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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary collaterals are often seen supplying retrograde flow to an acutely occluded arterial territory. Whether this early collateralization offers prognostic benefit is not well established. METHODS: We analyzed data from all patients presenting to our regional cardiac unit with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction requiring immediate angiography (years 1999-2017). Data on all patients is entered prospectively into a bespoke tailored database prior to knowledge of patient outcome. Only patients with TIMI 0 or 1 flow in the infarct-related vessel were included in the analysis. In-hospital and long-term outcome were assessed according to the presence or absence of angiographically visible collateral flow prior to treatment of the occluded vessel. RESULTS: Two thousand five hundred and forty-two patients were included in the analysis. 76% of these (n = 1944) had TIMI 0/1 flow at angiography. Angiographically-visible collateralization was seen in 17% (n = 322) and was more commonly observed in the right coronary artery (64%) than in the left anterior descending (25%) or Cx (6%). Cardiogenic shock (10.8%) and use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (5.4%) were more frequent in patients without coronary collateralisation (p = .04 and p = .02, respectively). The presence of collaterals improved long term survival (95% CI 11.4-18.7 months; p < .01). CONCLUSION: One-sixth of patients with STEMI have angiographically visible collaterals to the infarcted territory. Patients without collaterals are more likely to present in cardiogenic shock. The presence of angiographically visible collaterals at the time of STEMI is associated with an improved long-term survival.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696657

RESUMO

Transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) is an emerging field in structural cardiology. A particularly difficult group to treat is high-risk patients requiring valve in mitral annular calcification (ViMAC) intervention, with overall poor procedural success and outcomes in recent registries. This case highlights an unusual complication of paravalvular regurgitation (PVL) through the uncovered stent frame of a balloon expandable transcatheter heart valve (THV) on the left ventricular side of the prosthesis, leading to mechanical hemolysis and subsequent anuric renal failure post a ViMAC procedure. Attempts to treat the PVL with an occlusion plug device were unsuccessful and led to left circumflex coronary occlusion secondary to mechanical compression of the vessel in the posterior mitral valve annulus, a previously unreported phenomenon. A repeat valve-in-valve procedure was performed to treat the PVL, and immediate angioplasty resolved the left circumflex occlusion. High-risk patients requiring TMVI pose multiple challenges to Heart Teams in the treatment of valve pathology. Optimal procedural planning, multimodality imaging, improved THVs, and the awareness of potential complications are fundamental in overcoming the learning curve of TMVI and improved outcome for patients requiring ViMAC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study proposes a physiologic assessment of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) that accommodates changes in systolic flow and accounts for the dynamic neo-left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). BACKGROUND: Patients considered for transcatheter mitral valve replacement trials often screen-fail because of the perceived risk of LVOTO. In the Intrepid Global Pilot Study, assumed risk of LVOTO was based on computed tomography estimates of the neo-LVOT area computed at end-systole. However, this may overestimate actual risk. METHODS: Retrospective analyses were performed for screen-failed patients for potential LVOTO (n = 33) and treated patients (n = 29) with available dynamic computed tomography. A multiphase assessment of the neo-LVOT area was performed and represented as: 1) multiphase average; and 2) early systolic value. Prospective evaluation was performed in 9 patients approved for enrollment with multiphase and early systole methods that would have previously screen-failed with the end-systolic approach. RESULTS: Of 166 patients screened for possible inclusion; 32 were screen-failed for nonanatomical reasons. Screen failure for assumed LVOTO risk occurred in 37 of 134 (27.6%) patients. Retrospective analysis indicated a potential enrollment increase of 11 of 33 (33.3%) and 18 of 33 (54.5%) patients using multiphase and early systolic assessment methods. In the prospective cohort, there were no clinical observations of LVOTO 30 days post-procedure, despite assumed risk based on end-systolic estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Multiphase, and specifically early systolic, assessment of the neo-LVOT may better determine risk of LVOTO with transcatheter mitral valve replacement compared with end-systolic estimates. This novel approach has the potential to significantly increase patient eligibility, with over one-half of patients previously screen-failed now eligible for treatment.

5.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270036

RESUMO

AIMS: We sought to compare the efficiency of the novel EuroCTO (CASTLE) score with the commonly used Multicentre CTO registry in Japan (J-CTO) score in predicting procedural success of percutaneous recanalization (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs). METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 660 consecutive CTO PCIs (mean age: 66±11 years, 84% male). The mean J-CTO and EuroCTO (CASTLE) scores were 1.86 ± 1.2 and 1.74 ± 1.2, respectively. Antegrade wire escalation, antegrade dissection re-entry and retrograde approach were used in 82%, 14% and 37% of cases, respectively. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis demonstrated equal overall discriminatory capacity between the two scores (AUC: 0.698, 95%CI: 0.653-0.742 p<0.001 for J-CTO vs. AUC: 0.676, 95%: CI 0.627-0.725, p<0.001 for EuroCTO; AUC difference: 0.022, p=0.5). However, for more complex procedures [(J-CTO ³ 3 or EuroCTO (CASTLE) ³ 4)], the predictive capacity of EuroCTO (CASTLE) score appeared superior (AUC: 0.588, 95% CI 0.509-0.668, p=0.03 for EuroCTO (CASTLE) score vs. AUC: 0.473, 95% CI 0.393-0.553, p=NS for the J-CTO score, AUC difference: 0.115, p=0.04) Conclusions: In this study, the novel EuroCTO (CASTLE) score was comparable to the J-CTO score in predicting CTO PCI outcome with a superior discriminatory capacity for the more complex cases.

6.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270033

RESUMO

AIMS: Can revascularisation of an infarct-related artery chronic total occlusion (IRA-CTO) have a modulatory effect on myocardial scar composition? METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a unique, first-time report of 3 consecutive patients presenting with myocardial scar-related recurrent ventricular tachycardia (rVT) on a background of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Electro-anatomic mapping of the left ventricular endocardium was performed before and immediately after IRA-CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to assess for changes in scar composition and size. There were substantial percentage reductions in the low voltage area of scar compared to baseline after IRA-CTO PCI (Patient 1: -12.8%, Patient 2: -27.0%, and Patient 3: -15.3%). Interval remapping ≥6 months after the index procedure demonstrated extensive net reductions in all areas of myocardial scar (Patient 1: dense scar = -7.5%, border zone scar = -54.9%, low voltage area = -32.7% and Patient 2: dense scar = -38.6%, border zone scar = -59.6%, low voltage area = -51.7%). Patient 3 declined interval remapping but has remained free of rVT at 1-year follow up. CONCLUSIONS: IRA-CTO PCI may positively modify the size and composition of myocardial scar associated with rVT in the context of ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(3): 373-380, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146891

RESUMO

The role of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains uncertain. Previous analyses compare PPCI outcomes with clopidogrel plus GPI, versus without GPI. This does not reflect modern contemporary PPCI practice with ticagrelor or prasugrel. Nor does it answer the important question faced daily by PPCI operators: should GPI be used routinely or selectively? We aim to determine whether a strategy of routine use of GPI in contemporary PPCI practice is superior to selective GPI use. A total of 110,327 consecutive PPCIs performed in England were prospectively recorded in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society Database (2009 to 2015). The cohort was divided into routine and selective GPI usage groups based on the PPCI operator's strategy, defined as GPI used in >75% and <25% PPCIs, respectively. Overall, GPI use declined from 73.1% to 43.3% of PPCIs. Routine compared with selective GPI usage was associated with lower all-cause 1-year mortality: 9.7% versus 11.0%, p < 0.001. There was a consistent survival benefit for routine GPI usage as compared with selective GPI usage: univariable analysis (hazard ratio = 0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.93], p < 0.001), multivariable analysis (hazard ratio = 0.82 [0.77 to 0.88], p < 0.001). For survival, there was no interaction between GPI usage and the type of P2Y12-inhibitor used. In conclusion, a strategy of routine GPI usage in patients who underwent PPCI was associated with lower all-cause mortality as compared with selective GPI usage. This benefit was maintained despite 44.3% of patients receiving prasugrel or ticagrelor.

8.
EuroIntervention ; 15(1): 90-98, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105066

RESUMO

The European Bifurcation Club recommends an approach to a bifurcation stenosis which involves careful assessment, planning and a sequential provisional approach. In the minority of lesions where two stents are required, careful deployment and optimal expansion are essential to achieve a long-term result.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Consenso , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(7): 1374-1381, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prostar XL (PS) and ProGlide (PG) are common vascular closure devices (VCD) used in TAVR via transfemoral vascular approach. The impact of these VCD on vascular and bleeding complications remains unclear. METHODS: The BRAVO-3 trial randomized 802 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR. We stratified patients according to type of VCD used and examined the 30-day incidence of major or minor vascular complications, major bleeding (BARC ≥3b), AKI and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; death, myocardial infarction or stroke). RESULTS: A total of 746 (93%) patients were treated with either PS (n = 352, 47%) or PG (n = 394, 53%) VCD, without significant differences in successful deployment rate (PS 322 [91.2%] vs. PG 373 [94.2%] respectively, p = .20). PG was associated with a significantly lower incidence of major or minor vascular complications, compared to PS (adjusted OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37-0.80; p < .01). Rates of acute kidney injury were also lower with the PG device. There was no significant difference between bleeding, MACCE, and death. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to PS, the PG VCD was associated with a lower rate of major or minor vascular complications and lower rates of AKI after transfemoral TAVR.

11.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888959

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the impact of 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy following one-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the rates of patient-oriented composite endpoints (POCE) and net adverse clinical events (NACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: The rates of site-reported Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 defined POCE (all-cause death, any stroke, any myocardial infarction or any revascularization) and NACE (POCE or bleeding type 3 or 5 according to the Bleeding ARC [BARC]) were reported up to two-years by intention-to-treat principle in the randomized, multi-centre, open-label GLOBAL LEADERS study comparing two antiplatelet strategies in 15,991 patients undergoing PCI. The experimental strategy consisted of aspirin with ticagrelor for one month followed by ticagrelor monotherapy for 23 months, whereas the reference treatment consisted of 12-month DAPT followed by 12-month aspirin monotherapy. At two years, POCE occurred in 1050 (13.2%) patients in the experimental group and in 1131 (14.2%) in the reference group (HR 0.93, 95%CI 0.85-1.01, p=0.085). NACE occurred in 1145 (14.4%) patients in the experimental group and in 1237 (15.5%) patients in the reference group (HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.85-1.00, p=0.057). In prespecified subgroup analyses, no significant treatment-by-subgroup interactions were found for either POCE or NACE at two years. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental treatment strategy of one-month DAPT followed by 23 months of ticagrelor alone did not result in a significant reduction in the rates of site-reported POCE or NACE, when compared to the reference treatment.

12.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(9): 1494-1500, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826050

RESUMO

P2Y12-inhibitor initiation with clopidogrel using a loading dose (LD) versus no LD (NLD) provides more rapid inhibition of platelet activation and reduced risk of ischemic events after coronary stenting. Whether a similar beneficial effect is achieved in the setting of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. We evaluate the effects of preprocedural clopidogrel LD versus no NLD on 48-hour and 30-day clinical outcomes after TAVI. In the BRAVO-3 trial, 802 patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVI were randomized to intraprocedural anticoagulation with bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin. Administration of clopidogrel LD was left to the discretion of the treating physician. For this analysis, patients were stratified according to receiving clopidogrel LD (n = 294, 36.6%) or NLD (n = 508, 63.4%) before TAVI. LD patients more often received a self-expandable prosthesis using larger sheaths. P2Y12-inhibitor maintenance therapy pre-TAVI was similar in patients with LD versus NLD (28.2% vs 33.1%, p = 0.16). LD versus NLD was associated with similar incidences of major adverse cardiovascular events (i e., death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) (4.1% vs 4.1%, p = 0.97) and major bleeding (8.5% vs 7.7%, p = 0.68), but a higher rate of major vascular complications (11.9% vs 7.1%, p = 0.02). Multivariable adjustment showed that clopidogrel LD did not affect any of the studied clinical events, including major vascular complications (odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.39, p = 0.67). Also patients on clopidogrel maintenance therapy and thus considered in steady state were not at reduced risk of major adverse cardiovascular events compared with patients not on clopidogrel (3.7% vs 5.2%, p = 0.36). In conclusion, in patients who underwent TAVI, use of clopidogrel LD was associated with higher vascular complications and otherwise similar clinical events compared to NLD patients.

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): 433-443, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Acurate neo (NEO) and Evolut PRO (PRO) devices. BACKGROUND: The NEO and PRO bioprostheses are 2 next-generation self-expanding devices developed for TAVR. METHODS: The NEOPRO (A Multicenter Comparison of Acurate NEO Versus Evolut PRO Transcatheter Heart Valves) registry retrospectively included patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR with either NEO or PRO valves at 24 centers between January 2012 and March 2018. One-to-one propensity score matching resulted in 251 pairs. Pre-discharge and 30-day Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 defined outcomes were evaluated. Binary logistic regression was performed to adjust the treatment effect for propensity score quintiles. RESULTS: A total of 1,551 patients (n = 1,263 NEO; n = 288 PRO) were included. The mean age was 82 years, and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 5.1%. After propensity score matching (n = 502), VARC-2 device success (90.6% vs. 91.6%; p = 0.751) and pre-discharge moderate to severe (II+) paravalvular aortic regurgitation (7.3% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.584) were comparable between the NEO and PRO groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in any 30-day clinical outcome between matched NEO and PRO pairs, including all-cause mortality (3.2% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.221), stroke (2.4% vs. 2.8%; p = 1.000), new permanent pacemaker implantation (11.0% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.565), and VARC-2 early safety endpoint (10.6% vs. 10.4%; p = 1.000). Logistic regression on the unmatched cohort confirmed a similar risk of VARC-2 device success, paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and 30-day clinical outcomes after NEO and PRO implantation. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter registry, transfemoral TAVR with the NEO and PRO bioprostheses was associated with high device success, acceptable rates of paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and good 30-day clinical outcomes. After adjusting for potential confounders, short-term outcomes were similar between the devices.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(4): 335-342, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to establish a contemporary scoring system to predict the outcome of chronic total occlusion coronary angioplasty. BACKGROUND: Interventional treatment of chronic total coronary occlusions (CTOs) is a developing subspecialty. Predictors of technical success or failure have been derived from datasets of modest size. A robust scoring tool could facilitate case selection and inform decision making. METHODS: The study analyzed data from the EuroCTO registry. This prospective database was set up in 2008 and includes >20,000 cases submitted by CTO expert operators (>50 cases/year). Derivation (n = 14,882) and validation (n = 5,745) datasets were created to develop a risk score for predicting technical failure. RESULTS: There were 14,882 patients in the derivation dataset (with 2,356 [15.5%] failures) and 5,745 in the validation dataset (with 703 [12.2%] failures). A total of 20.2% of cases were done retrogradely, and dissection re-entry was performed in 9.3% of cases. We identified 6 predictors of technical failure, collectively forming the CASTLE score (Coronary artery bypass graft history, Age (≥70 years), Stump anatomy [blunt or invisible], Tortuosity degree [severe or unseen], Length of occlusion [≥20 mm], and Extent of calcification [severe]). When each parameter was assigned a value of 1, technical failure was seen to increase from 8% with a CASTLE score of 0 to 1, to 35% with a score ≥4. The area under the curve (AUC) was similar in both the derivation (AUC: 0.66) and validation (AUC: 0.68) datasets. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroCTO (CASTLE) score is derived from the largest database of CTO cases to date and offers a useful tool for predicting procedural outcome.

15.
Am Heart J ; 209: 97-105, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of antiplatelet therapy in high-bleeding risk (HBR) patients with coronary artery disease treated with newer-generation drug-eluting bioresorbable polymer-coated stents remains unclear. DESIGN: MASTER DAPT (clinicaltrial.govNCT03023020) is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing an abbreviated versus a standard duration of antiplatelet therapy after bioresorbable polymer-coated Ultimaster (TANSEI) sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in approximately 4,300 HBR patients recruited from ≥100 interventional cardiology centers globally. After a mandatory 30-day dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) run-in phase, patients are randomized to (a) a single antiplatelet regimen until study completion or up to 5 months in patients with clinically indicated oral anticoagulation (experimental 1-month DAPT group) or (b) continue DAPT for at least 5 months in patients without or 2 in patients with concomitant indication to oral anticoagulation, followed by a single antiplatelet regimen (standard antiplatelet regimen). With a final sample size of 4,300 patients, this study is powered to assess the noninferiority of the abbreviated antiplatelet regimen with respect to the net adverse clinical and major adverse cardiac and cerebral events composite end points and if satisfied for the superiority of abbreviated as compared to standard antiplatelet therapy duration in terms of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Study end points will be adjudicated by a blinded Clinical Events Committee. CONCLUSIONS: The MASTER DAPT study is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at ascertaining the optimal duration of antiplatelet therapy in HBR patients treated with sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable polymer-coated stent implantation.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(5): 537-545, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very little is known about long-term valve durability after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the incidence of structural valve degeneration (SVD) 5 to 10 years post-procedure. METHODS: Demographic, procedural, and in-hospital outcome data on patients who underwent TAVR from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the U.K. TAVI (United Kingdom Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry. Patients in whom echocardiographic data were available both at baseline and ≥5 years post-TAVR were included. Hemodynamic SVD was determined according to European task force committee guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients (79.3 ± 7.5 years of age; 46% female) with paired post-procedure and late echocardiographic follow-up (median 5.8 years, range 5 to 10 years) were included. A total of 149 patients (64%) were treated with a self-expandable valve and 80 (34.7%) with a balloon-expandable valve. Peak aortic valve gradient at follow-up was lower than post-procedure (17.1 vs. 19.1 mm Hg; p = 0.002). More patients had none/trivial aortic regurgitation (AR) (47.5% vs. 33%), and fewer had mild AR (42.5% vs. 57%) at follow-up (p = 0.02). There was 1 case (0.4%) of severe SVD 5.3 years after implantation (new severe AR). There were 21 cases (8.7%) of moderate SVD (mean 6.1 years post-implantation; range 4.9 to 8.6 years). Twelve of these (57%) were due to new AR and 9 (43%) to restenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term transcatheter aortic valve function is excellent. In the authors' study, 91% of patients remained free of SVD between 5 and 10 years post-implantation. The incidence of severe SVD was <1%. Moderate SVD occurred in 1 in 12 patients.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(1): 38-49, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate 1-year clinical outcomes with the Lotus valve (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, Massachusetts) in a large international, multicenter prospective registry including patients eligible for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) based on heart team consensus. BACKGROUND: TAVR is a safe and effective treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis; however, limited data are available on TAVR with the repositionable and fully retrievable Lotus valve in unrestricted contemporary clinical practice. METHODS: The RESPOND (Repositionable Lotus Valve System-Post-Market Evaluation of Real World Clinical Outcomes) study enrolled 1,014 patients; 996 patients were implanted with the Lotus valve (mean age 80.8 years, 50.8% female, mean STS score 6.0 ± 6.9%). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality in the intent-to-treat population at 30 days and 1 year. An Extension cohort of 50 patients was treated with the Lotus valve with Depth Guard including a modified delivery system. Mortality and stroke were independently adjudicated. An independent core laboratory assessed echocardiographic data. RESULTS: One-year clinical follow-up was available for 99.9% of Lotus valve-treated patients. At 1 year, the all-cause mortality rate was 11.7% and 4.1% of patients had experienced a disabling stroke. The permanent pacemaker implantation rate was 32% (37% among pacemaker-naive patients). Echocardiographic data at 1 year were available for core laboratory assessment in 62.6% of patients. Paravalvular leak was absent or trace in 94.5%, mild in 5.1%, and moderate in 0.4% of patients. Data from the Extension cohort confirmed good clinical outcomes at 30 days with an 18% permanent pacemaker rate (20% among pacemaker-naive patients). CONCLUSIONS: One-year outcomes from the RESPOND study confirm the safety and efficacy of the Lotus valve when used in routine clinical practice. (Repositionable Lotus Valve System-Post-Market Evaluation of Real World Clinical Outcomes [RESPOND]; NCT02031302).

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(2): 182-193, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction after transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). BACKGROUND: LVOT obstruction is a major concern with TMVR, but limited data exist regarding its predictors and impact on outcomes. METHODS: Patients with pre-procedural multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) undergoing TMVR for failed mitral bioprosthetic valves (valve-in-valve), annuloplasty rings (valve-in-ring), and mitral annular calcification (valve-in-MAC) were included in this study. Echocardiographic and procedural characteristics were recorded, and comprehensive assessment with MDCT was performed to identify the predictors of LVOT obstruction (defined as an increment of mean LVOT gradient ≥10 mm Hg from baseline). The new LVOT (neo-LVOT) area left after TMVR was estimated by embedding a virtual valve into the mitral annulus on MDCT, simulating the procedure. RESULTS: Among 194 patients with pre-procedural MDCT undergoing TMVR (valve-in-valve, 107 patients; valve-in-ring, 50 patients; valve-in-MAC, 37 patients), LVOT obstruction was observed in 26 patients (13.4%), with a higher rate after valve-in-MAC than valve-in-ring and valve-in-valve (54.1% vs. 8.0% vs. 1.9%; p < 0.001). Patients with LVOT obstruction had significantly higher procedural mortality compared with those without LVOT obstruction (34.6% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that an estimated neo-LVOT area ≤1.7 cm2 predicted LVOT obstruction with sensitivity of 96.2% and specificity of 92.3%. CONCLUSIONS: LVOT obstruction after TMVR was associated with higher procedural mortality. A small estimated neo-LVOT area was significantly associated with LVOT obstruction after TMVR and may help identify patients at high risk for LVOT obstruction.

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