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1.
Brain Inj ; : 1-13, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships are important to quality of life after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there has been limited research into how to support dating skills or how professionals view this area. METHOD: An online 52-item survey was developed and sent to professionals in the UK involved in rehabilitation after TBI. Recruitment was through professional networks, special interest groups and social media. RESULTS: 125 participants from a range of professions completed the survey. Many agreed that dating skills are important in rehabilitation (81.6%), but fewer (51.2%) reported engaging in this work. Psychologists, SLTs and OTs were identified as well placed to address dating skills. Case managers also appeared aware of this work. Participants reported using a range of activities to address dating skills, including managing disinhibited behavior and teaching interaction skills. Perceived barriers were both personal and professional, including lack of resources and feeling embarrassed. CONCLUSION: This study has highlighted an awareness of the importance of dating in brain injury, but professionals face multiple barriers to supporting dating skills. It is possible to draw on recommendations from related areas, including rehabilitation for cognitive communication difficulties and sexual dysfunction with further research to specifically link these areas to dating skills.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050308, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Solution Focused Brief Therapy in Post-Stroke Aphasia feasibility trial had four primary aims: to assess (1) acceptability of the intervention to people with aphasia, including severe aphasia, (2) feasibility of recruitment and retention, (3) acceptability of research procedures and outcome measures, and (4) feasibility of delivering the intervention by speech and language therapists. DESIGN: Two-group randomised controlled feasibility trial with wait-list design, blinded outcome assessors and nested qualitative research. SETTING: Participants identified via two community NHS Speech and Language Therapy London services and through community routes (eg, voluntary-sector stroke groups). PARTICIPANTS: People with aphasia at least 6 months post stroke. INTERVENTION: Solution-focused brief therapy, a psychological intervention, adapted to be linguistically accessible. Participants offered up to six sessions over 3 months, either immediately postrandomisation or after a delay of 6 months. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary endpoints related to feasibility and acceptability. Clinical outcomes were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months postrandomisation, and at 9 months (wait-list group only). The candidate primary outcome measure was the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Participants and therapists also took part in in-depth interviews. RESULTS: Thirty-two participants were recruited, including 43.8% with severe aphasia. Acceptability endpoints: therapy was perceived as valuable and acceptable by both participants (n=30 interviews) and therapists (n=3 interviews); 93.8% of participants had ≥2 therapy sessions (90.6% had 6/6 sessions). Feasibility endpoints: recruitment target was reached within the prespecified 13-month recruitment window; 82.1% of eligible participants consented; 96.9% were followed up at 6 months; missing data <0.01%. All five prespecified feasibility progression criteria were met. CONCLUSION: The high retention and adherence rates, alongside the qualitative data, suggest the study design was feasible and therapy approach acceptable even to people with severe aphasia. These results indicate a definitive randomised controlled trial of the intervention would be feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03245060.


Assuntos
Afasia , Psicoterapia Breve , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Londres , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047994, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate systematically the fidelity of a peer-befriending intervention for people with aphasia. DESIGN: SUpporting wellbeing through Peer-befriending (SUPERB) was a feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing usual care to usual care +peer-befriending. This paper reports on the fidelity of all intervention aspects (training and supervision of providers/befrienders; intervention visits) which was evaluated across all areas of the Behaviour Change Consortium framework. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: People with aphasia early poststroke and low levels of distress, randomised to the intervention arm of the trial (n=28); 10 peer-befrienders at least 1-year poststroke. INTERVENTION: Peer-befrienders were trained (4-6 hours); and received regular supervision (monthly group while actively befriending, and one-to-one as and when needed) in order to provide six 1-hour peer-befriending visits over 3 months. MAIN MEASURES: Metrics included number and length of training, supervision sessions and visits. All training and supervision sessions and one (of six) visits per pair were rated against fidelity checklists and evaluated for inter-rater and intrarater reliability (Gwets AC1 agreement coefficient). Per-cent adherence to protocol was evaluated. RESULTS: All peer-befrienders received 4-6 hours training over 2-3 days as intended. There were 25 group supervision sessions with a median number attended of 14 (IQR=8-18). Twenty-six participants agreed (92.8%) to the intervention and 21 (80.8%) received all six visits (median visit length 60 min). Adherence was high for training (91.7%-100%) and supervision (83%-100%) and moderate-to-high for befriending visits (66.7%-100%). Where calculable, inter-rater and intrarater reliability was high for training and supervision (Gwets AC1 >0.90) and moderate-to-high for intervention visits (Gwets AC1 0.44-1.0). CONCLUSION: Planning of fidelity processes at the outset of the trial and monitoring throughout was feasible and ensured good-to-high fidelity for this peer-befriending intervention. The results permit confidence in other findings from the SUPERB trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02947776.


Assuntos
Afasia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Qual Health Res ; : 10497323211020290, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130554

RESUMO

Aphasia, a language disability, can profoundly affect a person's mood and identity. The experiences of participants who received Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, a psychological intervention, were explored in the Solution-Focused brief therapy In poststroke Aphasia (SOFIA) Trial. Thirty participants with chronic aphasia, 14 with severe aphasia, participated in in-depth interviews that were analyzed using framework analysis. Two overarching themes emerged: valued therapy components (exploring hopes, noticing achievements, companionship, sharing feelings, and relationship with therapist) and perceptions of progress (mood, identity, communication, relationships, and independence). Participants were categorized into four groups: (a) "changed," where therapy had a meaningful impact on a person's life; (b) "connected," where therapy was valued primarily for companionship; (c) "complemental," where therapy complemented a participant's upward trajectory; and (d) "discordant," where therapy misaligned with participants' preference for impairment-based language work. This study suggests that it is feasible to adapt a psychological therapy for people with aphasia, who perceive it as valuable.

5.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 56(3): 594-608, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke and aphasia can have a profound impact on people's lives, and depression is a common, frequently persistent consequence. Social networks also suffer, with poor social support associated with worse recovery. It is essential to support psychosocial well-being post-stroke, and examine which factors facilitate successful adjustment to living with aphasia. AIMS: In the context of a feasibility randomized controlled trial of peer-befriending (SUPERB), this qualitative study explores adjustment for people with aphasia in the post-acute phase of recovery, a phase often neglected in previous research. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 people with aphasia and 10 significant others, who were purposively sampled from the wider group of 56 people with aphasia and 48 significant others. Interviews took place in participants' homes; they were analysed using framework analysis. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Participants with aphasia were 10 women and 10 men; their median (interquartile range-IQR) age was 70 (57.5-77.0) years. Twelve participants had mild aphasia, eight moderate-severe aphasia. Significant others were six women and four men with a median (IQR) age of 70.5 (43-79) years. They identified a range of factors that influenced adjustment to aphasia post-stroke. Some were personal resources, including mood and emotions; identity/sense of self; attitude and outlook; faith and spirituality; and moving forward. Significant others also talked about the impact of becoming carers. Other factors were external sources of support, including familial and other relationships; doctors, nurses and hospital communication; life on the ward; therapies and therapists; psychological support, stroke groups; and community and socializing. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: To promote adjustment in the acute phase, hospital staff should prioritize the humanizing aspects of care provision. In the post-acute phase, clinicians play an integral role in supporting adjustment and can help by focusing on relationship-centred care, monitoring mental health, promoting quality improvement across the continuum of care and supporting advocacy. What this paper adds What is already known on the subject Anxiety and depression are common consequences of stroke, with depression rates high at 33% at 1 year post-onset. There is evidence that the psychological needs of people with aphasia are even greater than those of the general stroke population. Social support and social networks are also negatively impacted. Few studies have examined adjustment when people are still in hospital or in the early stages of post-stroke life in the community (< 6 months). Further, many stroke studies exclude people with aphasia. What this paper adds to existing knowledge Adjustment to living with stroke and aphasia begins in the early stages of recovery. While this partly depends on personal resources, many factors depend on external sources of help and support. These include doctors, nurses and hospital communication, their experience of life on the ward, and their therapists' person-centred care. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? Clinicians play an integral role in facilitating people with aphasia to utilize their personal resources and support systems to adjust to life after stroke. They can help by focusing on relationship-centred care, monitoring mental health, promoting quality improvement across the continuum of care and supporting advocacy.

6.
Clin Rehabil ; 35(8): 1151-1163, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of peer-befriending, for people with aphasia. DESIGN: Single-blind, parallel-group feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing usual care to usual care + peer-befriending. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: People with aphasia post-stroke and low levels of distress, recruited from 5 NHS Hospitals and linked community services; their significant others; and 10 befrienders recruited from community. INTERVENTION: Six 1-hour peer-befriending visits over three months. MAIN MEASURES: Feasibility parameters included proportion eligible of those screened; proportion consented; missing data; consent and attrition rates. Acceptability was explored through qualitative interviews. Outcomes for participants and significant others were measured at baseline, 4- and 10-months; for peer-befrienders before training and after one/two cycles of befriending. RESULTS: Of 738 patients identified, 75 were eligible of 89 fully screened (84%), 62 consented (83% of eligible) and 56 randomised. Attrition was 16%. Adherence was high (93% attended ⩾2 sessions, 81% all six). The difference at 10 months on the GHQ-12 was 1.23 points on average lower/better in the intervention arm (95% CI 0.17, -2.63). There was an 88% decrease in the odds of GHQ-12 caseness (95% CI 0.01, 1.01). Fourty-eight significant others and 10 peer-befrienders took part. Procedures and outcome measures were acceptable. Serious adverse events were few (n = 10, none for significant others and peer-befrienders) and unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: SUPERB peer-befriending for people with aphasia post-stroke experiencing low levels of distress was feasible. There was preliminary evidence of benefit in terms of depression. Peer-befriending is a suitable intervention to explore further in a definitive trial.Clinical trial registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT02947776Subject terms: Translational research, mental health, rehabilitation, quality and outcomes, stroke.


Assuntos
Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/reabilitação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção à Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Grupo Associado , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
7.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 36(1): 56-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the current evidence on communication partner training and its effectiveness on outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or their communication partners. METHODS: Information sources: Systematic searches of 9 databases (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline/EBSCOHOST, PsycINFO, PsycBITE, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and Scopus) from database inception to February 2019. Eligibility criteria: Empirical studies on interventions for adult communication partners where the primary focus of the program (>50%) was on improving communication skills of people with TBI and/or communication partners. Data: Participants, characteristics of the training, outcome measures, and findings. Risk of bias: Standard checklists were used for methodological quality (PEDro, ROBiN-T) and intervention description (TIDieR). Synthesis: Narrative synthesis and effect sizes (Cohen's d) for group-level studies. OUTCOMES: Ten articles (describing 8 studies) met eligibility criteria: 3 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized controlled trials, and 3 single-case experimental designs. Studies included a total of 258 people with TBI and 328 communication partners; however, all but one study had fewer than 65 participants. Methodological quality varied and intervention description was poor. Three studies in the final synthesis (n = 41 communication partners, n = 36 people with TBI) reported positive intervention effects. Effect sizes in group studies were d = 0.80 to 1.13 for TBI and d = 1.16 to 2.09 for communication partners. CONCLUSIONS: The articles provided encouraging, though limited, evidence for training communication partners. Greater methodological rigor, more clearly described interventions, and consistent use of outcome measures and follow-up after treatment are needed. Further research on this topic is warranted.

8.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the current evidence on dating interventions, their theoretical underpinnings and effectiveness for adult neuro-atypical populations. METHODS: A literature search was completed using CINAHL, Communication Source, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, MEDLINE, Embase, AMED and EMB Reviews (all), for English-language, peer-reviewed studies into interventions for relationships or dating among adults with acquired brain injuries (ABI), learning disabilities or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Demographic data and intervention details were extracted for all included studies. Standard checklists were used for methodological quality and intervention description. Narrative synthesis for studies rating above poor quality. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies (13 articles) were eligible, ABI (n = 6), learning disability (n = 4), ASD (n = 1). These comprised five comparison or control group studies, two pre-post studies and four case studies. The methodological quality was varied, but intervention descriptions were generally poor. While all studies reported positive outcomes, firm conclusions on their effectiveness are difficult due to the high number of before-after analyses and variation in content and outcome measures used. CONCLUSIONS: More high-quality studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Also, greater consensus is needed on the key behaviors for dating and relationships and the measures to assess these.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONIntimate relationships are important to quality of life, but challenging for many people in neuro-atypical populations.There are a small number of researched interventions to support dating or marital relationships among adults with ABI, ASD or learning disabilities.Rehabilitation professionals should ask about dating and relationships and support people if this area is identified as important.Rehabilitation professionals should consider different interventions for dating skills and marital relationships.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970784

RESUMO

About a third of strokes cause aphasia, or language loss, with profound consequences for the person's social participation and quality of life. These problems may be mitigated by group social support. But this intervention is not available to all individuals. This study investigated whether it is feasible to deliver group social support to people with aphasia via a multi-user, virtual reality platform. It also explored the indicative effects of intervention and the costs. Intervention aimed to promote wellbeing and communicative success. It enabled participants to form new social connections and share experiences of living with aphasia. It comprised 14 sessions delivered over 6 months and was led by community based co-ordinators and volunteers. Feasibility measures comprised: recruitment and retention rates, compliance with intervention and assessment of treatment fidelity. Effects of intervention were explored using a waitlist randomised controlled design, with outcome measures of wellbeing, communication, social connectedness and quality of life. Two intervention groups were randomised to an immediate condition and two were randomised to a delayed condition. The main analysis explored scores on the measures between two time points, between which those in the immediate condition had received intervention, but those in the delayed group had not (yet). A comprehensive approach to economic data collection ensured that all costs of treatment delivery were recorded. Feasibility findings showed that the recruitment target was met (N = 34) and 85.3% (29/34) of participants completed intervention. All groups ran the 14 sessions as planned, and participants attended a mean of 11.4 sessions (s.d. 2.8), which was 81.6% of the intended dose. Fidelity checking showed minimal drift from the manualised intervention. No significant change was observed on any of the outcome measures, although the study was not powered to detect these. Costs varied across the four groups, from £7,483 - £12,562 British Pounds Sterling ($10,972 - $18,419 US dollars), depending on travel costs, the relative contributions of volunteers and the number of hardware loans that were needed. The results suggest that a larger trial of remote group support, using virtual reality, would be merited. However the treatment content and regime, and the selection of outcome measures should be reviewed before conducting the trial. Trail registration: Study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/NCT03115268.


Assuntos
Afasia/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Apoio Social , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Afasia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
11.
Brain Inj ; 34(7): 934-944, 2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521171

RESUMO

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical practice of communication partner training by Speech and Language Therapists for people with traumatic brain injury in the UK. STUDY DESIGN: Online 97-item survey which addressed the practice of training both familiar and unfamiliar communication partners, and barriers and facilitators to implementation informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework. PARTICIPANTS: 169 Speech and Language Therapists from private and public settings in the UK. RESULTS: While 96% reported training familiar communication partners, only 58% reported training unfamiliar communication partners. Therapists reported providing communication partner training consistent with best practice 43% of the time. Evidence-based published programmes were used by 13.8% and 19.9% of participants for training familiar and unfamiliar partners, respectively. Therapists reported using outcomes for familiar and unfamiliar communication partners 83% and 78% of the time. The most frequently reported barrier was lack of behavioral regulation (e.g., planning). Most frequent perceived facilitators were clinicians wanting to deliver communication partner training and that training was part of therapists' professional role (social professional role and identity). CONCLUSIONS: Therapists were motivated to deliver communication partner training but reduced capability affected implementation. Further support to clinicians on outcome measurement with materials to develop workplace systems to monitor implementation is needed.

12.
Clin Rehabil ; 34(8): 1056-1071, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a dialogue-based intervention targeting psychosocial well-being at 12 months post-stroke. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial with two parallel groups. SETTING: Community. SUBJECTS: Three-hundred and twenty-two adults (⩾18 years) with stroke within the last four weeks were randomly allocated into intervention group (n = 166) or control group (n = 156). INTERVENTIONS: The intervention group received a dialogue-based intervention to promote psychosocial well-being, comprising eight individual 1-1½ hour sessions delivered during the first six months post-stroke. MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Secondary outcome measures included the Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39g, the Sense of Coherence scale, and the Yale Brown single-item questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the participants was 66.8 (12.1) years in the intervention group and 65.7 (13.3) years in the control group. At 12 months post-stroke, the mean (SE) GHQ-28 score was 20.6 (0.84) in the intervention group and 19.9 (0.85) in the control group. There were no between-group differences in psychosocial well-being at 12 months post-stroke (mean difference: -0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.08, 1.60). The secondary outcomes showed no statistically significant between-group difference in health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, or depression at 12 months. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial did not demonstrate lower levels of emotional distress and anxiety or higher levels of health-related quality of life in the intervention group (dialogue-based intervention) as compared to the control group (usual care) at 12 months post-stroke.


Assuntos
Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Senso de Coerência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Head Neck ; 42(8): 1963-1969, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about what factors affect patient-reported swallowing outcome after total laryngectomy. We explored whether patient demographics, surgical variables, use of adjuvant treatment, and time since surgery were associated with patient-reported swallowing outcome. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of laryngectomees in eight UK hospitals. Demographic, treatment, and surgical variables were drawn from medical notes. The swallowing outcomes after laryngectomy (SOAL) questionnaire captured perceived swallowing outcome. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty one participants had complete data on treatment-related variables. In regression analysis, having a free jejunum flap repair and requiring chemoradiation were the only two variables that added significantly to the model of worse self-reported swallowing outcome (R2 adjusted = .23, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The SOAL is a sensitive measure of self-reported swallowing outcome after laryngectomy. Type of surgical closure and the type of additional treatment influenced the swallowing outcome reported by patients. Changes in perceived swallowing function need to be routinely evaluated to inform clinical decision-making and intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Estudos Transversais , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Laringectomia , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Intensive Care Soc ; 20(4): 299-308, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695734

RESUMO

Background: Underfeeding in intensive care patients on enteral nutrition is commonplace and multifactorial. This can be exacerbated by interruptions caused by routine fasting for procedures and investigations. Our study aims to demonstrate that a volume based feeding protocol can overcome the barriers of underfeeding and safely increase energy and protein delivery in UK intensive care patients, potentially improving clinical outcomes. Methods: In this single centre cohort study, data were collected from adult mechanically ventilated patients. We compared the standard care of rate based feeding, from an International Nutrition Survey (2014/15) to the new intervention of volume based feeding, in a mixed medical and surgical intensive care unit. The primary outcomes were the proportion of energy and protein daily targets delivered. Secondary outcomes compared the effects on gastrointestinal tolerance, glycaemic control, mortality, mechanical ventilation days, length of stay in intensive care unit and hospital. Results: From a total of 82 patients (rate based feeding = 27, volume based feeding = 55), volume based feeding patients received significantly more prescribed energy (52% versus 81%; p < 0.001) and protein (40% versus 74%; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in gastrointestinal symptoms such as gastric residual volumes (p = 0.62), glycaemic control (p = 0.94) or insulin usage (p = 0.75). Although there was an improvement in energy and protein delivery, there were no differences in mechanical ventilation days (p = 0.12), mortality (p = 0.06), length of stay in intensive care unit (p = 0.93) and hospital (p = 0.72) between the groups. Conclusion: Compared to rate based feeding, volume based feeding significantly improved energy and protein provision with no adverse effects on glycaemic control or gastrointestinal tolerance, clinical outcomes were not affected.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693094

RESUMO

Background: Despite the high prevalence of mood problems after stroke, evidence on effective interventions particularly for those with aphasia is limited. There is a pressing need to systematically evaluate interventions aiming to improve wellbeing for people with stroke and aphasia. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a peer-befriending intervention. Methods/design: SUPERB is a single blind, parallel group feasibility trial of peer befriending for people with aphasia post-stroke and low levels of psychological distress. The trial includes a nested qualitative study and pilot economic evaluation and it compares usual care (n = 30) with usual care + peer befriending (n = 30). Feasibility outcomes include proportion screened who meet criteria, proportion who consent, rate of consent, number of missing/incomplete data on outcome measures, attrition rate at follow-up, potential value of conducting main trial using value of information analysis (economic evaluation), description of usual care, and treatment fidelity of peer befriending. Assessments and outcome measures (mood, wellbeing, communication, and social participation) for participants and significant others will be administered at baseline, with outcome measures re-administered at 4 and 10 months post-randomisation. Peer befrienders will complete outcome measures before training and after they have completed two cycles of befriending. The qualitative study will use semi-structured interviews of purposively sampled participants (n = 20) and significant others (n = 10) from both arms of the trial, and all peer befrienders to explore the acceptability of procedures and experiences of care. The pilot economic evaluation will utilise the European Quality of life measure (EQ-5D-5 L) and a stroke-adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Discussion: This study will provide information on feasibility outcomes and an initial indication of whether peer befriending is a suitable intervention to explore further in a definitive phase III randomised controlled trial. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02947776, registered 28th October 2016.

16.
Int J Stroke ; 14(2): 180-185, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A core outcome set (COS; an agreed, minimum set of outcomes) was needed to address the heterogeneous measurement of outcomes in aphasia treatment research and to facilitate the production of transparent, meaningful, and efficient outcome data. OBJECTIVE: The Research Outcome Measurement in Aphasia (ROMA) consensus statement provides evidence-based recommendations for the measurement of outcomes for adults with post-stroke aphasia within phases I-IV aphasia treatment studies. METHODS: This statement was informed by a four-year program of research, which comprised investigation of stakeholder-important outcomes using consensus processes, a scoping review of aphasia outcome measurement instruments, and an international consensus meeting. This paper provides an overview of this process and presents the results and recommendations arising from the international consensus meeting. RESULTS: Five essential outcome constructs were identified: Language, communication, patient-reported satisfaction with treatment and impact of treatment, emotional wellbeing, and quality of life. Consensus was reached for the following measurement instruments: Language: The Western Aphasia Battery Revised (WAB-R) (74% consensus); emotional wellbeing: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 (83% consensus); quality of life: Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale (SAQOL-39) (96% consensus). Consensus was unable to be reached for measures of communication (where multiple measures exist) or patient-reported satisfaction with treatment or impact of treatment (where no measures exist). DISCUSSION: Harmonization of the ROMA COS with other core outcome initiatives in stroke rehabilitation is discussed. Ongoing research and consensus processes are outlined. CONCLUSION: The WAB-R, GHQ-12, and SAQOL-39 are recommended to be routinely included within phases I-IV aphasia treatment studies. This consensus statement has been endorsed by the Collaboration of Aphasia Trialists, the British Aphasiology Society, the German Society for Aphasia Research and Therapy, and the Royal College of Speech Language Therapists.


Assuntos
Afasia/terapia , Consenso , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Afasia/diagnóstico , Emoções , Humanos , Idioma , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 53(6): 1078-1093, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discourse in adults with aphasia is increasingly the focus of assessment and therapy research. A broad range of measures is available to describe discourse, but very limited information is available on their psychometric properties. As a result, the quality of these measures is unknown, and there is very little evidence to motivate the choice of one measure over another. AIMS: To explore the quality of a range of discourse measures, targeting sentence structure, coherence, story structure and cohesion. Quality was evaluated in terms of the psychometric properties of acceptability (data completeness and skewness), reliability (inter- and intra-rater), and validity (content, convergent, discriminant and known groups). METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants with chronic mild-to-moderate aphasia were recruited from community groups. They produced a range of discourses which were grouped into Cinderella and everyday discourses. Discourses were then transcribed orthographically and analyzed using macro- and microlinguistic measures (Story Grammar, Topic Coherence, Local Coherence, Reference Chains and Predicate Argument Structure-PAS). Data were evaluated against standard predetermined criteria to ascertain the psychometric quality of the measures. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: A total of 17 participants took part in the study. All measures had high levels of acceptability, inter- and intra-rater reliability, and had good content validity, as they could be related to a level of the theoretical model of discourse production. For convergent validity, as expected, 8/10 measures correlated with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) spontaneous speech scores, and 7/10 measures correlated with the Kissing and Dancing Test (KDT) scores (r ≥ 0.3), giving an overall positive rating for construct validity. For discriminant validity, as predicted, all measures had low correlations with Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and WAB-R Auditory Verbal Comprehension scores (r < 0.3), giving an overall positive rating for construct validity. Finally, for known groups validity, all measures indicated a difference between speakers with mild and moderate aphasia except for the Local Coherence measures. Overall, Story Grammar, Topic Coherence, Reference Chains and PAS emerged as the strongest measures in the current study because they achieved the predetermined thresholds for quality in terms of each of the psychometric parameters profiled. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The current study is the first to psychometrically profile measures of discourse in aphasia. It contributes to the field by identifying Story Grammar, Topic Coherence, Reference Chains and PAS as the most psychometrically robust discourse measures yet profiled with speakers with aphasia. Until further data are available indicating the strength of other discourse measures, caution should be applied when using them.


Assuntos
Afasia/fisiopatologia , Idioma , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Compreensão , Humanos , Psicometria/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(5): 1261-1278, 2018 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710193

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review treatment studies of semantic feature analysis (SFA) for persons with aphasia. The review documents how SFA is used, appraises the quality of the included studies, and evaluates the efficacy of SFA. Method: The following electronic databases were systematically searched (last search February 2017): Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, E-journals, Health Policy Reference Centre, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and SocINDEX. The quality of the included studies was rated. Clinical efficacy was determined by calculating effect sizes (Cohen's d) or percent of nonoverlapping data when d could not be calculated. Results: Twenty-one studies were reviewed reporting on 55 persons with aphasia. SFA was used in 6 different types of studies: confrontation naming of nouns, confrontation naming of verbs, connected speech/discourse, group, multilingual, and studies where SFA was compared with other approaches. The quality of included studies was high (Single Case Experimental Design Scale average [range] = 9.55 [8.0-11]). Naming of trained items improved for 45 participants (81.82%). Effect sizes indicated that there was a small treatment effect. Conclusions: SFA leads to positive outcomes despite the variability of treatment procedures, dosage, duration, and variations to the traditional SFA protocol. Further research is warranted to examine the efficacy of SFA and generalization effects in larger controlled studies.


Assuntos
Afasia/terapia , Humanos , Semântica , Fonoterapia/métodos
19.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 53(4): 748-760, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores the psychometric properties of The Scenario Test UK, a culturally adapted version of the Dutch original (The Scenario Test) developed by van der Meulen et al. in 2010, which evaluates functional, daily-life communication in aphasia. The Scenario Test assesses communication in an interactive context with a supportive communication partner. AIMS: To evaluate the reliability (internal consistency, interrater and test-retest reliability) and construct validity (convergent, discriminant and known-groups validity) of The Scenario Test UK. METHODS & PROCEDURES: The Scenario Test UK and other language, cognition and praxis assessments were administered to persons with aphasia after stroke (3+ months post-stroke) and to non-aphasic controls. Participants were recruited primarily through community stroke groups. Measures were completed in an interview format. Standard psychometric criteria were used to evaluate reliability and construct validity. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: A total of 74 participants with aphasia and 20 participants without aphasia took part in The Scenario Test UK. The test showed high levels of reliability. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92), interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.96) were excellent. Interrater agreement in scores on the individual items ranged from good to excellent (κ = 0.41-1.00) for all but two items (item 4c κ = 0.38, item 6c κ = 0.36). The test demonstrated good levels of convergent (ρ = 0.37-0.75) and discriminant validity (ρ = -0.04 to 0.23). There was strong evidence for known groups validity (U = 132.50, p < .001), with those with aphasia scoring significantly lower [median (interquartile range-IQR) = 47 (39.8-51.0)] than those without aphasia [53 (52-54)]. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The data support the reliability and validity of the Scenario Test UK as an assessment of functional, daily-life communication for persons with aphasia. Further testing is needed in independent samples on the measure's psychometric properties, including its sensitivity to change. Pending this testing, The test can be used as an assessment tool to evaluate communication skills with people with aphasia, to guide goal setting for therapy and to measure outcomes in response to therapy.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Afasia/diagnóstico , Comunicação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 53(1): 16-29, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with aphasia are at risk of becoming depressed and isolated. Online surveys have found that the majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) lack confidence in addressing the psychological needs of people with aphasia. AIMS: To explore how SLTs conceptualize the scope of their role; barriers and facilitators to SLTs addressing psychosocial needs; and SLTs' experiences of specialist training and support, and working with mental health professionals (MHPs). METHODS & PROCEDURES: Focus groups were conducted in stroke healthcare settings. Purposive sampling was used when selecting sites so as to capture a range of experiences. Results were analysed using framework analysis. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Twenty-three SLTs took part in six focus groups. Participants' psychosocial work included counselling-type interactions, psycho-education, working with families, facilitating peer support and training other healthcare professionals. There was lack of consensus on the scope of the SLT role. Many expressed a sense of conflict, both perceiving it as valuable to spend time addressing psychological well-being, while simultaneously feeling uneasy if they deviated from 'direct SLT' work. Barriers to addressing psychosocial well-being were: emotionally challenging nature of this work, particularly for those who felt unsupported; caseload and time pressures; attitudes of senior managers and commissioners; difficulties measuring and documenting more 'fluid' psychosocial work; and the complexity of the needs and backgrounds of some patients. Enabling factors were: specialist ongoing support; peer support from colleagues; experience; support of management; and personal belief. Specialist training was valued. It changed how participants viewed the therapist-client relationship (more client led); the assessment and goal-setting process; and gave them more confidence to acknowledge client emotions. However, many felt that there was a need for ongoing specialist advice, and to be able to see approaches modelled for this client group. In terms of MHPs, a subset of stroke-specialist clinical psychologists worked directly with people with marked aphasia and families, as well as supporting the multidisciplinary team to provide holistic care. However, a main theme was that participants perceived many MHPs did not consider people with aphasia as 'appropriate candidates' for psychological input. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: All participants cared about the emotional well-being of their clients; however, they identified a number of barriers to people with aphasia receiving appropriate psychological support. A cultural shift, whereby psychological care for people with aphasia is seen as valuable, feasible and necessary, delivered collaboratively by SLTs, MHPs and the wider team, may improve services.


Assuntos
Afasia/psicologia , Terapia da Linguagem , Fonoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Afasia/etiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto Jovem
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