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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(12): e1546-e1554, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low blood glucose concentrations are common in sick children who present to hospital in low-resource settings and are associated with increased mortality. The cutoff blood glucose concentration for the diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycaemia currently recommended by WHO (2·5 mmol/L) is not evidence-based. We aimed to assess whether increasing the cutoff blood glucose concentration for hypoglycaemia treatment in severely ill children at presentation to hospital improves mortality outcomes. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial at two referral hospitals in Malawi. Severely ill children aged 1 month to 5 years presenting to the emergency department with a capillary blood glucose concentration of between 2·5 mmol/L (3·0 mmol/L in severely malnourished children) and 5·0 mmol/L were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation sequence, stratified by study site and severe malnutrition, to receive either an immediate intravenous bolus of 10% dextrose at 5 mL/kg followed by a 24-h maintenance infusion of 10% dextrose at 100 mL/kg for the first 10 kg of bodyweight, 50 mL/kg for the next 10 kg, and 20 mL/kg for each subsequent kg of bodyweight (intervention group) or observation for a minimum of 60 min and standard care (control group). Participants and study personnel were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. Safety was also assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02989675. FINDINGS: Between Dec 5, 2016, and Jan 22, 2019, 10 947 children were screened, of whom 332 were randomly assigned, and 322 were included in the final analysis (n=162 in the control group and n=160 in the intervention group). The study was terminated after an interim analysis at 24% enrolment indicated futility. The median age of participants was 2·3 years (IQR 1·4-3·2), 65 (45%) were female, and the baseline characteristics of participants were similar between the two groups. The number of in-hospital deaths from any cause was 26 (16%) in the control group and 24 (15%) in the intervention group, with an absolute mortality difference of 1·0% (95% CI -6·9 to 9·0). Serious adverse events, including hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, convulsions, reduced consciousness, and death, were reported in 47 (29%) children in the control group and 39 (24%) children in the intervention group. INTERPRETATION: Increasing the cutoff blood glucose concentration for hypoglycaemia treatment in severely sick children in Malawi from 2·5 mmol/L to 5·0 mmol/L did not reduce all-cause in-hospital mortality. Our findings do not support changing the cutoff for dextrose administration, and further research on the optimal management of severely ill children who present to the emergency department with low blood glucose concentrations is warranted. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council and Stockholm Country Council.

2.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1820714, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications due to prematurity are a threat to child survival and full developmental potential particularly in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the neurodevelopmental outcomes among preterm infants and identify any modifiable factors associated with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD). METHODS: We recruited 454 babies (242 preterms with birth weight <2.5 kg, and 212 term babies) in a cohort study at birth from Iganga hospital between May and July 2018. We followed up the babies at an average age of 7 months (adjusted for prematurity) and assessed 211 preterm and 187 term infants for neurodevelopmental outcomes using the Malawi Developmental Assessment tool. Mothers were interviewed on care practices for the infants. Data were analyzed using STATA version 14. RESULTS: The study revealed a high incidence of NDD of 20.4% (43/211) among preterm infants compared to 7.5% (14/187) among the term babies, p < 0.001, of the same age. The most affected domain was fine motor (11.8%), followed by language (9.0%). At multivariate analysis, malnutrition and Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) at home after discharge were the key factors that were significantly associated with NDD among preterm babies. The prevalence of malnutrition among preterm infants was 20% and this significantly increased the odds of developing NDD, OR = 2.92 (95% CI: 1.27-6.71). KMC practice at home reduced the odds of developing NDD, OR = 0.46, (95% CI: 0.21-1.00). Re-admission of preterm infants after discharge (a sign of severe illness) increased the odds of developing NDD but this was not statistically significant, OR = 2.33 (95% CI: 0.91-5.94). CONCLUSION: Our study has shown that preterm infants are at a high risk of developing NDD, especially those with malnutrition. Health system readiness should be improved to provide follow-up care with emphasis on improving nutrition and continuity of KMC at home.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 423, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of low or hypo glycaemia in children upon admission to hospital in low income countries is a marker for poor outcome. Fasting during illness may contribute to low blood glucose and caretakers' feeding practices during childhood illnesses may thus play a role in the development of low or hypo glycaemia. This study aims to describe the caretaker's feeding practices and association of fasting with low or hypo glycaemia in sick children in Malawi. METHODS: A mixed method approach was used combining quantitative cross-sectional data for children aged 0-17 years admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), a tertiary hospital in Malawi, with qualitative focus group discussions conducted with caretakers of young children who were previously referred to QECH from the five health centres around QECH. Logistic regression was used to analyse the quantitative data and thematic content analysis was conducted for qualitative data analysis. RESULTS: Data for 5131 children who were admitted through the hospital's Paediatric Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) were analysed whereof 2.1% presented with hypoglycaemia (< 2.5 mmol/l) and 6.6% with low glycaemia (≥2.5mmoll/l - < 5 mmol/l). Fasting for more than eight hours was associated with low glycaemia as well as hypoglycaemia with Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) of 2.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 2.3-3.7) and 4.6, (95% CI 3.0-7.0), respectively. Caretakers demonstrated awareness of the importance of feeding during childhood illness and reported intensified feeding attention to sick children but face feeding challenges when illness becomes severe causing them to seek care at a health facility. CONCLUSION: Results suggests that caretakers understand the importance of feeding during illness and make efforts to intensify feeding a sick child but challenges occur when illness is severe leading to fasting. Fasting among children admitted to hospitals may serve as a marker of severe illness and determine those at risk of low and hypoglycaemia.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long term outcomes of children with neurodevelopmental disability are influenced by the condition itself, available health services and caretakers' coping ability to nurture the children which may be related to their beliefs and experiences. Most children with neurodevelopmental disabilities live in resource constrained settings. To inform design of contextually appropriate interventions, this study explored health workers' and caretakers' experiences in caring for infants with neurodevelopmental disability in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: A qualitative case study was carried out in December 2017 and involved in-depth interviews with 14 caretakers of infants with severe neurodevelopmental disability, and five health workers in Iganga/Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda. The interviews with caretakers were conducted in Lusoga, the local language, and in English for the health workers, using a pre-determined open-ended interview guide. Data were analyzed using latent content analysis. RESULTS: Caretakers described the experience of caring for children with neurodevelopmental disability as impoverishing and 'imprisoning' due to high care costs, inability to return to income generating activities and nursing challenges. The latter resulted from failure in body control and several aspects of nutrition and maintaining vital functions, coupled with limited support from the community and the health system. Many caretakers expressed beliefs in supernatural causes of neurodevelopmental disability though they reported about complications during and shortly after the birth of the affected child. Care-seeking was often challenging and impeded by costs and the feeling of lack of improvement. The health care system was also found to be incapable of adequately addressing the needs of such children due to lack of commodities, and human resource limitations. CONCLUSION: The caretakers expressed a feeling of emotional stress due to being left alone with a high nursing burden. Improvement in the health services including a holistic approach to care, improved community awareness and parental support could contribute to nursing of children with NDD.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Cuidado da Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência , Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , População Rural , Criança , Comunicação , Seguimentos , Humanos , Percepção , Apoio Social , Uganda
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 992, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency care is among the weakest parts of health systems in low-income countries with both quality and accessibility constraints. Previous studies estimated accessibility to surgical or emergency care based on population travel times to nearest hospital with no assessment of hospital readiness to provide such care. We analysed a Malawi national facility census with comprehensive inventory audits and geocoded facility locations to identify hospitals equipped to provide basic paediatric emergency care with estimated travel times to these hospitals from non-equipped facilities and in relation to Malawi's population distribution. METHODS: We analysed a Malawi national facility census in 2013-2014 to identify hospitals equipped to manage critically ill children according to an extended version of WHO Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment (ETAT) guidelines. These guidelines include 25 components including staff, transport, equipment, diagnostics, medications, fluids, feeds and consumables that defined an emergency-equipped hospital in our study. We estimated travel times to emergency-equipped hospitals from non-equipped facilities and relative to population distributions using geocoded facility locations and an established accessibility mapping approach using global road network datasets from OpenStreetMap and Google. RESULTS: Four (3.5, 95% CI: 1.3-8.9) of 116 Malawi hospitals were emergency-equipped. Least available items were nasogastric tubes in 34.5% of hospitals (95% CI: 26.4-43.6), blood typing services (40.4, 95% CI: 31.9-49.6), micro nebulizers (50.9, 95% CI: 41.9-60.0), and radiology (54.2, 95% CI: 45.1-63.0). Nationally, the median travel time from non-equipped facilities to the nearest emergency-equipped hospital was 73 min (95% CI: 67-77) ranging 1-507 min. Approximately one-quarter (27%) of Malawians lived over 120 min from an emergency-equipped hospital with significantly better accessibility in Central than North and South regions (16% vs. 38 and 35%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There are unacceptable deficiencies in accessibility of basic paediatric emergency care in Malawi. Reliable supply chains for essential drugs and commodities are needed, particularly nasogastric tubes, asthma drugs and blood, along with improved capacity for time-sensitive referral. Further child mortality reductions will require substantial investments to expand basic paediatric emergency care into all Malawi hospitals for better managing critically ill children at highest mortality risk.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/organização & administração , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 379, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) is increasingly acknowledged as one of the important causes of disease burden in low income countries. None the less, there is a dearth of data on the burden of NDD and its determinants in these settings. We aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with NDD among infants in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We assessed 487 infants aged 9-12 months within Iganga-Mayuge Health Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda using the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool. The tool has four domains: gross motor, fine motor, language and social domains. An infant failed a domain if she/he failed more than two parameters of the expected at his/her age. We interviewed mothers on factors that could influence the infants' neurodevelopmental outcomes. Data were analysed using STATA version 14. We used odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to assess statistical significance of associations. RESULTS: Of the 487 infants, 62(12.7%) had an NDD in at least one of the domains. The most affected was social behaviour where 52(10.7%) infants had an NDD. Severe impairment was seen among 9(1.8%) infants with NDD in either three or four domains. Factors associated with NDD at multivariate logistic regression included: parity of more than three children (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.02-3.18); failure to cry at birth (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.46-9.17) and post-neonatal complications (aOR = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.22-14.10). Low birth weight, immediate and exclusive breast feeding were not significantly associated with NDD. CONCLUSION: We found a high NDD burden among infants particularly in the social behaviour domain. To optimise the socio-neural development of infants, programs are needed to educate and work with families on how to engage and stimulate infants. Existing immunisation clinics and community health worker strategies provide an excellent opportunity for stemming this burden.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(3): 670-675, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287044

RESUMO

In low-resource settings, many children are severely ill at arrival to hospital. The risk factors for mortality among such ill children are not well-known. Understanding which of these patients are at the highest risk could assist in the allocation of limited resources to where they are most needed. A cohort study of severely ill children treated in the resuscitation room of the pediatric emergency department at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Malawi was conducted over a 6-month period in 2017. Data on signs and symptoms, vital signs, blood glucose levels, and nutritional status were collected and linked with in-hospital mortality data. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Data for 1,359 patients were analyzed and 118 (8.7%) patients died. The following factors were associated with mortality: presence of any severely deranged vital sign, unadjusted odds ratio (UOR) 2.6 (95% CI 1.7-4.0) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0); severe dehydration, UOR 2.6 (1.4-5.1) and AOR 2.8 (1.3-6.0); hypoglycemia glycemia (< 5 mmol/L), UOR 3.6 (2.2-5.8) and AOR 2.7 (1.6-4.7); and severe acute malnutrition, UOR 5.8 (3.5-9.6) and AOR 5.7 (3.3-10.0). This study suggests that among severely sick children, increased attention should be given to those with hypo/low glycemia, deranged vital signs, malnutrition, and severe dehydration to avert mortality among these high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Modelos Logísticos , Malaui , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Glob Health Action ; 11(1): 1491670, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acutely sick children in resource-constrained settings who present with hypoglycaemia have poor outcomes. Studies have questioned the current hypoglycaemia treatment cut-off level of 2.5 mmol/l. Improved knowledge about health workers' attitudes towards and management of hypoglycaemia is needed to understand the potential effects of a raised cut-off level. OBJECTIVE: This research explored health workers' perceptions about managing acutely ill children with hypoglycaemia in a Malawian referral hospital. A secondary objective was to explore health workers' opinions about a potential increase in the hypoglycaemia cut-off level. METHODS: We used a qualitative design with semi-structured individual interviews performed with health workers in the Paediatric Accident and Emergency Unit at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi, in October 2016. Data were analysed using latent content analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Malawi, College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee P.01/16/1852. RESULTS: Four themes were formed that described the responses. The first, 'Critical and difficult cases need easy treatment', showed that health workers perceived hypoglycaemia as a severe condition that was easily manageable. The second, 'Health system issues', revealed challenges relating to staffing and resource availability. The third, 'From parental reluctance to demand', described a change in parents' attitudes regarding intravenous treatments. The fourth, 'Positive about the change but need more information', exposed health workers' concerns about potential risks of a raised cut-off level for hypoglycaemia treatment, as well as benefits for the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Health workers perceived hypoglycaemia as a severe condition that is easy to manage when the required equipment and supplies are available. Due to the common lack of test equipment and dextrose supplies, health workers have adopted alternative strategies to diagnose and manage hypoglycaemia. A change to the hypoglycaemia treatment cut-off level raised concerns about potential risks, but was also thought to be of benefit for some patients.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Administração de Serviços de Saúde/normas , Hipoglicemia/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Açúcares , Adulto Jovem
10.
Trials ; 19(1): 33, 2018 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality in children remains high in sub-Saharan African hospitals. While antimalarial drugs, antibiotics and other definitive treatments are well understood, the role of emergency care with supportive therapies, such as maintaining normal glucose and electrolyte balances, has been given limited attention. Hypoglycaemia is common in children admitted to hospital in low-income settings. The current definition of hypoglycaemia is a blood glucose level < 2.5 mmol/L in a well-nourished child. Outcomes for these children are poor, with a mortality rate of up to 42%. An increased mortality has also been reported among acutely ill children with low-glycaemia, defined as a blood glucose level of 2.5-5.0 mmol/L. The reason for increased mortality rates is not fully understood. This proposal is for a randomised controlled trial to determine the impact on mortality of a raised treatment cut-off level for paediatric hypoglycaemia. METHODS: A total of 1266 severely ill children (age range = 1 month - 5 years) admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with blood glucose in the range of 2.5-5.0 mmol/L will be randomised into intervention or control groups. The intervention group will be treated with an intravenous bolus of 10% dextrose 5 mL/kg followed by a dextrose infusion in addition to standard care while the control group will receive standard care only. Children will be followed until discharge from hospital or death. DISCUSSION: The first patient was enrolled in December 2016 and the expected trial deadline is January 2019. This study is the first to evaluate the benefits of increased dextrose administration in children presenting to hospital with low-glycaemia. The findings will inform national and international policies and guidelines for the management of children with blood sugar abnormalities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02989675 . Registered on 5 December 2016.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Glucose/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemia/mortalidade , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Lactente , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
J Glob Health ; 7(2): 020408, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163934

RESUMO

Background: Research shows inadequate Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)-pneumonia care in various low-income settings but evidence is largely from small-scale studies with limited evidence of patient-, provider- and facility-levels determinants of IMCI non-severe pneumonia classification and its management. Methods: The Malawi Service Provision Assessment 2013-2014 included 3149 outpatients aged 2-59 months with completed observations, interviews and re-examinations. Mixed-effects logistic regression models quantified the influence of patient-, provider and facility-level determinants on having IMCI non-severe pneumonia and its management in observed consultations. Findings: Among 3149 eligible outpatients, 590 (18.7%) had IMCI non-severe pneumonia classification in re-examination. 228 (38.7%) classified cases received first-line antibiotics and 159 (26.9%) received no antibiotics. 18.6% with cough or difficult breathing had 60-second respiratory rates counted during consultations, and conducting this assessment was significantly associated with IMCI training ever received (odds ratio (OR) = 2.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-4.31) and negative rapid diagnostic test results (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.45-7.13). Older children had lower odds of assessments than infants (OR = 48-59 months: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16-0.75). Children presenting with any of the following complaints also had reduced odds of assessment: fever, diarrhea, skin problem or any danger sign. First-line antibiotic treatment for classified cases was significantly associated with high temperatures (OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.24-8.55) while older children had reduced odds of first-line treatment compared to infants (OR = 48-59 months: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.83). RDT-confirmed malaria was a significant predictor of no antibiotic receipt for IMCI non-severe pneumonia (OR = 10.65, 95% CI: 2.39-47.36). Conclusions: IMCI non-severe pneumonia care was sub-optimal in Malawi health facilities in 2013-2014 with inadequate assessments and prescribing practices that must be addressed to reduce this leading cause of mortality. Child's symptoms and age, malaria diagnosis and provider training were primary influences on assessment and treatment practices. Current evidence could be used to better target IMCI training and support to improve pneumonia care for sick children in Malawi facilities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia/classificação , Pneumonia/terapia , Censos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 17(1): 27, 2017 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is among the leading causes of avoidable deaths for young children globally. The main burden of mortality falls on children from poor and rural families who are less likely to obtain the treatment they need, highlighting inequities in access to effective care and treatment. Caretakers' illness perceptions and care-seeking practices are of major importance for children with pneumonia to receive adequate care. This study qualitatively explores the caretaker concepts of childhood pneumonia in relation to treatment seeking behaviour and health worker management in Moshi urban district, Tanzania. METHODS: In May - July 2013 data was gathered through different qualitative data collection techniques including five focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers of children under-five years of age. The FGDs involved free listing of pneumonia symptoms and video presentations of children with respiratory symptoms done, these were triangulated with ten case narratives with mothers of children admitted with pneumonia and eleven in-depth interviews with hospital health workers. Transcripts were coded and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Mothers demonstrated good awareness of common childhood illnesses including pneumonia, which was often associated with symptoms such as cough, flu, chest tightness, fever, and difficulty in breathing. Mothers had mixed views on causative factors and treatments options but generally preferred modern medicine for persisting and severe symptoms. However, all respondent reported access to health facilities as a barrier to care, associated with transport, personal safety and economic constraints. CONCLUSION: Local illness concepts and traditional treatment options did not constitute barriers to care for pneumonia symptoms. Poor access to health facilities was the main barrier. Decentralisation of care through community health workers may improve access to care but needs to be combined with strengthened referral systems and accessible hospital care for those in need.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Saúde da Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Trop Med Int Health ; 22(3): 286-293, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of point-of-care (PoC) assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to identify bacterial illness in Tanzanian children with non-severe non-malarial fever. METHODS: From the outpatient department of a district hospital in Tanzania, 428 patients between 3 months and 5 years of age who presented with fever and a negative malaria test were enrolled. All had a physical examination and bacterial cultures from blood and urine. Haemoglobin, CRP and WBC were measured by PoC devices. RESULTS: Positive blood cultures were detected in 6/428 (1.4%) children and urine cultures were positive in 24/401 (6.0%). Mean WBC was similar in children with or without bacterial illness (14.0 × 109 , 95% CI 12.0-16.0 × 109 vs. 12.0 × 109 , 95% CI 11.4-12.7 × 109), while mean CRP was higher in children with bacterial illness (41.0 mg/l, 95% CI 28.3-53.6 vs. 23.8 mg/l, 95% CI 17.8-27.8). In ROC analysis, the optimum cut-off value for CRP to identify bacterial illness was 19 mg/l but with an area under the curve of only 0.62. Negative predictive values exceeded 80%, while positive predictive values were under 40%. CONCLUSION: WBC and CRP levels had limited value in identifying children with bacterial infections. The positive predictive values for both tests were too low to be used as single tools for treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Febre/diagnóstico , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/sangue , Febre/etiologia , Febre/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária , Masculino , Pediatria , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Tanzânia
15.
Trop Med Int Health ; 22(2): 139-147, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measurement of respiratory rate is an important clinical sign in the diagnosis of pneumonia but suffers from interobserver variation. Here, we assess the use of video recordings as a quality assurance tool that could be useful both in research and in training of staff. METHODS: Respiratory rates (RR) were recorded in children aged 2-59 months presenting with cough or difficulty breathing at two busy outpatient clinics in Tanzania. Measurements were repeated at 10-min intervals in a quiet environment with simultaneous video recordings that were independently reviewed by two paediatricians. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fifty-nine videos were sent to two paediatricians; 148 (17.2%) were considered unreadable by one or both. For the 711 (82.8%) videos that were readable by both paediatricians, there was perfect agreement for the presence of raised RR with a kappa value (κ) of 0.85 (P < 0.001); and in 476 (66.9%) cases, both paediatricians agreed on the RR within 2 breaths per minute (±2 bpm). A reported illness of 5 days or more was associated with unreadable video recordings (OR = 3.44, CI: 1.5-6.08; P < 0.001). The multilevel model showed that differences between observers accounted for only 13% of the variability in RR. CONCLUSION: Video recordings are reliable tools for quality assurance of RR measurements in children with suspected pneumonia. Videos with a clear view of respiratory movements may also be useful in training primary healthcare staff.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
16.
Malar J ; 15(1): 396, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27488343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are growing concerns about irrational antibiotic prescription practices in the era of test-based malaria case management. This study assessed integrated paediatric fever management using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines, including the relationship between RDT-negative results and antibiotic over-treatment in Malawi health facilities in 2013-2014. METHODS: A Malawi national facility census included 1981 observed sick children aged 2-59 months with fever complaints. Weighted frequencies were tabulated for other complaints, assessments and prescriptions for RDT-confirmed malaria, IMCI-classified non-severe pneumonia, and clinical diarrhoea. Classification trees using model-based recursive partitioning estimated the association between RDT results and antibiotic over-treatment and learned the influence of 38 other input variables at patient-, provider- and facility-levels. RESULTS: Among 1981 clients, 72 % were tested or referred for malaria diagnosis and 85 % with RDT-confirmed malaria were prescribed first-line anti-malarials. Twenty-eight percent with IMCI-pneumonia were not prescribed antibiotics (under-treatment) and 59 % 'without antibiotic need' were prescribed antibiotics (over-treatment). Few clients had respiratory rates counted to identify antibiotic need for IMCI-pneumonia (18 %). RDT-negative children had 16.8 (95 % CI 8.6-32.7) times higher antibiotic over-treatment odds compared to RDT-positive cases conditioned by cough or difficult breathing complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated paediatric fever management was sub-optimal for completed assessments and antibiotic targeting despite common compliance to malaria treatment guidelines. RDT-negative results were strongly associated with antibiotic over-treatment conditioned by cough or difficult breathing complaints. A shift from malaria-focused 'test and treat' strategies toward 'IMCI with testing' is needed to improve quality fever care and rational use of both anti-malarials and antibiotics in line with recent global commitments to combat resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Censos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Malar J ; 15: 197, 2016 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27066829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uganda initiated nationwide deployment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as recommended by national guidelines. Yet growing concerns about RDT non-compliance in various settings have spurred calls to deploy RDT as part of enhanced support packages. An understanding of how health workers currently manage non-malaria fevers, particularly for children, and challenges faced in this work should also inform efforts. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in the low transmission area of Mbarara District (Uganda). In-depth interviews with 20 health workers at lower level clinics focused on RDT perceptions, strategies to differentiate non-malaria paediatric fevers, influences on clinical decisions, desires for additional diagnostics, and any challenges in this work. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with caregivers of children under 5 years of age in facility catchment areas to elucidate their RDT perceptions, understandings of non-malaria paediatric fevers and treatment preferences. Data were extracted into meaning units to inform codes and themes in order to describe response patterns using a latent content analysis approach. RESULTS: Differential diagnosis strategies included studying fever patterns, taking histories, assessing symptoms, and analysing other factors such as a child's age or home environment. If no alternative cause was found, malaria treatment was reportedly often prescribed despite a negative result. Other reasons for malaria over-treatment stemmed from RDT perceptions, system constraints and provider-client interactions. RDT perceptions included mistrust driven largely by expectations of false negative results due to low parasite/antigen loads, previous anti-malarial treatment or test detection of only one species. System constraints included poor referral systems, working alone without opportunity to confer on difficult cases, and lacking skills and/or tools for differential diagnosis. Provider-client interactions included reported caregiver RDT mistrust, demand for certain drugs and desire to know the 'exact' disease cause if not malaria. Many health workers expressed uncertainty about how to manage non-malaria paediatric fevers, feared doing wrong and patient death, worried caregivers would lose trust, or felt unsatisfied without a clear diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced support is needed to improve RDT adoption at lower level clinics that focuses on empowering providers to successfully manage non-severe, non-malaria paediatric fevers without referral. This includes building trust in negative results, reinforcing integrated care initiatives (e.g., integrated management of childhood illness) and fostering communities of practice according to the diffusion of innovations theory.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/diagnóstico , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trop Med Int Health ; 21(1): 149-156, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26544671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) has raised awareness of alternative fever causes in children but few studies have included adults. To address this gap, we conducted a study of mRDT-negative fever aetiologies among children and adults in Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 1028 patients aged 3 months to 50 years with a febrile illness and negative mRDT were enrolled from a Tanzanian hospital outpatient department. All had a physical examination and cultures from blood, nasopharynx/throat and urine. Patients were followed on Days 7 and 14 and children meeting WHO criteria for pneumonia were followed on Day 2 with chest radiology. RESULTS: Respiratory symptoms were the most frequent presenting complaint, reported by 20.3% of adults and 64.0% (339/530) of children. Of 38 X-rayed children meeting WHO pneumonia criteria, 47.4% had a normal X-ray. Overall, only 1.3% of 1028 blood cultures were positive. Salmonella typhi was the most prevalent pathogen isolated (7/13, 53.8%) and S. typhi patients reported fever for a median of 7 days (range 2-14). Children with bacteraemia did not present with WHO symptoms requiring antibiotic treatment. Young children and adults had similar prevalences of positive urine cultures (24/428 and 29/498, respectively). CONCLUSION: Few outpatient fevers are caused by blood stream bacterial infection, and most adult bacteraemia would be identified by current clinical guidelines although paediatric bacteraemia may be more difficult to diagnose. While pneumonia may be overdiagnosed, urinary tract infection was relatively common. Our results emphasise the difficulty in identifying African children in need of antibiotics among the majority who do not.

19.
Malar J ; 14: 194, 2015 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2010, WHO revised guidelines to recommend testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. Yet, evidence to assess programmes is largely derived from limited facility settings in a limited number of countries. National surveys from 12 sub-Saharan African countries were used to examine the effect of diagnostic testing on medicines used by febrile children under five years at the population level, including stratification by malaria risk, transmission season, source of care, symptoms, and age. METHODS: Data were compiled from 12 Demographic and Health Surveys in 2010-2012 that reported fever prevalence, diagnostic test and medicine use, and socio-economic covariates (n=16,323 febrile under-fives taken to care). Mixed-effects logistic regression models quantified the influence of diagnostic testing on three outcomes (artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), any anti-malarial or any antibiotic use) after adjusting for data clustering and confounding covariates. For each outcome, interactions between diagnostic testing and the following covariates were separately tested: malaria risk, season, source of care, symptoms, and age. A multiple case study design was used to understand varying results across selected countries and sub-national groups, which drew on programme documents, published research and expert consultations. A descriptive typology of plausible explanations for quantitative results was derived from a cross-case synthesis. RESULTS: Significant variability was found in the effect of diagnostic testing on ACT use across countries (e.g., Uganda OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66-1.06; Mozambique OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.33-5.39). Four main themes emerged to explain results: available diagnostics and medicines; quality of care; care-seeking behaviour; and, malaria epidemiology. CONCLUSIONS: Significant country variation was found in the effect of diagnostic testing on paediatric fever treatment at the population level, and qualitative results suggest the impact of diagnostic scale-up on treatment practices may not be straightforward in routine conditions given contextual factors (e.g., access to care, treatment-seeking behaviour or supply stock-outs). Despite limitations, quantitative results could help identify countries (e.g., Mozambique) or issues (e.g., malaria risk) where facility-based research or programme attention may be warranted. The mixed-methods approach triangulates different evidence to potentially provide a standard framework to assess routine programmes across countries or over time to fill critical evidence gaps.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Risco , Estações do Ano , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Trop Med Int Health ; 20(6): 757-65, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cough or difficult breathing and an increased respiratory rate for their age are the commonest indications for outpatient antibiotic treatment in African children. We aimed to determine whether respiratory rate was likely to be transiently raised by a number of contextual factors in a busy clinic leading to inaccurate diagnosis. METHODS: Respiratory rates were recorded in children aged 2-59 months presenting with cough or difficulty breathing to one of the two busy outpatient clinics and then repeated at 10-min intervals over 1 h in a quiet setting. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-seven children were enrolled with a mean age of 7.1 (SD ± 2.9) months in infants and 27.6 (SD ± 12.8) months in children aged 12-59 months. The mean respiratory rate declined from 42.3 and 33.6 breaths per minute (bpm) in the clinic to 39.1 and 32.6 bpm after 10 min in a quiet room and to 39.2 and 30.7 bpm (P < 0.001) after 60 min in younger and older children, respectively. This resulted in 11/13 (85%) infants and 2/15 (13%) older children being misclassified with non-severe pneumonia. In a random effects linear regression model, the variability in respiratory rate within children (42%) was almost as much as the variability between children (58%). Changing the respiratory rates cut-offs to higher thresholds resulted in a small reduction in the proportion of non-severe pneumonia mis-classifications in infants. CONCLUSION: Noise and other contextual factors may cause a transient increase in respiratory rate and consequently misclassification of non-severe pneumonia. However, this effect is less pronounced in older children than infants. Respiratory rate is a difficult sign to measure as the variation is large between and within children. More studies of the accuracy and utility of respiratory rate as a proxy for non-severe pneumonia diagnosis in a busy clinic are needed.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
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