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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523862

RESUMO

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. We found recessive NOS1AP variants in two families with early-onset NS by exome sequencing. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) NOS1AP, but not cDNA constructs bearing patient variants, increased active CDC42 and promoted filopodia and podosome formation. Pharmacologic inhibition of CDC42 or its effectors, formin proteins, reduced NOS1AP-induced filopodia formation. NOS1AP knockdown reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR), which was rescued by overexpression of WT Nos1ap but not by constructs bearing patient variants. PMR in NOS1AP knockdown podocytes was also rescued by constitutively active CDC42Q61L or the formin DIAPH3 Modeling a NOS1AP patient variant in knock-in human kidney organoids revealed malformed glomeruli with increased apoptosis. Nos1apEx3-/Ex3- mice recapitulated the human phenotype, exhibiting proteinuria, foot process effacement, and glomerulosclerosis. These findings demonstrate that recessive NOS1AP variants impair CDC42/DIAPH-dependent actin remodeling, cause aberrant organoid glomerulogenesis, and lead to a glomerulopathy in humans and mice.

2.
Genet Med ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC) is a highly conserved, multifunctional 10-protein complex related to membrane protein biology. In seven families, we identified 13 individuals with highly overlapping phenotypes who harbor a single identical homozygous frameshift variant in EMC10. METHODS: Using exome, genome, and Sanger sequencing, a recurrent frameshift EMC10 variant was identified in affected individuals in an international cohort of consanguineous families. Multiple families were independently identified and connected via Matchmaker Exchange and internal databases. We assessed the effect of the frameshift variant on EMC10 RNA and protein expression and evaluated EMC10 expression in normal human brain tissue using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: A homozygous variant EMC10 c.287delG (Refseq NM_206538.3, p.Gly96Alafs*9) segregated with affected individuals in each family, who exhibited a phenotypic spectrum of intellectual disability (ID) and global developmental delay (GDD), variable seizures and variable dysmorphic features (elongated face, curly hair, cubitus valgus, and arachnodactyly). The variant arose on two founder haplotypes and results in significantly reduced EMC10 RNA expression and an unstable truncated EMC10 protein. CONCLUSION: We propose that a homozygous loss-of-function variant in EMC10 causes a novel syndromic neurodevelopmental phenotype. Remarkably, the recurrent variant is likely the result of a hypermutable site and arose on distinct founder haplotypes.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is characterized by neurodevelopmental defects and a progressive nephropathy, which typically manifests as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The prognosis of GAMOS is poor, and the majority of children progress to renal failure. The discovery of monogenic causes of GAMOS has uncovered molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease. METHODS: Homozygosity mapping, whole-exome sequencing, and linkage analysis were used to identify mutations in four families with a GAMOS-like phenotype, and high-throughput PCR technology was applied to 91 individuals with GAMOS and 816 individuals with isolated nephrotic syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies determined the functional significance of the mutations identified. RESULTS: Three biallelic variants of the transcriptional regulator PRDM15 were detected in six families with proteinuric kidney disease. Four families with a variant in the protein's zinc-finger (ZNF) domain have additional GAMOS-like features, including brain anomalies, cardiac defects, and skeletal defects. All variants destabilize the PRDM15 protein, and the ZNF variant additionally interferes with transcriptional activation. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Prdm15 in Xenopus embryos disrupted pronephric development. Human wild-type PRDM15 RNA rescued the disruption, but the three PRDM15 variants did not. Finally, CRISPR-mediated knockout of PRDM15 in human podocytes led to dysregulation of several renal developmental genes. CONCLUSIONS: Variants in PRDM15 can cause either isolated nephrotic syndrome or a GAMOS-type syndrome on an allelic basis. PRDM15 regulates multiple developmental kidney genes, and is likely to play an essential role in renal development in humans.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1113-1128, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232676

RESUMO

The discovery of >60 monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) has revealed a central role for the actin regulators RhoA/Rac1/Cdc42 and their effectors, including the formin INF2. By whole-exome sequencing (WES), we here discovered bi-allelic variants in the formin DAAM2 in four unrelated families with steroid-resistant NS. We show that DAAM2 localizes to the cytoplasm in podocytes and in kidney sections. Further, the variants impair DAAM2-dependent actin remodeling processes: wild-type DAAM2 cDNA, but not cDNA representing missense variants found in individuals with NS, rescued reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR) and restored reduced filopodia formation in shRNA-induced DAAM2-knockdown podocytes. Filopodia restoration was also induced by the formin-activating molecule IMM-01. DAAM2 also co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with INF2, which is intriguing since variants in both formins cause NS. Using in vitro bulk and TIRF microscopy assays, we find that DAAM2 variants alter actin assembly activities of the formin. In a Xenopus daam2-CRISPR knockout model, we demonstrate actin dysregulation in vivo and glomerular maldevelopment that is rescued by WT-DAAM2 mRNA. We conclude that DAAM2 variants are a likely cause of monogenic human SRNS due to actin dysregulation in podocytes. Further, we provide evidence that DAAM2-associated SRNS may be amenable to treatment using actin regulating compounds.

5.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(6): F988-F999, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103447

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the LRP2 gene, encoding the multiligand receptor megalin, cause a rare autosomal recessive syndrome: Donnai-Barrow/Facio-Oculo-Acoustico-Renal (DB/FOAR) syndrome. Because of the rarity of the syndrome, the long-term consequences of the tubulopathy on human renal health have been difficult to ascertain, and the human clinical condition has hitherto been characterized as a benign tubular condition with asymptomatic low-molecular-weight proteinuria. We investigated renal function and morphology in a murine model of DB/FOAR syndrome and in patients with DB/FOAR. We analyzed glomerular filtration rate in mice by FITC-inulin clearance and clinically characterized six families, including nine patients with DB/FOAR and nine family members. Urine samples from patients were analyzed by Western blot analysis and biopsy materials were analyzed by histology. In the mouse model, we used histological methods to assess nephrogenesis and postnatal renal structure and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to assess glomerular number. In megalin-deficient mice, we found a lower glomerular filtration rate and an increase in the abundance of injury markers, such as kidney injury molecule-1 and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase. Renal injury was validated in patients, who presented with increased urinary kidney injury molecule-1, classical markers of chronic kidney disease, and glomerular proteinuria early in life. Megalin-deficient mice had normal nephrogenesis, but they had 19% fewer nephrons in early adulthood and an increased fraction of nephrons with disconnected glomerulotubular junction. In conclusion, megalin dysfunction, as present in DB/FOAR syndrome, confers an increased risk of progression into chronic kidney disease.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An underlying monogenic cause of early-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in ∼20% of individuals. For many etiologies of CKD manifesting before 25 years of age, >200 monogenic causative genes have been identified to date, leading to the elucidation of mechanisms of renal pathogenesis. METHODS: In 51 families with echogenic kidneys and CKD, we performed whole-exome sequencing to identify novel monogenic causes of CKD. RESULTS: We discovered a homozygous truncating mutation in the transcription factor gene transcription factor CP2-like 1 (TFCP2L1) in an Arabic patient of consanguineous descent. The patient developed CKD by the age of 2 months and had episodes of severe hypochloremic, hyponatremic and hypokalemic alkalosis, seizures, developmental delay and hypotonia together with cataracts. We found that TFCP2L1 was localized throughout kidney development particularly in the distal nephron. Interestingly, TFCP2L1 induced the growth and development of renal tubules from rat mesenchymal cells. Conversely, the deletion of TFCP2L1 in mice was previously shown to lead to reduced expression of renal cell markers including ion transporters and cell identity proteins expressed in different segments of the distal nephron. TFCP2L1 localized to the nucleus in HEK293T cells only upon coexpression with its paralog upstream-binding protein 1 (UBP1). A TFCP2L1 mutant complementary DNA (cDNA) clone that represented the patient's mutation failed to form homo- and heterodimers with UBP1, an essential step for its transcriptional activity. CONCLUSION: Here, we identified a loss-of-function TFCP2L1 mutation as a potential novel cause of CKD in childhood accompanied by a salt-losing tubulopathy.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(18): 3064-3080, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886109

RESUMO

ANKS6 is a ciliary protein that localizes to the proximal compartment of the primary cilium, where it regulates signaling. Mutations in the ANKS6 gene cause multiorgan ciliopathies in humans, which include laterality defects of the visceral organs, renal cysts as part of nephronophthisis and congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) in the liver. Although CHF together with liver ductal plate malformations are common features of several human ciliopathy syndromes, including nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies, the mechanism by which mutations in ciliary genes lead to bile duct developmental abnormalities is not understood. Here, we generated a knockout mouse model of Anks6 and show that ANKS6 function is required for bile duct morphogenesis and cholangiocyte differentiation. The loss of Anks6 causes ciliary abnormalities, ductal plate remodeling defects and periportal fibrosis in the liver. Our expression studies and biochemical analyses show that biliary abnormalities in Anks6-deficient livers result from the dysregulation of YAP transcriptional activity in the bile duct-lining epithelial cells. Mechanistically, our studies suggest, that ANKS6 antagonizes Hippo signaling in the liver during bile duct development by binding to Hippo pathway effector proteins YAP1, TAZ and TEAD4 and promoting their transcriptional activity. Together, this study reveals a novel function for ANKS6 in regulating Hippo signaling during organogenesis and provides mechanistic insights into the regulatory network controlling bile duct differentiation and morphogenesis during liver development.

8.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 6(1): 68, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792490

RESUMO

Podocytopathies are kidney diseases in which direct or indirect podocyte injury drives proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome. In children and young adults, genetic variants in >50 podocyte-expressed genes, syndromal non-podocyte-specific genes and phenocopies with other underlying genetic abnormalities cause podocytopathies associated with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome or severe proteinuria. A variety of genetic variants likely contribute to disease development. Among genes with non-Mendelian inheritance, variants in APOL1 have the largest effect size. In addition to genetic variants, environmental triggers such as immune-related, infection-related, toxic and haemodynamic factors and obesity are also important causes of podocyte injury and frequently combine to cause various degrees of proteinuria in children and adults. Typical manifestations on kidney biopsy are minimal change lesions and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. Standard treatment for primary podocytopathies manifesting with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions includes glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive drugs; individuals not responding with a resolution of proteinuria have a poor renal prognosis. Renin-angiotensin system antagonists help to control proteinuria and slow the progression of fibrosis. Symptomatic management may include the use of diuretics, statins, infection prophylaxis and anticoagulation. This Primer discusses a shift in paradigm from patient stratification based on kidney biopsy findings towards personalized management based on clinical, morphological and genetic data as well as pathophysiological understanding.

9.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cilia are dynamic cellular extensions that generate and sense signals to orchestrate proper development and tissue homeostasis. They rely on the underlying polarisation of cells to participate in signalling. Cilia dysfunction is a well-known cause of several diseases that affect multiple organ systems including the kidneys, brain, heart, respiratory tract, skeleton and retina. METHODS: Among individuals from four unrelated families, we identified variants in discs large 5 (DLG5) that manifested in a variety of pathologies. In our proband, we also examined patient tissues. We depleted dlg5 in Xenopus tropicalis frog embryos to generate a loss-of-function model. Finally, we tested the pathogenicity of DLG5 patient variants through rescue experiments in the frog model. RESULTS: Patients with variants of DLG5 were found to have a variety of phenotypes including cystic kidneys, nephrotic syndrome, hydrocephalus, limb abnormalities, congenital heart disease and craniofacial malformations. We also observed a loss of cilia in cystic kidney tissue of our proband. Knockdown of dlg5 in Xenopus embryos recapitulated many of these phenotypes and resulted in a loss of cilia in multiple tissues. Unlike introduction of wildtype DLG5 in frog embryos depleted of dlg5, introduction of DLG5 patient variants was largely ineffective in restoring proper ciliation and tissue morphology in the kidney and brain suggesting that the variants were indeed detrimental to function. CONCLUSION: These findings in both patient tissues and Xenopus shed light on how mutations in DLG5 may lead to tissue-specific manifestations of disease. DLG5 is essential for cilia and many of the patient phenotypes are in the ciliopathy spectrum.

10.
Kidney Int ; 98(4): 958-969, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505465

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in MAPKBP1 were recently associated with late-onset cilia-independent nephronophthisis. MAPKBP1 was found at mitotic spindle poles but could not be detected at primary cilia or centrosomes. Here, by identification and characterization of novel MAPKBP1 variants, we aimed at further investigating its role in health and disease. Genetic analysis was done by exome sequencing, homozygosity mapping, and a targeted kidney gene panel while coimmunoprecipitation was used to explore wild-type and mutant protein-protein interactions. Expression of MAPKBP1 in non-ciliated HeLa and ciliated inner medullary collecting duct cells enabled co-localization studies by fluorescence microscopy. By next generation sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous MAPKBP1 splice-site variants in patients with nephronophthisis-related chronic kidney disease. Splice-site analyses revealed truncation of C-terminal coiled-coil domains and patient-derived deletion constructs lost their ability to homodimerize and heterodimerize with paralogous WDR62. While wild-type MAPKBP1 exhibited centrosomal, basal body, and microtubule association, mutant proteins lost the latter and showed reduced recruitment to cell cycle dependent centriolar structures. Wild-type and mutant proteins had no reciprocal influence upon co-expression excluding dominant negative effects. Thus, MAPKBP1 appears to be a novel microtubule-binding protein with cell cycle dependent centriolar localization. Truncation of its coiled-coil domain is enough to abrogate its dimerization and results in severely disturbed intracellular localizations. Delineating the impact of impaired dimerization on cell cycle regulation and intracellular kidney signaling may provide new insights into common mechanisms of kidney degeneration. Thus, due to milder clinical presentation, MAPKBP1-associated nephronophthisis should be considered in adult patients with otherwise unexplained chronic kidney disease.

11.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1673-1681, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood and adolescence. We aim to identify novel monogenic causes of CAKUT. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed in 550 CAKUT-affected families. RESULTS: We discovered seven FOXC1 heterozygous likely pathogenic variants within eight CAKUT families. These variants are either never reported, or present in <5 alleles in the gnomAD database with ~141,456 controls. FOXC1 is a causal gene for Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 3 and anterior segment dysgenesis 3. Pathogenic variants in FOXC1 have not been detected in patients with CAKUT yet. Interestingly, mouse models for Foxc1 show severe CAKUT phenotypes with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. The FOXC1 variants are enriched in the CAKUT cohort compared with the control. Genotype-phenotype correlations showed that Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome or anterior segment dysgenesis can be caused by both truncating and missense pathogenic variants, and the missense variants are located at the forkhead domain. In contrast, for CAKUT, there is no truncating pathogenic variant, and all variants except one are located outside the forkhead domain. CONCLUSION: We thereby expanded the phenotype of FOXC1 pathogenic variants toward involvement of CAKUT, which can potentially be explained by allelism.

12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(6): 1191-1211, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in ADCK4 (aarF domain containing kinase 4) generally manifest as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and induce coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome resulting from ADCK4 mutations are not well understood, largely because the function of ADCK4 remains unknown. METHODS: To elucidate the ADCK4's function in podocytes, we generated a podocyte-specific, Adck4-knockout mouse model and a human podocyte cell line featuring knockout of ADCK4. These knockout mice and podocytes were then treated with 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-diHB), a CoQ10 precursor analogue, or with a vehicle only. We also performed proteomic mass spectrometry analysis to further elucidate ADCK4's function. RESULTS: Absence of Adck4 in mouse podocytes caused FSGS and albuminuria, recapitulating features of nephrotic syndrome caused by ADCK4 mutations. In vitro studies revealed that ADCK4-knockout podocytes had significantly reduced CoQ10 concentration, respiratory chain activity, and mitochondrial potential, and subsequently displayed an increase in the number of dysmorphic mitochondria. However, treatment of 3-month-old knockout mice or ADCK4-knockout cells with 2,4-diHB prevented the development of renal dysfunction and reversed mitochondrial dysfunction in podocytes. Moreover, ADCK4 interacted with mitochondrial proteins such as COQ5, as well as cytoplasmic proteins such as myosin and heat shock proteins. Thus, ADCK4 knockout decreased the COQ complex level, but overexpression of ADCK4 in ADCK4-knockout podocytes transfected with wild-type ADCK4 rescued the COQ5 level. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that ADCK4 is required for CoQ10 biosynthesis and mitochondrial function in podocytes, and suggests that ADCK4 in podocytes stabilizes proteins in complex Q in podocytes. Our study also suggests a potential treatment strategy for nephrotic syndrome resulting from ADCK4 mutations.

13.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(5): 1131-1142, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233035

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase is a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme that degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate in the final step of sphingolipid metabolism. In 2017, a new inherited disorder was described caused by mutations in SGPL1, which encodes sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL). This condition is referred to as SPL insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) or alternatively as nephrotic syndrome type 14 (NPHS14). Patients with SPLIS exhibit lymphopenia, nephrosis, adrenal insufficiency, and/or neurological defects. No targeted therapy for SPLIS has been reported. Vitamin B6 supplementation has therapeutic activity in some genetic diseases involving B6-dependent enzymes, a finding ascribed largely to the vitamin's chaperone function. We investigated whether B6 supplementation might have activity in SPLIS patients. We retrospectively monitored responses of disease biomarkers in patients supplemented with B6 and measured SPL activity and sphingolipids in B6-treated patient-derived fibroblasts. In two patients, disease biomarkers responded to B6 supplementation. S1P abundance and activity levels increased and sphingolipids decreased in response to B6. One responsive patient is homozygous for an SPL R222Q variant present in almost 30% of SPLIS patients. Molecular modeling suggests the variant distorts the dimer interface which could be overcome by cofactor supplementation. We demonstrate the first potential targeted therapy for SPLIS and suggest that 30% of SPLIS patients might respond to cofactor supplementation.

14.
Exp Mol Med ; 52(4): 594-603, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238860

RESUMO

PLCE1 encodes phospholipase C epsilon, and its mutations cause recessive nephrotic syndrome. However, the mechanisms by which PLCE1 mutations result in defects associated with glomerular function are not clear. To address this, we investigated the function of PLCE1 in podocytes called glomerular epithelial cells, where the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome converges. PLCE1 colocalized with Rho GTPases in glomeruli. Further, it interacted with Rho GTPases through the pleckstrin homology domain and Ras GTP-binding domains 1/2. Knockdown or knockout of PLCE1 in podocytes resulted in decreased levels of GTP-bound Rac1 and Cdc42, but not those of RhoA, and caused a reduction in cell migration. PLCE1 interacted with NCK2 but not with NCK1. Similar to the PLCE1 knockout, NCK2 knockout resulted in decreased podocyte migration. Knockout of PLCE1 reduced the EGF-induced activation of ERK and cell proliferation in podocytes, whereas knockout of NCK2 did not affect proliferation. Further, the knockout of PLCE1 also resulted in decreased expression of podocyte markers, including NEPH1, NPHS1, WT1, and SYNPO, upon differentiation, but the knockout of NCK2 did not affect the expression of these markers. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that PLCE1 regulates Rho GTPase activity and cell migration through interacting with NCK2 and that PLCE1 also plays a role in the proliferation and differentiation of podocytes, regardless of the presence of NCK2.

15.
Sci Adv ; 6(2): eaax9852, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950080

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a congenital forebrain defect often associated with embryonic lethality and lifelong disabilities. Currently, therapeutic and diagnostic options are limited by lack of knowledge of potential disease-causing mutations. We have identified a new mutation in the PRDM15 gene (C844Y) associated with a syndromic form of HPE in multiple families. We demonstrate that C844Y is a loss-of-function mutation impairing PRDM15 transcriptional activity. Genetic deletion of murine Prdm15 causes anterior/posterior (A/P) patterning defects and recapitulates the brain malformations observed in patients. Mechanistically, PRDM15 regulates the transcription of key effectors of the NOTCH and WNT/PCP pathways to preserve early midline structures in the developing embryo. Analysis of a large cohort of patients with HPE revealed potentially damaging mutations in several regulators of both pathways. Our findings uncover an unexpected link between NOTCH and WNT/PCP signaling and A/P patterning and set the stage for the identification of new HPE candidate genes.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/embriologia , Polaridade Celular/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Embrião de Mamíferos/anormalidades , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Camundongos , Placa Neural/metabolismo , Gravidez , Transcrição Genética , Dedos de Zinco
16.
Kidney Int ; 97(3): 567-579, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959358

RESUMO

Distal renal tubular acidosis is a rare renal tubular disorder characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and impaired urinary acidification. Mutations in three genes (ATP6V0A4, ATP6V1B1 and SLC4A1) constitute a monogenic causation in 58-70% of familial cases of distal renal tubular acidosis. Recently, mutations in FOXI1 have been identified as an additional cause. Therefore, we hypothesized that further monogenic causes of distal renal tubular acidosis remain to be discovered. Panel sequencing and/or whole exome sequencing was performed in a cohort of 17 families with 19 affected individuals with pediatric onset distal renal tubular acidosis. A causative mutation was detected in one of the three "classical" known distal renal tubular acidosis genes in 10 of 17 families. The seven unsolved families were then subjected to candidate whole exome sequencing analysis. Potential disease causing mutations in three genes were detected: ATP6V1C2, which encodes another kidney specific subunit of the V-type proton ATPase (1 family); WDR72 (2 families), previously implicated in V-ATPase trafficking in cells; and SLC4A2 (1 family), a paralog of the known distal renal tubular acidosis gene SLC4A1. Two of these mutations were assessed for deleteriousness through functional studies. Yeast growth assays for ATP6V1C2 revealed loss-of-function for the patient mutation, strongly supporting ATP6V1C2 as a novel distal renal tubular acidosis gene. Thus, we provided a molecular diagnosis in a known distal renal tubular acidosis gene in 10 of 17 families (59%) with this disease, identified mutations in ATP6V1C2 as a novel human candidate gene, and provided further evidence for phenotypic expansion in WDR72 mutations from amelogenesis imperfecta to distal renal tubular acidosis.

17.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(3): 390-397, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809662

RESUMO

A large fraction of early-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be monogenic in origin. To date, ∼450 monogenic (synonymous with single-gene disorders) genes, if mutated, are known to cause CKD, explaining ∼30% of cases in pediatric cohorts and ∼5-30% in adult cohorts. However, there are likely hundreds of additional monogenic nephropathy genes that may be revealed by whole-exome or -genome sequencing. Although the discovery of novel CKD-causing genes has accelerated, significant challenges in adult populations remain due to broad phenotypic heterogeneity together with variable expressivity, incomplete penetrance or age-related penetrance of these genes. Here we give an overview of the currently known monogenic causes for human CKD. We also describe how next-generation sequencing facilitates rapid molecular genetic diagnostics in individuals with suspected genetic kidney disease. In an era of precision medicine, understanding the utility of genetic testing in individuals with a suspected inherited nephropathy has important diagnostic and prognostic implications. Detection of monogenic causes of CKD permits molecular genetic diagnosis for patients and families and opens avenues for personalized treatment strategies for CKD. As an example, detection of a pathogenic mutation in the gene HNF1B not only allows for the formal diagnosis of CKD, but can also facilitate screening for additional extrarenal manifestations of disease, such as maturity-onset diabetes of youth, subclinical abnormal liver function tests, neonatal cholestasis and pancreatic hypoplasia. It also provides the driving force towards a better understanding of disease pathogenesis, potentially facilitating targeted new therapies for individuals with CKD.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Medicina de Precisão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(1): 229-249, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710777

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder defined by a characteristic cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognizable on axial brain magnetic resonance imaging as the "Molar Tooth Sign". Although defined by the neurological features, JS is associated with clinical features affecting many other organ systems, particularly progressive involvement of the retina, kidney, and liver. JS is a rare condition; therefore, many affected individuals may not have easy access to subspecialty providers familiar with JS (e.g., geneticists, neurologists, developmental pediatricians, ophthalmologists, nephrologists, hepatologists, psychiatrists, therapists, and educators). Expert recommendations can enable practitioners of all types to provide quality care to individuals with JS and know when to refer for subspecialty care. This need will only increase as precision treatments targeting specific genetic causes of JS emerge. The goal of these recommendations is to provide a resource for general practitioners, subspecialists, and families to maximize the health of individuals with JS throughout the lifespan.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(2): 1113-1118, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879347

RESUMO

Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and the lack of sufficiently large patient cohorts pose a significant challenge to understanding genetic associations in rare disease. Here we identify Bsnd (alias Barttin) as a genetic modifier of cystic kidney disease in Joubert syndrome, using a Cep290-deficient mouse model to recapitulate the phenotypic variability observed in patients by mixing genetic backgrounds in a controlled manner and performing genome-wide analysis of these mice. Experimental down-regulation of Bsnd in the parental mouse strain phenocopied the severe cystic kidney phenotype. A common polymorphism within human BSND significantly associates with kidney disease severity in a patient cohort with CEP290 mutations. The striking phenotypic modifications we describe are a timely reminder of the value of mouse models and highlight the significant contribution of genetic background. Furthermore, if appropriately managed, this can be exploited as a powerful tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying human disease heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Genes Modificadores , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Retina/anormalidades , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Nefropatias , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(1): 43-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal biopsy is the mainstay of renal pathological diagnosis. Despite sophisticated diagnostic techniques, it is not always possible to make a precise pathological diagnosis. Our aim was to identify a genetic cause of disease in patients who had undergone renal biopsy and determine if genetic testing altered diagnosis or treatment. METHODS: Patients with suspected familial kidney disease underwent a variety of next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategies. The subset of these patients who had also undergone native kidney biopsy was identified. Histological specimens were reviewed by a consultant pathologist, and genetic and pathological diagnoses were compared. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients in 47 families underwent genetic sequencing and renal biopsy. Patients were grouped into 5 diagnostic categories based on pathological diagnosis: tubulointerstitial kidney disease (TIKD; n = 18); glomerulonephritis (GN; n = 15); focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and Alport Syndrome (n = 11); thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA; n = 17); and nonspecific pathological changes (n = 14). Thirty-nine patients (52%) in 21 families (45%) received a genetic diagnosis; 13 cases (72%) with TIKD, 4 (27%) with GN, 6 (55%) with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis/Alport syndrome, and 10 (59%) with TMA and 6 cases (43%) with nonspecific features. Genetic testing resulted in changes in understanding of disease mechanism in 21 individuals (54%) in 12 families (57%). Treatment would have been altered in at least 26% of cases (10/39). CONCLUSIONS: An accurate genetic diagnosis can result in changes in clinical diagnosis, understanding of pathological mechanism, and treatment. NGS should be considered as a complementary diagnostic technique to kidney biopsy in the evaluation of patients with kidney disease.

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