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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: • Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. • Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline-directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892431

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology has published a previous position paper and various guidelines over the past decade recognizing the value of palliative care for those affected by this burdensome condition. Integrating palliative care into evidence-based heart failure management remains challenging for many professionals, as it includes the identification of palliative care needs, symptom control, adjustment of drug and device therapy, advance care planning, family and informal caregiver support, and trying to ensure a 'good death'. This new position paper aims to provide day-to-day practical clinical guidance on these topics, supporting the coordinated provision of palliation strategies as goals of care fluctuate along the heart failure disease trajectory. The specific components of palliative care for symptom alleviation, spiritual and psychosocial support, and the appropriate modification of guideline-directed treatment protocols, including drug deprescription and device deactivation, are described for the chronic, crisis and terminal phases of heart failure.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945600

RESUMO

Self-care is essential in the long-term management of chronic heart failure. Heart failure guidelines stress the importance of patient education on treatment adherence, lifestyle changes, symptom monitoring and adequate response to possible deterioration. Self-care is related to medical and person-centred outcomes in patients with heart failure such as better quality of life as well as lower mortality and readmission rates. Although guidelines give general direction for self-care advice, health care professionals working with patients with heart failure need more specific recommendations. The aim of the management recommendations in this paper is to provide practical advice for health professionals delivering care to patients with heart failure. Recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, medication adherence, psychological status, sleep, leisure and travel, smoking, immunization and preventing infections, symptom monitoring, and symptom management are consistent with information from guidelines, expert consensus documents, recent evidence and expert opinion.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1495-1503, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(8): 1298-1314, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347648

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome is a precipitant of acute heart failure in a substantial proportion of cases, and the presence of both conditions is associated with a higher risk of short-term mortality compared to acute coronary syndrome alone. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of acute heart failure can be challenging. Patients may present with atypical or absent chest pain, electrocardiograms can be confounded by pre-existing abnormalities, and cardiac biomarkers are frequently elevated in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, independently of acute coronary syndrome. It is important to distinguish transient or limited myocardial injury from primary myocardial infarction due to vascular events in patients presenting with acute heart failure. This paper outlines various clinical scenarios to help differentiate between these conditions and aims to provide clinicians with tools to aid in the recognition of acute coronary syndrome as a cause of acute heart failure. Interpretation of electrocardiogram and biomarker findings, and imaging techniques that may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up are described. Guidelines recommend an immediate invasive strategy for patients with acute heart failure and acute coronary syndrome, regardless of electrocardiographic or biomarker findings. Pharmacological management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure should follow guidelines for each of these syndromes, with priority given to time-sensitive therapies for both. Studies conducted specifically in patients with the combination of acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure are needed to better define the management of these patients.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(4): 584-603, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908120

RESUMO

Appropriate interpretation of changes in markers of kidney function is essential during the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Historically, kidney function was primarily assessed by serum creatinine and the calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate. An increase in serum creatinine, also termed worsening renal function, commonly occurs in patients with heart failure, especially during acute heart failure episodes. Even though worsening renal function is associated with worse outcome on a population level, the interpretation of such changes within the appropriate clinical context helps to correctly assess risk and determine further treatment strategies. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly recognized that assessment of kidney function is more than just glomerular filtration rate alone. As such, a better evaluation of sodium and water handling by the renal tubules allows to determine the efficiency of loop diuretics (loop diuretic response and efficiency). Also, though neurohumoral blockers may induce modest deteriorations in glomerular filtration rate, their use is associated with improved long-term outcome. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of cardio-renal interactions in heart failure in symptom development, disease progression and prognosis is essential. Indeed, perhaps even misinterpretation of kidney function is a leading cause of not attaining decongestion in acute heart failure and insufficient dosing of guideline-directed medical therapy in general. This position paper of the Heart Failure Association Working Group on Cardio-Renal Dysfunction aims at improving insights into the interpretation of renal function assessment in the different heart failure states, with the goal of improving heart failure care.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 196-213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816162

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have recently occurred in the treatment of T2DM, with evidence of several new glucose-lowering medications showing either neutral or beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, some of these agents have safety characteristics with strong practical implications in HF [i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors]. Regarding safety of DPP-4 inhibitors, saxagliptin is not recommended in HF because of a greater risk of HF hospitalisation. There is no compelling evidence of excess HF risk with the other DPP-4 inhibitors. GLP-1 RAs have an overall neutral effect on HF outcomes. However, a signal of harm suggested in two small trials of liraglutide in patients with reduced ejection fraction indicates that their role remains to be defined in established HF. SGLT-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) have shown a consistent reduction in the risk of HF hospitalisation regardless of baseline cardiovascular risk or history of HF. Accordingly, SGLT-2 inhibitors could be recommended to prevent HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease or with multiple risk factors. The recently completed trial with dapagliflozin has shown a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and HF events in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, with or without T2DM. Several ongoing trials will assess whether the results observed with dapagliflozin could be extended to other SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence of T2DM. This position paper aims to summarise relevant clinical trial evidence concerning the role and safety of new glucose-lowering therapies in patients with HF.

12.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 19(3): 201-211, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a significant clinical challenge and despite European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines, evidence confirms sub-optimal patient care. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate ESC members' opinions on the current provision of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation services across Europe and explore barriers to guideline implementation. METHOD: Electronic surveys using a secure web link were sent to members of the ESC in eight purposively selected ESC affiliated countries. RESULTS: A total of 479 professionals completed the survey, of whom 67% were cardiologists, 8.6% general physicians, 8.2% nurses and 16.2% other healthcare professionals. Respondents were predominantly (91%) practising clinicians, generally highly motivated regarding cardiovascular disease prevention, but most reported that secondary prevention in their country was sub-optimal. The main barriers to prevention were lack of available cardiac rehabilitation programmes and long-term follow-up, patients' disease perception and professional attitudes towards prevention. While knowledge of the prevention guidelines was generally good, practices such as motivational counselling and better educational tools were called for to promote exercise, smoking cessation and for nutritional aspects. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of services focusing on the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease varies greatly across Europe. Furthermore, despite ESC Guidelines and a strong evidence base supporting the efficacy of secondary prevention, the infrastructure and co-ordination of such care is lacking. In addition patient motivation is considered poor and some professionals remain unconvinced about the merits of prevention. The disappointing results outlined in this survey emphasise that improved tools are urgently required to educate both patients and professionals and confirm the priority of cardiovascular prevention internationally.

13.
EPMA J ; 10(4): 445-464, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832118

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is one of the most complex chronic disorders with high prevalence, mainly due to the ageing population and better treatment of underlying diseases. Prevalence will continue to rise and is estimated to reach 3% of the population in Western countries by 2025. It is the most important cause of hospitalisation in subjects aged 65 years or more, resulting in high costs and major social impact. The current "one-size-fits-all" approach in the treatment of HF does not result in best outcome for all patients. These facts are an imminent threat to good quality management of patients with HF. An unorthodox approach from a new vision on care is required. We propose a novel predictive, preventive and personalised medicine approach where patients are truly leading their management, supported by an easily accessible online application that takes advantage of artificial intelligence. This strategy paper describes the needs in HF care, the needed paradigm shift and the elements that are required to achieve this shift. Through the inspiring collaboration of clinical and high-tech partners from North-West Europe combining state of the art HF care, artificial intelligence, serious gaming and patient coaching, a virtual doctor is being created. The results are expected to advance and personalise self-care, where standard care tasks are performed by the patients themselves, in principle without involvement of healthcare professionals, the latter being able to focus on complex conditions. This new vision on care will significantly reduce costs per patient while improving outcomes to enable long-term sustainability of top-level HF care.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771959

RESUMO

As the number of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) implanted continues to rise, there is a growing challenge to ensure patients and family members are adequately equipped for involvement in future end-of-life decisions concerning their device. OBJECTIVE: To explore patients', family members' and professionals' attitudes and understanding towards discussing ICD deactivation. METHODS: Case study approach using qualitative interviews and framework analysis. A total of 29 qualitative interviews were undertaken, involving patients with a device, family members and healthcare professionals. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Data were triangulated with information obtained from the patients' medical records (n=10). RESULTS: Three main themes: (1) Professionals were reluctant to engage in conversations concerning deactivation, particularly prior to implantation, believing this was in the patient's best interest. (2) Patients and family members had limited understanding of the implanted device and its functions. It was frequently perceived as 'life-saving' with any negativity of the shock experience seen as acceptable. (3) All patients wanted the opportunity to discuss deactivation when death was imminent, but were indecisive whether family members should be involved. Similarly, some patients felt the decision to deactivate rested solely with the medical profession while others felt it should be a joint decision between patient, family and clinical team. CONCLUSIONS: Patients and family members require improved communication and information concerning their future treatment plan and functionality of an ICD. A proactive approach to discuss deactivation would enable shared clinical decision-making in the advanced stages of illness.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1299-1305, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646718

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and frailty are two distinct yet commonly associated conditions. The interplay between the two conditions is complex, due to overlaps in underlying mechanisms, symptoms and prognosis. The assessment of frailty in patients with HF is crucial, as it is associated with both unfavourable outcomes and reduced access and tolerance to treatments. However, to date a consensus definition of frailty in patients with HF remains lacking and the need for a validated assessment score, for identifying those HF patients with frailty, is high and timely. This position paper proposes a new definition of frailty for use by healthcare professionals in the setting of HF and creates a foundation for the design of a tailored and validated score for this common condition.

16.
BMC Palliat Care ; 18(1): 82, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a complex and multifactorial syndrome defined as severe weight loss and muscle wasting which frequently goes unrecognised in clinical practice [1]. It is a debilitating syndrome, resulting in patients experiencing decreased quality of life and an increased risk of premature death; with cancer cachexia alone resulting in 2 million deaths per annum [2]. Most work in this field has focused on cancer cachexia, with cardiac cachexia being relatively understudied - despite its potential prevalence and impact in patients who have advanced heart failure. We report here the protocol for an exploratory study which will: 1. focus on determining the prevalence and clinical implications of cardiac cachexia within advanced heart failure patients; and 2. explore the experience of cachexia from patients' and caregivers' perspectives. METHODS: A mixed methods cross-sectional study. Phase 1: A purposive sample of 362 patients with moderate to severe heart failure from two Trusts within the United Kingdom will be assessed for known characteristics of cachexia (loss of weight, loss of muscle, muscle mass/strength, anorexia, fatigue and selected biomarkers), through basic measurements (i.e. mid-upper arm circumference) and use of three validated questionnaires; focusing on fatigue, quality of life and appetite. Phase 2: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with patients (n = 12) that meet criteria for cachexia, and their caregivers (n = 12), will explore their experience of this syndrome and its impact on daily life. Interviews will be digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, prior to qualitative thematic and content analysis. Phase 3: Workshops with key stakeholders (patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals and policy makers) will be used to discuss study findings and identify practice implications to be tested in further research. DISCUSSION: Data collected as part of this study will allow the prevalence of cardiac cachexia in a group of patients with moderate to severe heart failure to be determined. It will also provide a unique insight into the implications and personal experience of cardiac cachexia for both patients and carers. It is hoped that robust quantitative data and rich qualitative perspectives will promote crucial clinical discussions on implications for practice, including targeted interventions to improve patients' quality of life where appropriate.


Assuntos
Caquexia/psicologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Caquexia/epidemiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos Transversais , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 18(7): 601-610, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of clinical guidelines is to provide patients with the best quality, evidence-based care. Nurses are actively involved in the development of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. A number of the guidelines include specific recommendations relating to nursing duties and, hence, nurses require necessary knowledge and skills for their implementation. Inclusion of the guidelines in the curricula for university nursing programmes could facilitate their implementation to everyday practice. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness and opinions of Polish nursing students who participated in a guideline-based Master of Science education programme about the usefulness of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. METHODS: A prospective and cross-sectional research design was used and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology guidelines were followed. A total of 188 nursing students (mean age 31.18±10.41 years) who met the inclusion criteria were invited to complete the BeGuideWell survey. This instrument included 16 questions: five on participants' demographics and 11 addressing the issues associated with the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The Yates chi-squared test or Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The majority of students had become familiar with the diagnostics and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Nearly half of the students documented that they had never heard of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines before starting the Master of Science programme. Most students found the European Society of Cardiology guidelines helpful for their university education. Most respondents stated that the guidelines were useful in their everyday practice and believed that they contributed to better quality of patient care. CONCLUSIONS: Students can become more familiar with the European Society of Cardiology guidelines during the course of their post-graduate education, preparing them to implement the European Society of Cardiology guidelines in their everyday practice.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(10): 1169-1186, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

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