi-morbidity (3-5 comorbid conditions), and high multi-morbidity (≥6 comorbid conditions). Association between multi-morbidity and clinical outcomes were analyzed by treatment with a median follow-up of 1.8 (1.3-2.3) years. RESULTS: Multi-morbidity was present in 64% (n = 10,713) of patients; 51% (n = 8491) had moderate multi-morbidity, 13% (n = 2222) had high multi-morbidity, and 36% (n = 6087) had no multi-morbidity. Compared with the no multi-morbidity group, the high multi-morbidity group was older (74 vs 69 years), took twice as many medications (10 vs 5), and had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores (4.9 vs 2.7) (all P < .001). Adjusted rates per 100 patient-years for stroke/systemic embolism, death, and major bleeding increased with multi-morbidity (Reference no multi-morbidity; moderate multi-morbidity 1.42 [1.24-1.64] and high multi-morbidity 1.92 [1.59-2.31]), with no interaction in relation to efficacy or safety of apixaban. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-morbidity is prevalent among the population with AF; efficacy and safety of apixaban is preserved in this subgroup supporting extension of trial results to the most complex AF patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Embolia/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Multimorbidade , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia/etiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
7.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000908, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487982

RESUMO

Objective: We investigated the association between obesity and biomarkers indicating cardiac or renal dysfunction or inflammation and their interaction with obesity and outcomes. Methods: A total of 14 753 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction In STroke and Other ThromboemboLic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial provided plasma samples at randomisation to apixaban or warfarin. Median follow-up was 1.9 years. Body Mass Index (BMI) was measured at baseline and categorised as normal, 18.5-25 kg/m2; overweight, >25 to <30 kg/m2; and obese, ≥30 kg/m2. We analysed the biomarkers high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), troponin T and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP). Outcomes included stroke/systemic embolism (SE), myocardial infarction (MI), composite (stroke/SE, MI, or all-cause mortality), all-cause and cardiac mortality, and major bleeding. Results: Compared with normal BMI, obese patients had significantly higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 and lower levels of GDF-15, troponin T and NT-pro-BNP. In multivariable analyses, higher compared with normal BMI was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (overweight: HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.86); obese: 0.67 (0.56 to 0.80), p<0.0001), cardiac death (overweight: HR 0.74 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.93); obese: 0.71 (0.56 to 0.92), p=0.01) and composite endpoint (overweight: 0.80 (0.70 to 0.92); obese: 0.72 (0.62 to 0.84), p<0.0001). Conclusions: Regardless of biomarkers indicating inflammation or cardiac or renal dysfunction, obesity was independently associated with an improved survival in anticoagulated patients with AF. Trial registration number: NCT00412984.

8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(12): 1289-1297, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347013

RESUMO

Importance: Prognosis is a venerable component of medical knowledge introduced by Hippocrates (460-377 BC). This educational review presents a contemporary evidence-based approach for how to incorporate clinical risk prediction models in modern psychiatry. The article is organized around key methodological themes most relevant for the science of prognosis in psychiatry. Within each theme, the article highlights key challenges and makes pragmatic recommendations to improve scientific understanding of prognosis in psychiatry. Observations: The initial step to building clinical risk prediction models that can affect psychiatric care involves designing the model: preparation of the protocol and definition of the outcomes and of the statistical methods (theme 1). Further initial steps involve carefully selecting the predictors, preparing the data, and developing the model in these data. A subsequent step is the validation of the model to accurately test its generalizability (theme 2). The next consideration is that the accuracy of the clinical prediction model is affected by the incidence of the psychiatric condition under investigation (theme 3). Eventually, clinical prediction models need to be implemented in real-world clinical routine, and this is usually the most challenging step (theme 4). Advanced methods such as machine learning approaches can overcome some problems that undermine the previous steps (theme 5). The relevance of each of these themes to current clinical risk prediction modeling in psychiatry is discussed and recommendations are given. Conclusions and Relevance: Together, these perspectives intend to contribute to an integrative, evidence-based science of prognosis in psychiatry. By focusing on the outcome of the individuals, rather than on the disease, clinical risk prediction modeling can become the cornerstone for a scientific and personalized psychiatry.

10.
Circulation ; 138(16): 1666-1676, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of death. High-sensitivity troponin T, growth differentiation factor-15, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and interleukin-6 levels are predictive of cardiovascular events and total cardiovascular death in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. The prognostic utility of these biomarkers for cause-specific death is unknown. METHODS: The ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for the Prevention of Stroke in Subjects With Atrial Fibrillation) randomized 18 201 patients with atrial fibrillation to apixaban or warfarin. Biomarkers were measured at randomization in 14 798 patients (1.9 years median follow-up). Cox models were used to identify clinical variables and biomarkers independently associated with each specific cause of death. RESULTS: In total, 1272 patients died: 652 (51%) cardiovascular, 32 (3%) bleeding, and 588 (46%) noncardiovascular/nonbleeding deaths. Among cardiovascular deaths, 255 (39%) were sudden cardiac deaths, 168 (26%) heart failure deaths, and 106 (16%) stroke/systemic embolism deaths. Biomarkers were the strongest predictors of cause-specific death: a doubling of troponin T was most strongly associated with sudden death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.48; P<0.001), NT-proBNP with heart failure death (HR, 1.62; P<0.001), and growth differentiation factor-15 with bleeding death (HR, 1.72; P=0.028). Prior stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.58; P>0.001) followed by troponin T (HR, 1.45; P<0.0029) were the most predictive for stroke/ systemic embolism death. Adding all biomarkers to clinical variables improved discrimination for each cause-specific death. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers were some of the strongest predictors of cause-specific death and may improve the ability to discriminate among patients' risks for different causes of death. These data suggest a potential role of biomarkers for the identification of patients at risk for different causes of death in patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(3)2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events. The prognostic importance of lipoproteins in patients with atrial fibrillation is not well understood. We aimed to explore the association between apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB) and cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, ApoA1 and ApoB plasma levels were measured at baseline in 14 884 atrial fibrillation patients. Median length of follow-up was 1.9 years. Relationships between continuous levels of ApoA1 and ApoB and clinical outcomes were evaluated using Cox models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, medication including statins, and cardiovascular biomarkers. A composite ischemic outcome (ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) was used as the primary end point. Median (25th, 75th) ApoA1 and ApoB levels were 1.10 (0.93, 1.30) and 0.70 g/L (0.55, 0.85), respectively. In adjusted analyses, higher levels of ApoA1 were independently associated with a lower risk of the composite ischemic outcome (hazard ratio, 0.81; P<0.0001). Similar results were observed for the individual components of the composite outcome. ApoB was not significantly associated with the composite ischemic outcome (P=0.8240). Neither apolipoprotein was significantly associated with major bleeding. There was no interaction between lipoproteins and randomized treatment for the primary outcome (both P values ≥0.2448). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation, higher levels of ApoA1 were independently associated with lower risk of ischemic cardiovascular outcomes. Investigating therapies targeting dyslipidemia may thus be useful to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 39(6): 477-485, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069359

RESUMO

Aims: In atrial fibrillation (AF), mortality remains high despite effective anticoagulation. A model predicting the risk of death in these patients is currently not available. We developed and validated a risk score for death in anticoagulated patients with AF including both clinical information and biomarkers. Methods and results: The new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 611 patients with AF randomized to apixaban vs. warfarin for a median of 1.9 years. External validation was performed in 8548 patients with AF randomized to dabigatran vs. warfarin for 2.0 years. Biomarker samples were obtained at study entry. Variables significantly contributing to the prediction of all-cause mortality were assessed by Cox-regression. Each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. There were 1047 all-cause deaths in the derivation and 594 in the validation cohort. The most important predictors of death were N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin-T, growth differentiation factor-15, age, and heart failure, and these were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history)-death risk score. The score was well-calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than a model based on all clinical variables in both the derivation (0.74 vs. 0.68) and validation cohorts (0.74 vs. 0.67). The reduction in mortality with apixaban was most pronounced in patients with a high ABC-death score. Conclusion: A new biomarker-based score for predicting risk of death in anticoagulated AF patients was developed, internally and externally validated, and well-calibrated in two large cohorts. The ABC-death risk score performed well and may contribute to overall risk assessment in AF. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00412984 and NCT00262600.

14.
Trials ; 18(1): 581, 2017 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation therapy is recommended for the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Current guidelines do not provide evidence-based recommendations on optimal time-point to start anticoagulation therapy after an acute ischemic stroke. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) may offer advantages compared to warfarin because of faster and more predictable onset of action and potentially a lower risk of intracerebral haemorrhage also in the acute phase after an ischemic stroke. The TIMING study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of early vs delayed initiation of NOACs in patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF. METHODS/DESIGN: The TIMING study is a national, investigator-led, registry-based, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled study. The Swedish Stroke Register is used for enrolment, randomisation and follow-up of 3000 patients, who are randomised (1:1) within 72 h from ischemic stroke onset to either early (≤ 4 days) or delayed (≥ 5-10 days) start of NOAC therapy. The primary outcome is the composite of recurrent ischemic stroke, symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, or all-cause mortality within 90 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include: individual components of the primary outcome at 90 and 365 days; major haemorrhagic events; functional outcome by the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days; and health economics. In an optional biomarker sub-study, blood samples will be collected after randomisation from approximately half of the patients for central analysis of cardiovascular biomarkers after study completion. The study is funded by the Swedish Medical Research Council. Enrolment of patients started in April 2017. CONCLUSION: The TIMING study addresses the ongoing clinical dilemma of when to start NOAC after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with AF. By the inclusion of a randomisation module within the Swedish Stroke Register, the advantages of a prospective randomised study design are combined with the strengths of a national clinical quality register in allowing simplified enrolment and follow-up of study patients. In addition, the register adds the possibility of directly assessing the external validity of the study findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02961348 . Registered on 8 November 2016.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Protocolos Clínicos , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am Heart J ; 190: 94-103, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and validate the prognostic value of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) beyond clinical characteristics and other biomarkers concerning bleeding and stroke outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation in the RE-LY trial. METHODS: GDF-15 was measured in samples collected at randomization in 8,474 patients with a median follow-up time of 1.9 years. Patients were stratified based on predefined GDF-15 cutoffs: group 1, <1,200 ng/L (the 90th percentile in healthy individuals); group 2, 1,200-1,800; and group 3, >1,800 ng/L (high-risk individuals). Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared across groups of GDF-15 in Cox models adjusted for baseline characteristics, cardiac (N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitive troponin T), inflammatory (interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers, and randomized treatment. RESULTS: GDF-15 concentrations were <1,200 ng/L in 2,647 (31.2%), between 1,200 and 1,800 ng/L in 2,704 (31.9%), and >1,800 ng/L in 3,123 (36.9%) participants, respectively. Annual rates of stroke, major bleeding, and mortality increased with higher GDF-15 levels. The prognostic value of GDF-15 was independent of clinical characteristics for these outcomes. In models also adjusted for biomarkers, GDF-15 remained significantly associated with major bleeding (hazard ratio [95% CI] group 3 vs group 1 1.76 [1.28-2.42], P < .0005) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.72 [1.30-2.29], P < .0005). GDF-15 improved the c index of both the HAS-BLED (0.62-0.69) and ORBIT (0.68-0.71) bleeding risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation, GDF-15 is an independent risk indicator for major bleeding and all-cause mortality, but not for stroke. Therefore, GDF-15 seems useful as a specific marker of bleeding in patients with AF on oral anticoagulant treatment.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Canadá/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(6)2017 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac biomarkers are independent risk markers in atrial fibrillation, and the novel biomarker-based ABC stroke score (age, biomarkers, and clinical history of prior stroke) was recently shown to improve the prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our aim was to investigate the short-term variability of the cardiac biomarkers and evaluate whether the ABC stroke risk score provides a stable short-term risk estimate. METHODS AND RESULTS: According to the study protocol, samples were obtained at entry and also at 2 months in 4796 patients with atrial fibrillation followed for a median of 1.8 years in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were measured with high-sensitivity immunoassays. Associations with outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression. C indices and calibration plots were used to evaluate the ABC stroke score at 2 months. The average changes in biomarker levels during 2 months were small (median change cardiac troponin T +2.8%, troponin I +2.0%, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide +13.5%) and within-subject correlation was high (all ≥0.82). Repeated measurement of cardiac biomarkers provided some incremental prognostic value for mortality but not for stroke when combined with clinical risk factors and baseline levels of the biomarkers. Based on 8702 person-years of follow-up and 96 stroke/systemic embolic events, the ABC stroke score at 2 months achieved a similar C index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76) as compared with 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.75) at baseline. The ABC stroke score remained well calibrated using predefined risk classes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable atrial fibrillation, the variability of the cardiac biomarkers and the biomarker-based ABC stroke score during 2 months are small. The prognostic information by the ABC stroke score remains consistent and well calibrated with similar good predictive performance if patients are retested after 2 months. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Heart ; 103(16): 1271-1277, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) in individuals aged 65 and above is recommended by the European Society of Cardiology. Increased levels of the biomarker N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has in cohort studies been associated with incident AF.The aim of this study was to assess whether NT-proBNP could be useful for AF detection in systematic screening. METHODS: The Strokestop study entailed 7173 Swedish residents aged 75/76 that were screened for AF using twice daily intermittent ECG recordings during 2 weeks. In a substudy of 886 participants, the last 815 consecutive participants and 71 individuals with newly detected AF, levels of NT-proBNP were determined. RESULTS: Participants with newly detected AF (n=96) had a median NT-proBNP of 330 ng/L (IQR 121;634). In individuals without AF (n=742), median NT-proBNP was 171 ng/L (IQR 95;283), p<0.001. The CHA2DS2-VASc parameters did not differ significantly between individuals with newly detected AF and without AF nor between newly detected AF in the NT-proBNP cohort compared with the cohort where NT-proBNP was not assessed. Using an NT-proBNP cut-off of ≥125 ng/L in a non-acute setting yielded a negative predictive value of 92%, meaning that 35% fewer participants would need to be screened when applied to systematic AF screening. Adding weight to NT-proBNP further reduced participants needed to be screened with a preserved sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: NT-proBNP was increased in individuals with newly detected AF. Prospective studies could clarify if NT-proBNP can be used to correctly select individuals that benefit most from AF screening. CLINICAL TRIALS: ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01593553.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Chem ; 63(1): 152-164, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several strategies have been proposed for prediction of outcomes and individualization of treatments to better balance the benefits of stroke prevention and risks of bleeding during anticoagulation. CONTENT: The availability of analytically more specific and sensitive methods to measure circulating biomarkers of cellular and organ stress and dysfunction has led to testing of their utility in several cardiovascular conditions. In patients with atrial fibrillation, biomarkers of myocardial injury (troponin) and cardiovascular stress and dysfunction (natriuretic peptides, growth differentiation factor 15), myocardial fibrosis (galectin-3), renal dysfunction (creatinine, cystatin C), inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines) and coagulation activity (d-dimer) have been found associated with underlying pathophysiology, clinical outcomes and effects of treatment. Measurements of these markers might therefore expand the understanding of the pathophysiology, improve risk assessment and optimize treatment in individual patients with atrial fibrillation. SUMMARY: Biomarkers for risk stratification have potential roles as tools for evaluation of patients with atrial fibrillation and for selection of the best treatment strategies to prevent stroke, major bleeding, and mortality.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Medição de Risco
20.
Circulation ; 134(22): 1697-1707, 2016 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27569438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is associated with increased but variable risk of stroke. Our aim was to validate the recently developed biomarker-based ABC (age, biomarkers [high-sensitivity troponin and N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide], and clinical history of prior stroke/transient ischemic attack)-stroke risk score and compare its performance with the CHA2DS2VASc and ATRIA (Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation) risk scores. METHODS: The ABC-stroke score includes age, biomarkers (N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin), and clinical history (prior stroke). This validation was based on 8356 patients, 16 137 person-years of follow-up, and 219 adjudicated stroke or systemic embolic events in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation in the RE-LY study (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy). Levels of N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) were determined in plasma samples obtained at study entry. RESULTS: The ABC-stroke score was well calibrated with 0.76 stroke/systemic embolic events per 100 person-years in the predefined low (<1%/y) risk group, 1.48 in the medium (1%-2%/y) risk group, and 2.60 in the high (>2%/y) risk group for the ABC-stroke score with hs-cTnT. Hazard ratios for stroke/systemic embolic events were 1.95 for medium- versus low-risk groups, and 3.44 for high- versus low-risk groups. ABC-stroke score achieved C indices of 0.65 with both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI, in comparison with 0.60 for CHA2DS2VASc (P=0.004 for hs-cTnT and P=0.022 hs-cTnI) and 0.61 for ATRIA scores (P=0.005 hs-cTnT and P=0.034 for hs-cTnI). CONCLUSIONS: The biomarker-based ABC-stroke score was well calibrated and consistently performed better than both the CHA2DS2VASc and ATRIA stroke scores. The ABC score should be considered an improved decision support tool in the care of patients with atrial fibrillation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: ARISTOTLE, NCT00412984; RE-LY, NCT00262600.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
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