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1.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) is a widely accepted treatment for gastric cancer, conversion to laparotomy is sometimes required. The current study aimed to review the time trends of intraoperative conversions to open procedures during the decade in which the LG procedure was being developed. METHODS: Cases in which LG was attempted at the Cancer Institute Hospital from 2005 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed, and the details regarding conversions to open surgery were examined. RESULTS: Twenty-two (0.63%) of 3,498 patients required conversion to open surgery due to technical difficulties. The major reasons for conversions were difficulties in reconstruction (seven patients; 0.20%) and intraoperative bleeding (six patients; 0.17%). All conversions due to difficulties in reconstruction occurred in the introduction period of LG during the performance of esophagojejunostomy or esophagogastrostomy in laparoscopic total gastrectomy or proximal gastrectomy using a circular stapler. Five (71.4%) of the seven patients in whom conversion was performed due to difficulties in reconstruction developed postoperative severe complications. No conversions due to difficulties in reconstruction have been experienced since 2011, possibly due to the decrease in the number of laparoscopic total gastrectomy procedures and the introduction of the use of a linear stapler in esophagojejunostomy. To manage intraoperative bleeding in LG, hemostatic procedures were systematized and conversions were considered if visualization was not maintained following the procedures. None of the six patients who required laparotomy due to intraoperative bleeding required surgical or radiological intervention postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Over a decade of experience and procedural changes have markedly decreased the incidence of conversion to open surgery in LG. The main causes of conversion during the early period of LG introduction were difficulties in reconstruction and intraoperative bleeding; the incidences of these complications have been decreased by employing the appropriate procedures for LG.

2.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether splenectomy for splenic hilar lymph node (No. 10) dissection in type 4 gastric cancer involving the greater curvature is necessary is not established. Patients with type 4 gastric cancer often experience peritoneal relapse, despite curative surgery, and total gastrectomy with splenectomy is frequently associated with infectious complications. METHOD: Patients with cT2-T4 gastric cancer in the upper or middle third of the stomach, or both, involving the greater curvature who underwent R0 total gastrectomy with splenectomy between 2006 and 2016 were selected. Clinicopathological findings, postoperative complications, the incidence of lymph node metastasis, and the therapeutic value index of each station were compared between type 4 and non-type 4 gastric cancer. RESULTS: We enrolled 50 patients with type 4 and 60 with non-type 4. The former had a significantly higher proportion of the undifferentiated type and larger and deeper tumors. The overall incidence of Grade III or higher complications was 20.9%. The incidence of No. 10 metastasis was 26.0% in type 4 and 31.7% in non-type 4. Although the therapeutic value index of the No. 10 was 13.7 in type 4 and 15.0 in non-type 4, the index of type 4 ranked just below several peri-gastric stations and seventh, while that in non-type 4 ranked second. CONCLUSION: Splenectomy for No. 10 dissection may be oncologically valid for type 4 gastric cancer involving the greater curvature. A safer procedure for No. 10 dissection should be established.

3.
Surg Today ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several factors are known to be significantly associated with a low completion rate of 1-year adjuvant S-1 monotherapy for gastric cancer. The present study investigated whether or not the specialties of physicians conducting adjuvant S-1 monotherapy affect the completion rate. METHODS: A total of 437 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy followed by adjuvant S-1 monotherapy for pathological stage II or III gastric cancer between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Factors affecting completion of adjuvant S-1 monotherapy, including the physicians (medical oncologists or surgeons) administering S-1, were evaluated by a multivariate analysis. The relationship between patient factors and physicians was analyzed regarding the cumulative incidence of discontinuation. The number of times the dose was reduced, the schedule changed, or administration was suspended or delayed in patients completing adjuvant S-1 monotherapy was also counted. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis showed that old age (≥ 65 years old), excess body weight loss (≥ 15%), and surgeons were independently associated with discontinuation. In older patients, the cumulative incidence of discontinuation by medical oncologists was significantly lower than that by surgeons. Medical oncologists ensured that older patients continued S-1 by frequent suspension or a delay in each course. CONCLUSIONS: Medical oncologists may facilitate completion of adjuvant S-1 monotherapy.

4.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of each drug used in the docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and S-1 (DOS) chemotherapy remains to be clarified for the Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to determine a recommended dose for a combination neoadjuvant DOS chemotherapy for Japanese patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). METHODS: Patients with cT3 or more advanced AEG without distant metastasis were eligible for this study. The planned dosages of docetaxel (mg/m2, day 1), oxaliplatin (mg/m2, day 1), and S-1 (mg/day, days 1-14) were: 50/100/80-120 at level 1, and 60/100/80-120 at level 2, respectively. The treatment cycle was repeated every 3 weeks, and patients were assessed for response to the treatment after 2 and 3 cycles. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN 000022210). RESULTS: We enrolled 12 patients with locally advanced AEG in this study. At dose level 1, one of the six patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 febrile neutropenia. Two of the next six patients also experienced DLT of need for more than 2-week delay of the start of the second cycle due to adverse events at dose level 2. Based on these results, level 2 was considered the recommended dose for this regimen. CONCLUSION: Recommended doses of docetaxel (mg/m2), oxaliplatin (mg/m2), and S-1 (mg/day) were 60/100/80-120. This chemotherapy scheme showed good preliminary efficacy with acceptable toxicity warranting a further phase II trial to investigate the efficacy of this regimen.

5.
Surg Innov ; : 1553350620904610, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186463

RESUMO

Objective. We analyzed the underlying principles of an unmodulated very-low-voltage (VLV) mode, designated as "soft coagulation" in hemostasis, and demonstrate its clinical applications. Summary Background Data. While the advantage of the VLV mode has been reported across surgical specialties, the basic principle has not been well described and remains ambiguous. Methods. Characteristics of major electrosurgical modes were measured in different settings. For the VLV mode, the tissue effect and electrical parameters were assessed in simulated environments. Results. The VLV mode achieved tissue coagulation with the lowest voltage compared with the other modes in any settings. With increasing impedance, the voltage of the VLV mode stayed very low at under 200 V compared with other modes. The VLV mode constantly produced effective tissue coagulation without carbonization. We have demonstrated the clinical applications of the method. Conclusions. The voltage of the VLV mode consistently stays under 200 V, resulting in tissue coagulation with minimal vaporization or carbonization. Therefore, the VLV mode produces more predictable tissue coagulation and minimizes undesirable collateral thermal tissue effects, enabling nerve- and function-preserving surgery. The use of VLV mode through better understanding of minimally invasive way of using electrosurgery may lead to better surgical outcomes.

6.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LsTG) in the management of early gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach creates an extremely small remnant stomach (SRS). However, it is unclear whether retaining such an SRS improves patients' postoperative outcomes in a similar manner to a conventional remnant stomach (CRS). METHODS: Four hundred and nine of 878 patients undergoing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) between 2006 and 2012 underwent Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Among them, we selected 73 patients who underwent LsTG with an SRS (SRS group), and 83 patients with the tumor in the lower third of the stomach who underwent LDG with a CRS (CRS group). The surgical outcomes at 1 and 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years after gastrectomy were retrospectively analyzed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: One year after gastrectomy, the postoperative:preoperative bodyweight ratio of the SRS group was 2% lower than that of the CRS group. Both groups had comparable total protein and albumin levels, and incidence of reflux esophagitis; however, hemoglobin was lower in the SRS group. This difference in hemoglobin level between the SRS and CRS groups became larger over time, although the total protein and albumin levels of the two groups remained similar. CONCLUSION: An SRS slightly decreases bodyweight and hemoglobin level compared with a CRS. Several objective outcomes of the SRS group are almost equal to those of the CRS group, which suggests LsTG is worth performing even though its remnant stomach is very small.

7.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving procedure for cT1N0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of stomach, which is currently performed through a laparoscopic approach (LPPG). PPG is sometimes associated with a crucial problem during the early postoperative course, designated gastric stasis. However, information regarding gastric stasis remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS: The study included 897 patients who underwent LPPG between 2005 and 2017. Early postoperative gastric stasis (E-stasis) was defined when the following conditions were fulfilled: upper abdominal distension, remnant stomach fullness on radiography image, and period of starvation exceeding 72 h within 1 month postoperatively. To evaluate long-term outcomes of E-stasis, late postoperative food residue (L-residue) was defined as grade 2 or higher food residue endoscopically according to the RGB (residue, gastritis, bile) classification at 1 year postoperatively. Risk factors and long-term outcomes of E-stasis were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: E-stasis was the most common complication during the early postoperative course. E-stasis occurred in 68 (7.6%) patients. Multivariate analysis identified age (≥ 61 years), DM, and postoperative intraabdominal infection as risk factors. At 1 year postoperatively, relative body weight ratio and postoperative serum albumin in the patients who experienced E-stasis was significantly lower than those in the other patients (P = 0.042 and 0.011, respectively). Of the patients who suffered from E-stasis, 42.5% experienced L-residue. CONCLUSIONS: E-stasis after LPPG occurs in 7.6% of patients. Age, DM, and intraabdominal infection are significantly related to E-stasis. E-stasis is associated with poorer nutritional and functional outcomes even at 1 year postoperatively.

8.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are currently two treatment options for gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) due to gastric cancer, endoscopic stenting and surgical gastrojejunostomy. However, their therapeutic effects have not yet been established. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine these effects. METHODS: The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association invited its delegates to participate in a retrospective multicenter cohort study on patients with GOO due to gastric cancer who underwent stent therapy or gastrojejunostomy in 2015. RESULTS: We obtained data from 85 patients undergoing stent therapy and 94 undergoing gastrojejunostomy from 42 hospitals. Baseline data revealed that stent patients had lower food intake, poorer performance status, and worse prognostic indices than gastrojejunostomy patients. Postoperative food intake and survival times were worse in stent patients than in gastrojejunostomy patients. We performed propensity score matching to select pairs of patients with similar baseline characteristics in the two treatment groups. After matching, the frequency of postoperative complications was significantly less in stent patients (3%, 1/33) than in gastrojejunostomy patients (21%, 7/34; p = 0.03). A low residue or full diet was achieved by 97% of stent patients (32/33) and 97% of gastrojejunostomy patients (33/34) (p = 0.98). Median survival times were 7.8 months in stent patients and 4.0 months in gastrojejunostomy patients (p = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Propensity score matching demonstrated that endoscopic stent placement resulted in less postoperative morbidity than and a similar food intake and equivalent survival times to gastrojejunostomy. These results suggest the utility of stent therapy.

9.
Gastric Cancer ; 23(2): 319-327, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of type 4 and large type 3 gastric cancer patients with positive peritoneal lavage cytology (CY1) remain unsatisfying. We evaluated our treatment strategy of conversion therapy for CY1 patients without peritoneal dissemination (P0). METHODS: Diagnostic staging laparoscopy (DSL) was performed before treatment. Chemotherapy was applied for DSL-diagnosed P0CY1. The re-evaluation of peritoneal metastasis by staging laparoscopy (re-SL) was performed when a response to chemotherapy was identified by gastroscopy and/or CT. Gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy was applied as conversion therapy when peritoneal lavage cytology-negative (CY0) and P0 were diagnosed with re-SL, with the aim of achieving R0 resection. Chemotherapy was continued as palliative treatment in patients for whom re-SL was not applicable or when re-SL did not confirm P0CY0. The long-term outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2015, 214 patients with type 4 and large type 3 gastric cancer underwent DSL in the Cancer Institute Hospital. Thirty-nine patients were initially diagnosed with P0CY1. Seven patients received palliative gastrectomy first due to outlet obstruction or other reasons. Thirty-two patients received chemotherapy first. Among them, 13 patients underwent gastrectomy as conversion therapy and 19 were treated with palliative chemotherapy. The 3-year survival rate of patients who underwent conversion therapy, palliative chemotherapy and palliative gastrectomy was 76.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47.8-92.4%], 10.5% (95% CI 1.9-42.3%), and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Conversion therapy might be a promising treatment for P0CY1 type 4 and large type 3 gastric cancer patients. Re-SL was useful for selecting candidates for R0 resection.

10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(1): 276-283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preoperatively diagnosed stage IA (cT1N0) gastric cancer includes pathologically advanced disease, patients with cT1N0 middle- to lower-third gastric cancer (MLTG) experience favorable outcomes even if they undergo gastrectomy with limited lymph node dissection; however, whether this is true for upper-third gastric cancer (UTG) patients is unknown. In this study, we examined the survival of patients with cT1N0 UTG compared with patients with MLTG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data for 1707 consecutive patients with cT1N0 gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy between 2006 and 2013. Patients were divided into the UTG or MLTG groups, and clinicopathological characteristics and survival were compared between the groups. Factors affecting survival were identified using multivariate analysis. Survival was calculated according to pathological findings. RESULTS: The patient group included 334 UTG patients and 1373 MLTG patients. The 5-year overall survival (OS) of UTG patients was significantly shorter than that of MLTG patients, and UTG was identified as an independent prognostic factor of cT1N0 gastric cancer. Among UTG cases, the OS of pT2-4 or pN1-3 was significantly shorter than that of pT1 or pN0 disease. No significant differences were found between such diseases in MLTG. All relapses in UTG were distant metastases. CONCLUSIONS: cT1N0 UTG with pT2-4 or pN1-3 are prognostic indicators of shorter OS, although MLTG of either disease is associated with favorable prognosis. Thus, UTG is an independent prognostic factor in cT1N0 gastric cancer; however, limited dissection is acceptable for cT1N0 UTG because relapses occur at distant sites.

11.
J Surg Res ; 245: 552-563, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is elusive which subtypes of immune cells are pivotal in cancer progression and prognosis in gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study is to clarify clinical impact of immature myeloid-derived immune cells in patients with GC who underwent curative gastrectomy with curative lymphadenectomy and treated with S-1 (tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil) postoperatively. METHODS: The prognostic impact of recruited CD33+ immature myeloid-derived cells were clinicopathologically analyzed in curatively resected stage II and III GC. Correlation of preoperative peripheral leukocyte fractions with recruited CD33+ immature cells was also assessed. RESULTS: Patients with high CD33+ cell counts in primary tumor showed dramatically worse prognosis (5-y recurrence-free survival 29.0%) than that of the counterparts (79.4%). High CD33+ cell counts independently predicted poor prognosis in stage II/III (hazard ratio, 4.34; P < 0.001). In analyses of each stage, high CD33+ cell count was pivotally associated with poor prognosis in both stages. There was no significant correlation of each peripheral leukocyte fraction with CD33+ cell recruitment. Of note, high CD33+ cell count was significantly correlated with hematogenous recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment of CD33+ immature myeloid cells critically predict hematogenous recurrences in curatively resected advanced GC. These results give rational to focusing on CD33+ myeloid-derived cells as a novel approach to tackle advanced GC.


Assuntos
Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Estômago/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estômago/citologia , Estômago/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Tegafur/administração & dosagem
12.
Asian J Endosc Surg ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814306

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of delta-shaped anastomosis compared to circular stapler anastomosis in laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction. METHODS: This is a single-center randomized controlled study. Eligibility criteria included histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma in the lower third of the stomach, clinical stage I tumor. Patients were preoperatively randomized to circular stapler anastomosis or delta-shaped anastomosis. The primary endpoint is the number of analgesics used during three days after surgery. We compared the surgical outcomes of the two groups. Postoperative quality of life was evaluated using the Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale-45. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000025160. RESULTS: Between December 2016 and September 2018, 39 patients (delta-shaped anastomosis 18, circular stapler anastomosis 21) were enrolled. There was no difference in the number of analgesics used during three days after surgery (median nine: delta-shaped anastomosis vs nine: circular stapler anastomosis, P = .91). There was no difference in the overall proportion with in-hospital grade II-IIIB surgical complications (11%: delta-shaped anastomosis, 14%: circular stapler anastomosis). There was no operation-related death in either arm. Regarding postoperative quality of life evaluated one month after surgery, diarrhea subscale was significantly worse in delta-shaped anastomosis than in circular stapler anastomosis. CONCLUSION: We did not demonstrate the advantage of delta-shaped anastomosis in terms of postoperative pain. Since delta-shaped anastomosis tended to cause postoperative abdominal symptoms related to diarrhea, we should carefully apply the delta-shaped anastomosis to laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction.

13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6259-6263, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) is a known cancer/testis antigen. Our group has previously shown KK-LC-1 gene expression in gastric cancer. However, could not be detected the KK-LC-1 protein due to the lack of an appropriate antibody. Here, we assessed our original monoclonal antibody (Kmab34B3) and, using it, assessed the expression of KK-LC-1 in gastric cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated an original monoclonal antibody against KK-LC-1 (Kmab34B3), and used this antibody to compare KK-LC-1 protein expression in tumour and non-tumour stomach cells from gastric cancer patients. RESULTS: Kmab34B3 stained testicular germ cells, and tumour cells in nine out of 11 (82%) specimens. In non-tumorous areas, Kmab34B3 stained 13 out of 29 (45%) pyloric gland specimens. Furthermore, Kmab34B3 also stained intestinal metaplasia positive and negative areas. CONCLUSION: Kmab34B3 was able to detect KK-LC-1 protein within tumour cells and the pyloric gland where the gene has been shown to be expressed. Therefore, it might be an attractive tool for detecting KK-LC-1 expression in precancerous and cancerous stomach cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Estômago/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metaplasia/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/imunologia , Piloro/imunologia
14.
Surg Case Rep ; 5(1): 169, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: What type of reconstruction procedure should be applied is one of the important issues in surgery for gastric cancer. We have several options for reconstruction procedure after distal gastrectomy. The Billroth II and Roux-en-Y reconstruction have a duodenal stump while the Billroth I does not have it, which is the biggest structural difference in these procedures. An increase in intraduodenal pressure due to the formation of duodenum stump occasionally causes severe complication such as duodenal stump leakage; however, a duodenal diverticulum perforation after the Roux-en-Y reconstruction has not yet been reported. Herein, we report two cases of a perforated duodenal diverticulum after gastrectomy with the Roux-en-Y reconstruction. CASE PRESENTATION: The first case was a 66-year-old man who presented to our hospital with an acute onset right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain. He had undergone laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with the Roux-en-Y reconstruction for the early gastric cancer 15 months before. A large periampullary diverticulum had been detected during the checkup before the gastrectomy. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT showed a retroperitoneal fluid collection with gas present at the second part of the duodenum. Therefore, a perforated duodenal diverticulum with abdominal abscess was diagnosed, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed because of severe duodenal inflammation and surrounding tissue damage. The second case was a 52-year-old man who had undergone open distal gastrectomy for locally advanced gastric cancer. Multiple non-ampullary duodenal diverticula had also been identified during the preoperative checkup. On the 2nd postoperative day, he presented with a sudden-onset abdominal pain with peritoneal irritation signs, and intestinal fluid was identified through the intraperitoneal drainage tube placed in a suprapancreatic site during his previous gastrectomy. Therefore, an emergency laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy, a perforated diverticulum at the second part of the duodenum was detected. The perforated duodenum diverticulum was directly sutured with drainage of the retroperitoneal space. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to recognize that the Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients with duodenal diverticulum might cause a perforation of the diverticulum.

15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(13): 4814-4825, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OBP-801 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor being developed as an anticancer drug. In this study, we explored genes to predict drug resistance in human cancer. METHODS: OBP-801 resistance was assessed in 37 strains of human cancer cell lines. Expression microarrays harboring 54,675 genes were used to focus on candidate genes, which were validated for both functional and clinical relevance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). RESULTS: OBP-801 is sensitive to esophageal, gastric, and thyroid cancer, and resistant to some esophageal and colorectal cancers. We therefore used ESCC to explore genes. Comprehensive exploration focused on ΔNp63/SOX2, which were both genetically and epigenetically overexpressed in ESCC. Genomic amplifications of ΔNp63/SOX2 were tightly correlated each other (r = 0.81). Importantly, genomic amplification of ΔNp63/SOX2 in the resected tumors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with histological grade of response (G1). Forced expression of either of these two genes did not induce each other, suggesting that their functional relevances were independent and showed robust drug resistance in OBP-801, as well as 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, ΔNp63 could exert a potent oncogenic potential. RNA interference of ΔNp63 supported its oncological properties, as well as drug resistance. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive exploration of genes involved in anticancer drug residence could identify critical oncogenes of ΔNp63/SOX2 that would predict chemotherapy response in ESCC.

16.
Esophagus ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for resectable small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the esophagus (SCNEC-E) remains to be established. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 7 consecutive patients with resectable SCNEC-E who received definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) to evaluate the safety and efficacy. Treatment consisted of two courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin (80 mg/m2 on day 1) and etoposide (100 mg/m2 on days 1-3) or carboplatin (AUC 5 on day 1) and etoposide (80 mg/m2 on days 1-3) given every 4 weeks during dCRT. The total radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (28 fractions). RESULTS: The clinical stage was IA in 1 patient, IB in 2 patients, IIA in 3 patients, and IIB in 1 patient. Definitive CRT was completed in all patients. The median overall treatment time of radiotherapy was 44 days. The chemotherapy regimen included in dCRT was cisplatin and etoposide in 3 patients and carboplatin and etoposide in 4 patients. Acute adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were neutropenia 100%, thrombocytopenia 43%, febrile neutropenia 43%, and nausea 14%. There were no late grade 3 or 4 adverse events. The median survival time was 32 months. The complete response rate was 100%. The recurrence rate was 43%. The median survival of the 4 patients without recurrence was 56 months. CONCLUSIONS: Definitive CRT with cisplatin and etoposide or carboplatin and etoposide is a feasible treatment for the resectable SCNEC-E, and long-term survival can be achieved in some patients.

17.
Ann Gastroenterol Surg ; 3(3): 239-246, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131352

RESUMO

Laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) is a procedure combining laparoscopic gastric resection with endoscopic submucosal dissection for local resection of gastric tumors with appropriate, minimal surgical resection margins. The LECS concept was initially developed from the classical LECS procedure for gastric submucosal tumor resection. Many researchers reported that classical LECS was a safe and feasible technique for resection of gastric submucosal tumors, regardless of tumor location, including the esophagogastric junction. Recently, LECS was approved for insurance coverage by Japan's National Health Insurance plan and widely applied for gastric submucosal tumor resection. However, the limitations of classical LECS are the risk of abdominal infection, scattering of tumor cells in the abdominal cavity, and tumor cell seeding in the peritoneum. The development of modified LECS procedures, such as inverted-LECS, non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery, a combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with a non-exposure technique, and closed-LECS, has almost resolved these drawbacks. This has led to a recent increase in the indication of modified LECS to include patients with gastric epithelial neoplasms. The LECS concept is also beginning to be applied to tumor excision in other organs, such as the duodenum, colon and rectum. Further evolution of LECS procedures is expected in the future. Sentinel lymph node mapping could also be combined with LECS, resulting in a portion of early gastric cancers being treated by LECS with sentinel node mapping.

18.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(6): 1256-1262, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant S-1 monotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with pathological stage II or III gastric cancer undergoing D2 gastrectomy. This therapeutic regimen is standard in Japan. Unfortunately, some patients who undergo this treatment suffer from recurrent disease. However, information regarding the timing and site-specific trends of recurrence is insufficient. METHODS: Among 396 patients who underwent D2 gastrectomy followed by adjuvant S-1 monotherapy between 2008 and 2012, 122 experienced a recurrence. We retrospectively determined the timing and sites of recurrence. RESULTS: The median RFS of the 122 patients was 19.5 months, and their 1-, 3- and 5-year RFS rates were 67.2%, 23.0% and 5.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in RFS among disease substages. Local recurrence, lymph node involvement and peritoneal and hematogenous metastases were found in 6, 25, 63 and 42 patients, respectively. Approximately 10% of patients presented with contemporaneous sites of recurrence. Local recurrence and lymph node metastasis plateaued 3 years after gastrectomy. Peritoneal and hematogenous metastasis increased within 5 years after surgery. In patients with hematogenous metastasis, the number of liver metastases plateaued but increased in others. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recurrent disease who underwent D2 gastrectomy followed by adjuvant S-1 monotherapy, 80% of recurrences occur within 3 years after gastrectomy. The timing of recurrence is not significantly different among substages. Although the rates of local recurrence and lymph node and liver metastasis plateau after 3 years, peritoneal and the other hematogenous metastases increase within 5 years.

19.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(6): 1247-1255, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is an alternative to distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer, and is expected to have postoperative advantages including maintenance of body weight. Overweight/obesity is a risk factor for chronic disorders, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus; in these conditions, body weight control is frequently required as part of treatment. It remains unknown whether pylorus-preserving gastrectomy should be performed in overweight/obese patients because excess body weight may be maintained postoperatively. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated body weight changes and postoperative nutritional status of overweight/obese patients who underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) or laparoscopic pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LPPG) between 2006 and 2015. Among 349 overweight patients (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), 101 LDG and 101 LPPG cases were compared after propensity score matching to adjust for patient characteristics. RESULTS: The mean relative body weight ratios (postoperative/preoperative ratios) were 87.5 ± 8.0% after LDG and 89.6 ± 6.7% after LPPG (difference not significant, p = 0.088). The prealbumin level at 2 years and hemoglobin levels at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were significantly well maintained after LPPG than after LDG. Prealbumin and hemoglobin levels at 2 years had almost returned to baseline levels in the LPPG group. The superiority of LPPG in the hemoglobin level was confirmed regardless of reconstruction methods after LDG. CONCLUSIONS: For overweight/obese patients, LDG and LPPG resulted in similar degrees of postoperative weight loss, with patients achieving near-ideal body weight. The postoperative nutritional advantages of LPPG were confirmed. LPPG seemed to be better even for overweight/obese patients who meet indication criteria.

20.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(5): 1036-1043, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double-flap technique (DFT) has received increased attention as an anastomotic procedure preventing reflux esophagitis after laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) for upper-third gastric cancer. However, incidence of anastomotic stricture still remains high. This study was a retrospective review aimed to demonstrate details of surgical outcomes and to assess risk factors for anastomotic complications using pre-operative CT image after LPG with DFT (LPG-DFT). METHODS: Patient background data, surgical outcomes, post-operative courses, and complications for patients who underwent LPG-DFT from January 2013 to June 2017 were collected. In addition to the details of short-term outcomes, risk factors for anastomotic stricture and gastroesophageal reflux were analyzed. RESULTS: The study sample was 147 patients, including 139 patients with upper-third gastric cancer and 8 patients with submucosal tumor of the upper-third stomach. The overall morbidity rate was 12.2% (18/147), and 97.3% (143/147) of the patients achieved R0 resection. Twelve (8.3%) patients required endoscopic balloon dilatation for anastomotic stenosis, and six (4.2%) suffered regurgitation grade ≥ B in the Los Angeles classification. Multivariate analysis revealed that diameter of the esophagus < 18 mm on pre-operative CT image and the presence of short-term complications were found to be independent risk factors for post-operative anastomotic stenosis. No specific risk for gastroesophageal reflux was identified. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of anastomotic complications after LPG-DFT was far lower than that reported after conventional esophagogastrostomy. Alternative anastomotic method may be considered for patients with diameter of the esophagus < 18 mm on pre-operative CT image. Prevention of short-term complications may lessen post-operative stricture.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Medição de Risco/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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