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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710777

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder defined by a characteristic cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognizable on axial brain magnetic resonance imaging as the "Molar Tooth Sign". Although defined by the neurological features, JS is associated with clinical features affecting many other organ systems, particularly progressive involvement of the retina, kidney, and liver. JS is a rare condition; therefore, many affected individuals may not have easy access to subspecialty providers familiar with JS (e.g., geneticists, neurologists, developmental pediatricians, ophthalmologists, nephrologists, hepatologists, psychiatrists, therapists, and educators). Expert recommendations can enable practitioners of all types to provide quality care to individuals with JS and know when to refer for subspecialty care. This need will only increase as precision treatments targeting specific genetic causes of JS emerge. The goal of these recommendations is to provide a resource for general practitioners, subspecialists, and families to maximize the health of individuals with JS throughout the lifespan.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708116

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life, and in utero obstruction to urine flow is a frequent cause of secondary upper urinary tract malformations. Here, using whole-exome sequencing, we identified three different biallelic mutations in CHRNA3, which encodes the α3 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, in five affected individuals from three unrelated families with functional lower urinary tract obstruction and secondary CAKUT. Four individuals from two families have additional dysautonomic features, including impaired pupillary light reflexes. Functional studies in vitro demonstrated that the mutant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were unable to generate current following stimulation with acetylcholine. Moreover, the truncating mutations p.Thr337Asnfs∗81 and p.Ser340∗ led to impaired plasma membrane localization of CHRNA3. Although the importance of acetylcholine signaling in normal bladder function has been recognized, we demonstrate for the first time that mutations in CHRNA3 can cause bladder dysfunction, urinary tract malformations, and dysautonomia. These data point to a pathophysiologic sequence by which monogenic mutations in genes that regulate bladder innervation may secondarily cause CAKUT.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in about 50 genes have been identified as monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome, a frequent cause of CKD. These genes delineated the pathogenetic pathways and rendered significant insight into podocyte biology. METHODS: We used whole-exome sequencing to identify novel monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). We analyzed the functional significance of an SRNS-associated gene in vitro and in podocyte-like Drosophila nephrocytes. RESULTS: We identified hemizygous missense mutations in the gene TBC1D8B in five families with nephrotic syndrome. Coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated interactions between TBC1D8B and active forms of RAB11. Silencing TBC1D8B in HEK293T cells increased basal autophagy and exocytosis, two cellular functions that are independently regulated by RAB11. This suggests that TBC1D8B plays a regulatory role by inhibiting endogenous RAB11. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed TBC1D8B also interacts with the slit diaphragm protein nephrin, and colocalizes with it in immortalized cell lines. Overexpressed murine Tbc1d8b with patient-derived mutations had lower affinity for endogenous RAB11 and nephrin compared with wild-type Tbc1d8b protein. Knockdown of Tbc1d8b in Drosophila impaired function of the podocyte-like nephrocytes, and caused mistrafficking of Sns, the Drosophila ortholog of nephrin. Expression of Rab11 RNAi in nephrocytes entailed defective delivery of slit diaphragm protein to the membrane, whereas RAB11 overexpression revealed a partial phenotypic overlap to Tbc1d8b loss of function. CONCLUSIONS: Novel mutations in TBC1D8B are monogenic causes of SRNS. This gene inhibits RAB11. Our findings suggest that RAB11-dependent vesicular nephrin trafficking plays a role in the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3967, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481669

RESUMO

N6-threonyl-carbamoylation of adenosine 37 of ANN-type tRNAs (t6A) is a universal modification essential for translational accuracy and efficiency. The t6A pathway uses two sequentially acting enzymes, YRDC and OSGEP, the latter being a subunit of the multiprotein KEOPS complex. We recently identified mutations in genes encoding four out of the five KEOPS subunits in children with Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS), a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disease characterized by early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and microcephaly. Here we show that mutations in YRDC cause an extremely severe form of GAMOS whereas mutations in GON7, encoding the fifth KEOPS subunit, lead to a milder form of the disease. The crystal structure of the GON7/LAGE3/OSGEP subcomplex shows that the intrinsically disordered GON7 protein becomes partially structured upon binding to LAGE3. The structure and cellular characterization of GON7 suggest its involvement in the cellular stability and quaternary arrangement of the KEOPS complex.

5.
Kidney Int ; 96(4): 883-889, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472902

RESUMO

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease almost inevitably progressing to end-stage renal disease. More than 58 monogenic causes of SRNS have been discovered and majority of known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome causing genes are predominantly expressed in glomerular podocytes, placing them at the center of disease pathogenesis. Herein, we describe two unrelated families with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome with homozygous mutations in the KIRREL1 gene. One mutation showed high frequency in the European population (minor allele frequency 0.0011) and this patient achieved complete remission following treatment, but later progressed to chronic kidney disease. We found that mutant KIRREL1 proteins failed to localize to the podocyte cell membrane, indicating defective trafficking and impaired podocytes function. Thus, the KIRREL1 gene product has an important role in modulating the integrity of the slit diaphragm and maintaining glomerular filtration function.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2112-2118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444901

RESUMO

Generalized arterial calcifications of infancy (GACI) is caused by mutations in ENPP1. Other ENPP1-related phenotypes include pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hypophosphatemic rickets, and Cole disease. We studied four children from two Bedouin consanguineous families who presented with severe clinical phenotype including thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, hepatic, and neurologic manifestations. Initial working diagnosis included congenital infection; however, patients remained without a definitive diagnosis despite extensive workup. Consequently, we investigated a potential genetic etiology. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed for affected children and their parents. Following the identification of a novel mutation in the ENPP1 gene, we characterized this novel multisystemic presentation and revised relevant imaging studies. Using WES, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c.556G > C; p.Gly186Arg) in ENPP1 which affects a highly conserved protein domain (somatomedin B2). ENPP1-associated genetic diseases exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity depending on mutation type and location. Follow-up clinical characterization of these families allowed us to revise and detect new features of systemic calcifications, which established the diagnosis of GACI, expanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with ENPP1 mutations. Our findings demonstrate that this novel ENPP1 founder mutation can cause a fatal multisystemic phenotype, mimicking severe congenital infection. This also represents the first reported mutation affecting the SMB2 domain, associated with GACI.

7.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 52, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) comprise a diverse range of clinical manifestations. To date, more than 30 single gene causes of lupus/lupus like syndromes in humans have been identified. In the clinical setting, identifying the underlying molecular diagnosis is challenging due to phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. METHODS: We employed whole exome sequencing (WES) in patients presenting with childhood-onset lupus with severe and/or atypical presentations to identify cases that are explained by a single-gene (monogenic) cause. RESULTS: From January 2015 to June 2018 15 new cases of childhood-onset SLE were diagnosed in Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital. By WES we identified causative mutations in four subjects in five different genes: C1QC, SLC7A7, MAN2B1, PTEN and STAT1. No molecular diagnoses were established on clinical grounds prior to genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a significant fraction of monogenic SLE etiologies using WES and confirm the genetic locus heterogeneity in childhood-onset lupus. These results highlight the importance of establishing a genetic diagnosis for children with severe or atypical lupus by providing accurate and early etiology-based diagnoses and improving subsequent clinical management.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 302-316, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256877

RESUMO

Members of a paralogous gene family in which variation in one gene is known to cause disease are eight times more likely to also be associated with human disease. Recent studies have elucidated DHX30 and DDX3X as genes for which pathogenic variant alleles are involved in neurodevelopmental disorders. We hypothesized that variants in paralogous genes encoding members of the DExD/H-box RNA helicase superfamily might also underlie developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD and/or ID) disease phenotypes. Here we describe 15 unrelated individuals who have DD and/or ID, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, vertebral anomalies, and dysmorphic features and were found to have probably damaging variants in DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes. In addition, these individuals exhibit a variety of other tissue and organ system involvement including ocular, outer ear, hearing, cardiac, and kidney tissues. Five individuals with homozygous (one), compound-heterozygous (two), or de novo (two) missense variants in DHX37 were identified by exome sequencing. We identified ten total individuals with missense variants in three other DDX/DHX paralogs: DHX16 (four individuals), DDX54 (three individuals), and DHX34 (three individuals). Most identified variants are rare, predicted to be damaging, and occur at conserved amino acid residues. Taken together, these 15 individuals implicate the DExD/H-box helicases in both dominantly and recessively inherited neurodevelopmental phenotypes and highlight the potential for more than one disease mechanism underlying these disorders.

9.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 320-326, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248650

RESUMO

Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive kidney disease with high genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the functions of the individual genes contributing to this disease is critical for delineating the pathomechanisms of this disorder. Here, we investigated kidney function of a novel gene associated with nephronophthisis, CEP164, coding a centriolar distal appendage protein, using a Cep164 knockout mouse model. Collecting duct-specific deletion of Cep164 abolished primary cilia from the collecting duct epithelium and led to rapid postnatal cyst growth in the kidneys. Cell cycle and biochemical studies revealed that tubular hyperproliferation is the primary mechanism that drives cystogenesis in the kidneys of these mice. Administration of roscovitine, a cell cycle inhibitor, blocked cyst growth in the cortical collecting ducts and preserved kidney parenchyma in Cep164 knockout mice. Thus, our findings provide evidence that therapeutic modulation of cell cycle activity can be an effective approach to prevent cyst progression in the kidney.

10.
Hum Genet ; 138(10): 1105-1115, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230195

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (~ 45%) that manifests before 30 years of age. The genetic locus containing COL4A1 (13q33-34) has been implicated in vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), but mutations in COL4A1 have not been reported in CAKUT. We hypothesized that COL4A1 mutations cause CAKUT in humans. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in 550 families with CAKUT. As negative control cohorts we used WES sequencing data from patients with nephronophthisis (NPHP) with no genetic cause identified (n = 257) and with nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to monogenic causes (n = 100). We identified a not previously reported heterozygous missense variant in COL4A1 in three siblings with isolated VUR. When examining 549 families with CAKUT, we identified nine additional different heterozygous missense mutations in COL4A1 in 11 individuals from 11 unrelated families with CAKUT, while no COL4A1 mutations were identified in a control cohort with NPHP and only one in the cohort with NS. Most individuals (12/14) had isolated CAKUT with no extrarenal features. The predominant phenotype was VUR (9/14). There were no clinical features of the COL4A1-related disorders (e.g., HANAC syndrome, porencephaly, tortuosity of retinal arteries). Whereas COL4A1-related disorders are typically caused by glycine substitutions in the collagenous domain (84.4% of variants), only one variant in our cohort is a glycine substitution within the collagenous domain (1/10). We identified heterozygous COL4A1 mutations as a potential novel autosomal dominant cause of CAKUT that is allelic to the established COL4A1-related disorders and predominantly caused by non-glycine substitutions.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Rim/anormalidades , Mutação , Fenótipo , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genômica/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Navegador , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
Kidney Int ; 96(3): 642-655, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171376

RESUMO

The essential role of membrane associated guanylate kinase 2 (MAGI2) in podocytes is indicated by the phenotypes of severe glomerulosclerosis of both MAGI2 knockout mice and in patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) caused by mutations in MAGI2. Here, we show that MAGI2 forms a complex with the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, RapGEF2, and that this complex is lost when expressing MAGI2 CNS variants. Co-expression of RapGEF2 with wild-type MAGI2, but not MAGI2 CNS variants, enhanced activation of the small GTPase Rap1, a central signaling node in podocytes. In mice, podocyte-specific RapGEF2 deletion resulted in spontaneous glomerulosclerosis, with qualitative glomerular features comparable to MAGI2 knockout mice. Knockdown of RapGEF2 or MAGI2 in human podocytes caused similar reductions in levels of Rap1 activation and Rap1-mediated downstream signaling. Furthermore, human podocytes expressing MAGI2 CNS variants show severe abnormalities of cellular morphology and dramatic loss of actin cytoskeletal organization, features completely rescued by pharmacological activation of Rap1 via a non-MAGI2 dependent upstream pathway. Finally, immunostaining of kidney sections from patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome and MAGI2 mutations showed reduced podocyte Rap1-mediated signaling. Thus, MAGI2-RapGEF2-Rap1 signaling is essential for normal podocyte function. Hence, disruption of this pathway is an important cause of the renal phenotype induced by MAGI2 CNS mutations.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 994-1006, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051115

RESUMO

Congenital lower urinary-tract obstruction (LUTO) is caused by anatomical blockage of the bladder outflow tract or by functional impairment of urinary voiding. About three out of 10,000 pregnancies are affected. Although several monogenic causes of functional obstruction have been defined, it is unknown whether congenital LUTO caused by anatomical blockage has a monogenic cause. Exome sequencing in a family with four affected individuals with anatomical blockage of the urethra identified a rare nonsense variant (c.2557C>T [p.Arg853∗]) in BNC2, encoding basonuclin 2, tracking with LUTO over three generations. Re-sequencing BNC2 in 697 individuals with LUTO revealed three further independent missense variants in three unrelated families. In human and mouse embryogenesis, basonuclin 2 was detected in lower urinary-tract rudiments. In zebrafish embryos, bnc2 was expressed in the pronephric duct and cloaca, analogs of the mammalian lower urinary tract. Experimental knockdown of Bnc2 in zebrafish caused pronephric-outlet obstruction and cloacal dilatation, phenocopying human congenital LUTO. Collectively, these results support the conclusion that variants in BNC2 are strongly implicated in LUTO etiology as a result of anatomical blockage.

13.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(9): 1607-1613, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous PAX2 mutations cause renal coloboma syndrome (RCS) [OMIM no. 120330]. RCS is a renal syndromic disease encompassing retinal coloboma and sensorineural hearing loss. Recently, a causative role for PAX2 was reported in adult-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, the prevalence of PAX2 mutations among large cohort of children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and FSGS has not been systematically studied. METHODS: We employed whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify the percentage of SRNS cases explained by monogenic mutations in known genes of SRNS/FSGS. As PAX2 mutations are not an established cause of childhood FSGS, we evaluated a cohort of 215 unrelated families with SRNS, in whom no underlying genetic etiology had been previously established. RESULTS: Using WES, we identified 3 novel causative heterozygous PAX2 mutations in 3 out of the 215 unrelated index cases studied (1.3%). All three cases were detected in individuals from families with more than one affected and compatible with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (3/57 familial cases studied (5.2%)). The clinical diagnosis in three out of four pediatric index patients was done during routine medical evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate high frequency of PAX2 mutations in familial form of SRNS (5.2%) and further expand the phenotypic spectrum of PAX2 heterozygous mutations to include autosomal dominant childhood-onset FSGS. These results highlight the importance of including PAX2 in the list of genes known to cause FSGS in children.

14.
Kidney Int ; 95(5): 1079-1090, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010479

RESUMO

Recently, recessive mutations of MAGI2 were identified as a cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) in humans and mice. To further delineate the pathogenesis of MAGI2 loss of function, we generated stable knockout lines for the two zebrafish orthologues magi2a and magi2b by CRISPR/Cas9. We also developed a novel assay for the direct detection of proteinuria in zebrafish independent of transgenic background. Whereas knockout of magi2b did not yield a nephrotic syndrome phenotype, magi2a-/- larvae developed ascites, periorbital edema, and proteinuria, as indicated by increased excretion of low molecular weight protein. Electron microscopy demonstrated extensive podocyte foot process effacement. As in human SRNS, we observed genotype/phenotype correlation, with edema onset occurring earlier in zebrafish with truncating alleles (5-6 days post fertilization) versus hypomorphic alleles (19-20 days post fertilization). Paradoxically, corticosteroid treatment exacerbated the phenotype, with earlier onset of edema. In contrast, treatment with cyclosporine A or tacrolimus had no significant effect. Although RhoA signaling has been implicated as a downstream mediator of MAGI2 activity, targeting of the RhoA pathway did not modify the nephrotic syndrome phenotype. In the first CRISPR/Cas9 zebrafish knockout model of SRNS, we found that corticosteroids may have a paradoxical effect in the setting of specific genetic mutations.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1180, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862798

RESUMO

A failure in optic fissure fusion during development can lead to blinding malformations of the eye. Here, we report a syndrome characterized by facial dysmorphism, colobomatous microphthalmia, ptosis and syndactyly with or without nephropathy, associated with homozygous frameshift mutations in FAT1. We show that Fat1 knockout mice and zebrafish embryos homozygous for truncating fat1a mutations exhibit completely penetrant coloboma, recapitulating the most consistent developmental defect observed in affected individuals. In human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the primary site for the fusion of optic fissure margins, FAT1 is localized at earliest cell-cell junctions, consistent with a role in facilitating optic fissure fusion during vertebrate eye development. Our findings establish FAT1 as a gene with pleiotropic effects in human, in that frameshift mutations cause a severe multi-system disorder whereas recessive missense mutations had been previously associated with isolated glomerulotubular nephropathy.


Assuntos
Blefaroptose/genética , Caderinas/genética , Coloboma/genética , Nefropatias/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Organogênese/genética , Sindactilia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Embrião de Mamíferos , Olho/embriologia , Ossos Faciais/anormalidades , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Junções Intercelulares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Cultura Primária de Células , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
16.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(10): 591-597, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VATER/VACTERL association refers to the nonrandom co-occurrence of at least three of the following component features (CFs): vertebral defects (V), anorectal malformations (ARM) (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheoesophageal fistula with or without esophageal atresia (TE), renal malformations (R), and limb defects (L). Patients presenting with two CFs have been termed VATER/VACTERL-like phenotypes. METHODS: We surveyed the exome for recessive disease variants in three affected sib-pairs. Sib-pair 971 consisted of two brothers with ARM and additional hydronephrosis in one brother. Sib-pair 1098 consisted of two sisters with ARM. In family 1346, the daughter presented with ARM and additional hypoplasia of both small fingers and ankyloses. Her brother presented with unilateral isolated radial hypoplasia. Sib-pairs 971 and 1346 resembled a VATER/VACTERL-like phenotype. RESULTS: We detected a novel maternally inherited missense variant (c.1340G > T) and a rare paternally inherited deletion of the trans-allele in HSPA6 in both siblings of family 1346. HSPA6 belongs to the heat shock protein (HSP) 70 family. Re-sequencing of HSPA6 in 167 patients with VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL-like phenotypes did not reveal any additional bi-allelic variants. CONCLUSIONS: Until now, only TNF-receptor associated protein 1 (TRAP1) had been reported as an autosomal recessive disease-gene for the VATER/VACTERL association. TRAP1 belongs to the heat shock protein 90 family (HSP90). Both Hsp70 and Hsp90 genes have been shown to be important embryonic drivers in the formation of mouse embryonic forelimb tissue. Our results suggest HSPA6 as a new candidate gene in VATER/VACTERL-like phenotypes.

17.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 53, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPRD) is a rare autosomal-recessive, non-inflammatory arthropathy, shown to be caused by mutations in the WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP3) gene. Although several hundred cases were reported worldwide, the diagnosis remains challenging. Subsequently, the syndrome is often unrecognized and misdiagnosed (for instance, as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis), leading to unnecessary procedures and treatments. The objective of the current study was to identify the molecular basis in a family with PPRD and describe their phenotype and course of illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present here a multiply affected consanguineous family of Iraqi-Jewish descent with PPRD. The proband, a 6.5 years old girl, presented with bilateral symmetric bony enlargements of the 1st interphalangeal joints of the hands, without signs of synovitis. Molecular analysis of the family was pursued using Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and homozygosity mapping. RESULTS: WES analysis brought to the identification of a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.257G > T, p.C86F) in the WISP3 gene. Following this diagnosis, an additional 53 years old affected family member was found to harbor the mutation. Two other individuals in the family were reported to have had similar involvement however both had died of unrelated causes. CONCLUSION: The reported family underscores the importance of recognition of this unique skeletal dysplasia by clinicians, and especially by pediatric rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular CCN/genética , Artropatias/congênito , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Criança , Consanguinidade , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Iraque/etnologia , Judeus/genética , Artropatias/diagnóstico , Artropatias/etnologia , Artropatias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 953, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814516

RESUMO

Although hundreds of cytosolic or transmembrane molecules form the primary cilium, few secreted molecules are known to contribute to ciliogenesis. Here, homologous secreted metalloproteases ADAMTS9 and ADAMTS20 are identified as ciliogenesis regulators that act intracellularly. Secreted and furin-processed ADAMTS9 bound heparan sulfate and was internalized by LRP1, LRP2 and clathrin-mediated endocytosis to be gathered in Rab11 vesicles with a unique periciliary localization defined by super-resolution microscopy. CRISPR-Cas9 inactivation of ADAMTS9 impaired ciliogenesis in RPE-1 cells, which was restored by catalytically active ADAMTS9 or ADAMTS20 acting in trans, but not by their proteolytically inactive mutants. Their mutagenesis in mice impaired neural and yolk sac ciliogenesis, leading to morphogenetic anomalies resulting from impaired hedgehog signaling, which is transduced by primary cilia. In addition to their cognate extracellular proteolytic activity, ADAMTS9 and ADAMTS20 thus have an additional proteolytic role intracellularly, revealing an unexpected regulatory dimension in ciliogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/metabolismo , Proteína ADAMTS9/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Proteínas ADAMTS/deficiência , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Proteína ADAMTS9/deficiência , Proteína ADAMTS9/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Endocitose , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/embriologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Versicanas/genética , Versicanas/metabolismo , Saco Vitelino/embriologia , Saco Vitelino/metabolismo
19.
Hum Genet ; 138(3): 211-219, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778725

RESUMO

Nephrolithiasis (NL) affects 1 in 11 individuals worldwide and causes significant patient morbidity. We previously demonstrated a genetic cause of NL can be identified in 11-29% of pre-dominantly American and European stone formers. Pakistan, which resides within the Afro-Asian stone belt, has a high prevalence of nephrolithiasis (12%) as well as high rate of consanguinity (> 50%). We recruited 235 Pakistani subjects hospitalized for nephrolithiasis from five tertiary hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Subjects were surveyed for age of onset, NL recurrence, and family history. We conducted high-throughput exon sequencing of 30 NL disease genes and variant analysis to identify monogenic causative mutations in each subject. We detected likely causative mutations in 4 of 30 disease genes, yielding a likely molecular diagnosis in 7% (17 of 235) of NL families. Only 1 of 17 causative mutations was identified in an autosomal recessive disease gene. 10 of the 12 detected mutations were novel mutations (83%). SLC34A1 was most frequently mutated (12 of 17 solved families). We observed a higher frequency of causative mutations in subjects with a positive NL family history (13/109, 12%) versus those with a negative family history (4/120, 3%). Five missense SLC34A1 variants identified through genetic analysis demonstrated defective phosphate transport. We examined the monogenic causes of NL in a novel geographic cohort and most frequently identified dominant mutations in the sodium-phosphate transporter SLC34A1 with functional validation.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Nefrolitíase/epidemiologia , Nefrolitíase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Família , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genótipo , Geografia Médica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo IIa/genética , Xenopus laevis , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although studies have identified >55 genes as causing steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and localized its pathogenesis to glomerular podocytes, the disease mechanisms of SRNS remain largely enigmatic. We recently reported that individuals with mutations in COQ6, a coenzyme Q (also called CoQ10, CoQ, or ubiquinone) biosynthesis pathway enzyme, develop SRNS with sensorineural deafness, and demonstrated the beneficial effect of CoQ for maintenace of kidney function. METHODS: To study COQ6 function in podocytes, we generated a podocyte-specific Coq6 knockout mouse (Coq6podKO ) model and a transient siRNA-based COQ6 knockdown in a human podocyte cell line. Mice were monitored for development of proteinuria and assessed for development of glomerular sclerosis. Using a podocyte migration assay, we compared motility in COQ6 knockdown podocytes and control podocytes. We also randomly assigned 5-month-old Coq6podKO mice and controls to receive no treatment or 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-diHB), an analog of a CoQ precursor molecule that is classified as a food additive by health authorities in Europe and the United States. RESULTS: Abrogation of Coq6 in mouse podocytes caused FSGS and proteinuria (>46-fold increases in albuminuria). In vitro studies revealed an impaired podocyte migration rate in COQ6 knockdown human podocytes. Treating Coq6podKO mice or cells with 2,4-diHB prevented renal dysfunction and reversed podocyte migration rate impairment. Survival of Coq6podKO mice given 2,4diHB was comparable to that of control mice and significantly higher than that of untreated Coq6podKO mice, half of which died by 10 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a potential novel treatment strategy for those cases of human nephrotic syndrome that are caused by a primary dysfunction in the CoQ10 biosynthesis pathway.

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