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1.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079697

RESUMO

Objectives To analytically evaluate Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay in specific matrices with comparison to other hs-cTn assays. Methods The limit of detection (LoD), imprecision, interference and stability testing for both serum and lithium heparin (Li-Hep) plasma for the VITROS hs-cTnI assay was determined. We performed Passing-Bablok regression analyses between sample types for the VITROS hs-cTnI assay and compared them to the Abbott ARCHITECT, Beckman Access and the Siemens ADVIA Centaur hs-cTnI assays. We also performed Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses with the area under the curve (AUC) determined in an emergency department (ED)-study population (n=131) for myocardial infarction (MI). Results The VITROS hs-cTnI LoD was 0.73 ng/L (serum) and 1.4 ng/L (Li-Hep). Stability up to five freeze-thaws was observed for the Ortho hs-cTnI assay, with the analyte stability at room temperature in serum superior to Li-Hep with gross hemolysis also affecting Li-Hep plasma hs-cTnI results. Comparison of Li-Hep to serum concentrations (n=202), yielded proportionally lower concentrations in plasma with the VITROS hs-cTnI assay (slope=0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.83-0.88). In serum, the VITROS hs-cTnI concentrations were proportionally lower compared to other hs-cTnI assays, with similar slopes observed between assays in samples frozen <-70 °C for 17 years (ED-study) or in 2020. In the ED-study, the VITROS hs-cTnI assay had an AUC of 0.974 (95%CI:0.929-0.994) for MI, similar to the AUCs of other hs-cTn assays. Conclusions Lack of standardization of hs-cTnI assays across manufacturers is evident. The VITROS hs-cTnI assay yields lower concentrations compared to other hs-cTnI assays. Important differences exist between Li-Hep plasma and serum, with evidence of stability and excellent clinical performance comparable to other hs-cTn assays.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111523

RESUMO

We present an extensive study of tetranuclear transition-metal cluster compounds M4(NPtBu3)4 and [M4(NPtBu3)4][B(C6F5)4] (M = Ni, Cu; tBu = tert-butyl), which feature low-coordinate metal centers and direct metal-metal orbital overlap. X-ray diffraction, electrochemical, magnetic, spectroscopic, and computational analysis elucidate the nature of the bonding interactions in these clusters and the impact of these interactions on the electronic and magnetic properties. Direct orbital overlap results in strongly coupled, large-spin ground states in the [Ni4(NPtBu3)4]+/0 clusters and fully delocalized, spin-correlated electrons. Correlated electronic structure calculations confirm the presence of ferromagnetic ground states that arise from direct exchange between magnetic orbitals, and, in the case of the neutral cluster, itinerant electron magnetism similar to that in metallic ferromagnets. The cationic nickel cluster also possesses large magnetic anisotropy exemplified by a large, positive axial zero-field splitting parameter of D = +7.95 or +9.2 cm-1, as determined by magnetometry or electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. The [Ni4(NPtBu3)4]+ cluster is also the first molecule with easy-plane magnetic anisotropy to exhibit zero-field slow magnetic relaxation, and under a small applied field, it exhibits relaxation exclusively through an Orbach mechanism with a spin relaxation barrier of 16 cm-1. The S = 1/2 complex [Cu4(NPtBu3)4]+ exhibits slow magnetic relaxation via a Raman process on the millisecond time scale, supporting the presence of slow relaxation via an Orbach process in the nickel analogue. Overall, this work highlights the unique electronic and magnetic properties that can be realized in metal clusters featuring direct metal-metal orbital interactions between low-coordinate metal centers.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 59(18): 13262-13269, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869626

RESUMO

A series of trans-dicyanide vanadium(III) compounds based on acetylacetonate, (PPN)[VIII(acac)2(CN)2]·(PPN)Cl·2MeCN (1), and salen ligands, (Et4N)[VIII(salen)(CN)2] (2a), (PPN)[VIII(MeOsalen)(CN)2]·DMF·2MeCN (3), and (PPN)[VIII(salphen)(CN)2]·DMF (4) [salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicyl-imine), MeOsalen = N,N'-ethylenebis(methoxysalicylimine), salphen = N,N'-phenylenebis(salicyl-imine), and PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium], were prepared and structurally characterized. High-field EPR studies reveal that the complexes exhibit moderate magnetic anisotropy with positive D values of +5.70, +3.80, +4.05, and +3.99 cm-1 for 1-4, respectively.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954634

RESUMO

Polylactide and polycaprolactone are both biodegradable polymers produced through metal-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization. For a truly sustainable lifecycle of these polymers it is essential to replace the industrially used cytotoxic catalyst tin(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) [Sn(Oct)2 ] with non-toxic alternatives. Here, we report the fastest known robust catalyst in the polymerization of lactide and ϵ-caprolactone. This zinc guanidine catalyst can polymerize non-purified technical rac-lactide and ϵ-caprolactone in the melt at different [M]/[I] ratios with fast rate constants, high molar masses, and high yields in a short time, leading to colorless, transparent polymer. Moreover, we report that polylactide and polycaprolactone produced by zinc-guanidine complexes have favorably high crystallinities. In fact, the obtained polylactide shows a more robust degradation profile than its Sn(Oct)2 -catalysed equivalent due to a higher degree of crystallinity.

5.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 3(4): 737-748, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832874

RESUMO

For disorders of the skin, eyes, ears, and respiratory tract, topical drugs, delivered directly to the target organ, are a therapeutic option. Compared with systemic oral therapy, the benefits of topical treatments include a faster onset of action, circumventing the liver first pass drug metabolism, and reducing systemic side effects. Nevertheless, some systemic absorption still occurs for many topical agents resulting in systemic side effects. One way to prevent these would be to develop drugs that are instantly degraded upon entry into the bloodstream by serum esterases. Because topical ß-blockers are used in glaucoma and infantile hemeangioma and cause systemic side effects, the ß-adrenoceptor system was used to test this hypothesis. Purified liver esterase reduced the apparent affinity of esmolol, an ester-containing ß-blocker used in clinical emergencies, for the human ß-adrenoceptors in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, purified serum esterase had no effect on esmolol. Novel ester-containing ß-blockers were synthesized and several were sensitive to both liver and serum esterases. Despite good in vitro affinity, one such compound, methyl 2-(3-chloro-4-(3-((2-(3-(3-chlorophenyl)ureido)ethyl)amino)-2-hydroxypropoxy)phenyl)acetate, had no effect on heart rate when injected intravenously into rats, even at 10 times the equipotent dose of esmolol and betaxolol that caused short and sustained reductions in heart rate, respectively. Thus, ester-based drugs, sensitive to serum esterases, offer a mechanism for developing topical agents that are truly devoid of systemic side effects. Furthermore, differential susceptibility to liver and serum esterases degradation may also allow the duration of systemic availability for other drugs to be fine-tuned.

6.
New Phytol ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813888

RESUMO

From global food security to textile production and biofuels, the demands currently made on plant photosynthetic productivity will continue to increase. Enhancing photosynthesis using designer, green and sustainable materials offers an attractive alternative to current genetic-based strategies and promising work with nanomaterials has recently started to emerge. Here we describe the in planta use of carbon-based nanoparticles produced by low-cost renewable routes that are bioavailable to mature plants. Uptake of these functionalised nanoparticles directly from the soil improves photosynthesis and also increases crop production. We show for the first time that glucose functionalisation enhances nanoparticle uptake, photoprotection and pigment production, unlocking enhanced yields. This was demonstrated in Triticum aestivum 'Apogee' (dwarf bread wheat) and resulted in an 18% increase in grain yield. This establishes the viability of a functional nanomaterial to augment photosynthesis as a route to increased crop productivity.

7.
Int J Cardiol ; 319: 140-143, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We developed a biomarker algorithm encompassing the clinical chemistry score (CCS; which includes the combination of a random glucose concentration, an estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin; hs-cTn) with the Ortho Clinical Diagnostics hs-cTnI assay (CCS-serial) and compared it to the cutoffs derived from Ortho Clinical Diagnostics 0/1 h (h) algorithm for 7-day myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular (CV)-death. METHODS: The study cohort was an emergency department (ED) population (n = 906) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who had two Ortho hs-cTnI results approximately 3 h apart. Diagnostic parameters (sensitivity/specificity/negative predictive value; NPV/positive predictive value; PPV) were derived for the CCS-serial and the 0/1 h algorithm for 7-day MI/CV-death. A safety analysis was performed for patients in the rule-out arms of the algorithms for 30-day MI/death. RESULTS: The CCS-serial algorithm yielded 100% sensitivity/NPV (32% low-risk) and 95.7% specificity/65% PPV (11% high-risk). The 0/1 h algorithm-cutoffs yielded sensitivity/NPV/specificity/PPV of 97.8%/99.4%/91.3%/50%, which classified 38% of patients as low-risk and 16% of patients as high-risk. Four patients (1.2%) in the 0/1 h algorithm-cutoff rule-out arm had a 30-day MI/death outcome as compared to zero patients in the CCS-serial rule-out arm (p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Both the CCS-serial and 0/1 h algorithm cutoffs yield high NPVs with a similar proportion of patients identified as low-risk. These data may be useful for sites who are unable to collect samples at 0/1 h in the emergency department.

8.
Cell Chem Biol ; 27(10): 1250-1261.e5, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610042

RESUMO

Camelid single-domain antibody fragments (nanobodies) offer the specificity of an antibody in a single 15-kDa immunoglobulin domain. Their small size allows for easy genetic manipulation of the nanobody sequence to incorporate protein tags, facilitating their use as biochemical probes. The nanobody VUN400, which recognizes the second extracellular loop of the human CXCR4 chemokine receptor, was used as a probe to monitor specific CXCR4 conformations. VUN400 was fused via its C terminus to the 11-amino-acid HiBiT tag (VUN400-HiBiT) which complements LgBiT protein, forming a full-length functional NanoLuc luciferase. Here, complemented luminescence was used to detect VUN400-HiBiT binding to CXCR4 receptors expressed in living HEK293 cells. VUN400-HiBiT binding to CXCR4 could be prevented by orthosteric and allosteric ligands, allowing VUN400-HiBiT to be used as a probe to detect allosteric interactions with CXCR4. These data demonstrate that the high specificity offered by extracellular targeted nanobodies can be utilized to probe receptor pharmacology.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573216

RESUMO

Reactions involving reductive aggregation of MnO4- in methanol in the presence of CeIV and an excess of carboxylic acid have led to the synthesis of structurally related Ce/Mn clusters, [Ce3Mn5O8(OMe)(O2CBut)13(MeOH)] (1) and [Ce2Mn3O5(O2CPh)9(MeOH)3] (2), containing at least one {Mn2Ce2O4} cubane unit. The cores of both clusters contain Mnx units separated by three (1) or two (2) CeIV ions. Fits of variable-temperature, solid-state dc and ac magnetic susceptibility data reveal dominant ferromagnetic interactions within 1 and 2, resulting in the maximum S = 17/2 and S = 5 ground state spins, respectively, and thus suggesting significant ferromagnetic (F) interactions between the Mnx units that are ≥6 Å apart and separated by four intervening bonds through diamagnetic CeIV. Fits of magnetic susceptibility data also revealed unusual long-range F interactions, and this finding was further supported by high-field EPR measurements and simulations. Density functional theory calculations and a Wannier function analysis confirm long-range interactions and indicate a Mn-Ce-Mn superexchange pathway via Mn-d/Ce-f orbital overlap/hybridization.

10.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(2): 72-87, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474443

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are biologic switches that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses in the cell. Temporally resolving GPCR transduction pathways is key to understanding how cell signaling occurs. Here, we investigate the kinetics and dynamics of the activation and early signaling steps of the CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 in response to its natural ligands CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), using Förster resonance energy transfer-based approaches. We show that CXCR4 presents a multifaceted response to CXCL12, with receptor activation (≈0.6 seconds) followed by a rearrangement in the receptor/G protein complex (≈1 seconds), a slower dimer rearrangement (≈1.7 seconds), and prolonged G protein activation (≈4 seconds). In comparison, MIF distinctly modulates every step of the transduction pathway, indicating distinct activation mechanisms and reflecting the different pharmacological properties of these two ligands. Our study also indicates that CXCR4 exhibits some degree of ligand-independent activity, a relevant feature for drug development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12/CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4 axis represents a well-established therapeutic target for cancer treatment. We demonstrate that CXCR4 exhibits a multifaceted response that involves dynamic receptor dimer rearrangements and that is kinetically embedded between receptor-G protein complex rearrangements and G protein activation. The alternative endogenous ligand macrophage migration inhibitory factor behaves opposite to CXCL12 in each assay studied and does not lead to G protein activation. This detailed understanding of the receptor activation may aid in the development of more specific drugs against this target.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR4/química , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinética , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Nanoscale ; 12(21): 11518-11525, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428052

RESUMO

The fundamental importance of membrane proteins in cellular processes has driven a marked increase in the use of membrane mimetic approaches for studying and exploiting these proteins. Nano-encapsulation strategies which preserve the native lipid bilayer environment are particularly attractive. Consequently, the use of poly(styrene co-maleic acid) (SMA) has been widely adopted to solubilise proteins directly from cell membranes by spontaneously forming "SMA Lipid Particles" (SMALPs). G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitous "chemical switches", are central to cell signalling throughout the evolutionary tree, form the largest family of membrane proteins in humans and are a major drug discovery target. GPCR-SMALPs that retain binding capability would be a versatile platform for a wide range of down-stream applications. Here, using the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) as an archetypical GPCR, we show for the first time the utility of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to characterise the binding capability of GPCRs following nano-encapsulation. Unbound fluorescent ligand CA200645 exhibited a monophasic autocorrelation curve (dwell time, τD = 68 ± 2 µs; diffusion coefficient, D = 287 ± 15 µm2 s-1). In the presence of A2AR-SMALP, bound ligand was also evident (τD = 625 ± 23 µs; D = 30 ± 4 µm2 s-1). Using a non-receptor control (ZipA-SMALP) plus competition binding confirmed that this slower component represented binding to the encapsulated A2AR. Consequently, the combination of GPCR-SMALP and FCS is an effective platform for the quantitative real-time characterisation of nano-encapsulated receptors, with single molecule sensitivity, that will have widespread utility for future exploitation of GPCR-SMALPs in general.

12.
Clin Biochem ; 80: 48-51, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more companies obtain regulatory approval for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays there is an urgent need for independent analytical and clinical evaluations. To this end, we have evaluated Ortho Clinical Diagnostics' hs-cTnI assay and compared it to their contemporary cTnI-ES assay in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The study cohort consisted of ED patients (n = 906) with symptoms suggestive of ACS who had Ortho hs-cTnI and cTnI-ES results at presentation and 3 h (with calculated delta (0-3 h) defined as the absolute concentration difference between paired results). The primary composite outcome was 7-day myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular death, with secondary analyses performed for 7-day MI and index-MI. Analytical imprecision testing (i.e., coefficient of variation; CV), receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses with area under the curve (AUC), and diagnostic parameters (sensitivity/specificity/predictive values) were calculated. RESULTS: The hs-cTnI assay had superior precision compared to the cTnI-ES assay below 5 ng/L in EDTA plasma (hs-cTnI CV ≤ 15% versus cTnI-ES CV ≥ 85%). The AUCs were higher for hs-cTnI as compared to cTnI-ES at 0 h (0.88 vs. 0.85), 3 h (0.94 vs. 0.92), and the delta (0-3 h) value (0.91 vs. 0.85) for the primary composite outcome (p < 0.05). At 3 h, the sensitivity/specificity for index-MI was ≥97%/≥82%, for 7-day MI was ≥89%/≥84%, and for the primary composite outcome was ≥90%/≥85% using the manufacturer's sex-specific 99th-percentile cutoffs. CONCLUSION: The Ortho hs-cTnI assay has superior analytical and clinical performance over their contemporary cTnI-ES assay in evaluating ED patients with symptoms suggestive of ACS.

13.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235618

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. Since there is no cure for OA and no effective treatment to slow its progression, current pharmacologic treatments, such as analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), only alleviate symptoms, such as pain and inflammation, but do not inhibit the disease process. Moreover, chronic intake of these drugs may result in severe adverse effects. For these reasons, patients have turned to the use of various complementary and alternative approaches, including diverse dietary supplements and nutraceuticals, in an effort to improve symptoms and manage or slow disease progression. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-osteoarthritic effects of FlexPro MD® (a mixture of krill oil, astaxanthin, and hyaluronic acid; FP-MD) in a rat model of OA induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). FP-MD significantly ameliorated joint pain and decreased the severity of articular cartilage destruction in rats that received oral supplementation for 7 days prior to MIA administration and for 21 days thereafter. Furthermore, FP-MD treatment significantly reduced serum levels of the articular cartilage degeneration biomarkers cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and crosslinked C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as mRNA expression levels of inflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix-degrading enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, in the knee joint tissue. Our findings suggest that FP-MD is a promising dietary supplement for reducing pain, minimizing cartilage damage, and improving functional status in OA, without the disadvantages of previous dietary supplements and medicinal agents, including multiple adverse effects.

15.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 37(2): 263-277, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146982

RESUMO

At Samuel Merritt University (SMU), the California School of Podiatric Medicine (CSPM) collaborates with Motion Analysis Research Center to integrate hands-on quantitative clinical biomechanics research experience into the podiatric medical training program. This partnership provides an active learning environment to demonstrate the importance of critical thinking and evidence-based medicine and to demonstrate the role of research in providing patients with the best treatment options available. This article provides examples of CSPM podiatry students learning through engagement in clinical quantitative biomechanics laboratory sessions and research projects at the SMU Motion Analysis Research Center.


Assuntos
Práticas Interdisciplinares/organização & administração , Podiatria/educação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , California , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Universidades
16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2074-2078, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097549

RESUMO

Quantum states are described by wave functions whose phases cannot be directly measured but which play a vital role in quantum effects such as interference and entanglement. The loss of the relative phase information, termed decoherence, arises from the interactions between a quantum system and its environment. Decoherence is perhaps the biggest obstacle on the path to reliable quantum computing. Here we show that decoherence occurs even in an isolated molecule, although not all phase information is lost, via a theoretical study of a central electron spin qubit interacting with nearby nuclear spins in prototypical magnetic molecules. The residual coherence, which is molecule-dependent, provides a microscopic rationalization for the nuclear spin diffusion barrier proposed to explain experiments. The contribution of nearby molecules to the decoherence has a nontrivial dependence on separation, peaking at intermediate distances. Molecules that are far away affect only the long-time behavior. Because the residual coherence is simple to calculate and correlates well with the coherence time, it can be used as a descriptor for coherence in magnetic molecules. This work will help establish design principles for enhancing coherence in molecular spin qubits and serve to motivate further theoretical work.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080955

RESUMO

Silicon-mediated fluoride abstraction is demonstrated as a means of generating the first fluorido-cyanido transition metal complexes. This new synthetic approach is exemplified by the synthesis and characterization of the heteroleptic complexes, trans-[MIV F4 (CN)2 ]2- (M=Re, Os), obtained from their homoleptic [MIV F6 ]2- parents. As shown by combined high-field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetization measurements, the partial substitution of fluoride by cyanide ligands leads to a marked increase in the magnetic anisotropy of trans-[ReF4 (CN)2 ]2- as compared to [ReF6 ]2- , reflecting the severe departure from an ideal octahedral (Oh point group) ligand field. This methodology paves the way toward the realization of new heteroleptic transition metal complexes that may be used as highly anisotropic building-blocks for the design of high-performance molecule-based magnetic materials.

19.
Cell Chem Biol ; 27(5): 499-510.e7, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053779

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors are a major class of membrane receptors that mediate physiological and pathophysiological cellular signaling. Many aspects of receptor activation and signaling can be investigated using genetically encoded luminescent fusion proteins. However, the use of these biosensors in live cell systems requires the exogenous expression of the tagged protein of interest. To maintain the normal cellular context here we use CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair to insert luminescent tags into the endogenous genome. Using NanoLuc and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer we demonstrate fluorescent ligand binding at genome-edited chemokine receptors. We also demonstrate that split-NanoLuc complementation can be used to investigate conformational changes and internalization of CXCR4 and that recruitment of ß-arrestin2 to CXCR4 can be monitored when both proteins are natively expressed. These results show that genetically encoded luminescent biosensors can be used to investigate numerous aspects of receptor function at native expression levels.

20.
SLAS Discov ; 25(2): 186-194, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583945

RESUMO

Receptor internalization in response to prolonged agonist treatment is an important regulator of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) function. The adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) is one of the adenosine receptor family of GPCRs, and evidence for its agonist-induced internalization is equivocal. The recently developed NanoBiT technology uses split NanoLuc Luciferase to monitor changes in protein interactions. We have modified the human A1AR on the N-terminus with the small high-affinity HiBiT tag. In the presence of the large NanoLuc subunit (LgBiT), complementation occurs, reconstituting a full-length functional NanoLuc Luciferase. Here, we have used complemented luminescence to monitor the internalization of the A1AR in living HEK293 cells. Agonist treatment resulted in a robust decrease in cell-surface luminescence, indicating an increase in A1AR internalization. These responses were inhibited by the A1AR-selective antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), with an antagonist affinity that closely matched that measured using ligand binding with a fluorescent A1 receptor antagonist (CA200645). The agonist potencies for inducing A1AR internalization were very similar to the affinities previously determined by ligand binding, suggesting little or no amplification of the internalization response. By complementing the HiBiT tag to exogenous purified LgBiT, it was also possible to perform NanoBRET ligand-binding experiments using HiBiT-A1AR. This study demonstrates the use of NanoBiT technology to monitor internalization of the A1AR and offers the potential to combine these experiments with NanoBRET ligand-binding assays.

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