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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 6565-6572, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825591

RESUMO

Conformationally rigid multipodal molecules should control the orientation and packing density of functional head groups upon self-assembly on solid supports. Common tripods frequently fail in this regard because of inhomogeneous bonding configuration and stochastic orientation. These issues are circumvented by a suitable tetrapodal diazatriptycene moiety, bearing four thiol-anchoring groups, as demonstrated in the present study. Such molecules form well-defined self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) substrates, whereby the tetrapodal scaffold enforces a nearly upright orientation of the terminal head group with respect to the substrate, with at least three of the four anchoring groups providing thiolate-like covalent attachment to the surface. Functionalization by condensation chemistry allows a large variety of functional head groups to be introduced to the tetrapod, paving the path toward advanced surface engineering and sensor fabrication.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(13): 3731-3737, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923411

RESUMO

Studying the structure-property relations of tailored dipolar phenyl and biphenylphosphonic acids, we report self-assembled monolayers with a significant decrease in the work function (WF) of indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Whereas the strengths of the dipoles are varied through the different molecular lengths and the introduction of electron-withdrawing fluorine atoms, the surface energy is kept constant through the electron-donating N, N-dimethylamine head groups. The self-assembled monolayer formation and its modification of the electrodes are investigated via infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and photoelectron spectroscopy. The WF decrease in ITO correlates with increasing molecular dipoles. The lowest ever recorded WF of 3.7 eV is achieved with the fluorinated biphenylphosphonic acid.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(45): 39821-39829, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052974

RESUMO

Nickel oxide (NiO) is a widely used material for efficient hole extraction in optoelectronic devices. However, its surface characteristics strongly depend on the processing history and exposure to adsorbates. To achieve controllability of the electronic and chemical properties of solution-processed nickel oxide (sNiO), we functionalize its surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-cyanophenylphosphonic acid. A detailed analysis of infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chemisorption of the molecules with a nominal layer thickness of around one monolayer and gives an insight into the chemical composition of the SAM. Density functional theory calculations reveal the possible binding configurations. By the application of the SAM, we increase the sNiO work function by up to 0.8 eV. When incorporated in organic solar cells, the increase in work function and improved energy level alignment to the donor does not lead to a higher fill factor of these cells. Instead, we observe the formation of a transport barrier, which can be reduced by increasing the conductivity of the sNiO through doping with copper oxide. We conclude that the widespread assumption of maximizing the fill factor by only matching the work function of the oxide charge extraction layer with the energy levels in the active material is a too narrow approach. Successful implementation of interface modifiers is only possible with a sufficiently high charge carrier concentration in the oxide interlayer to support efficient charge transfer across the interface.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(7): 4940-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829619

RESUMO

Multilayer solution-processed devices in organic electronics show the tendency of intermixing of subsequently deposited layers. Here, we synthesize naphthalene tetracarboxydiimide (NDI)-based n-type semiconducting polymers with thermally cleavable side chains which upon removal render the polymer insoluble. Infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to investigate the pyrolysis process. Characterization of organic field-effect transistors provides insight into charge transport. After the pyrolysis homogeneous films could be produced which are insoluble in the primary solvent. By varying curing temperature and time we show that these process parameters govern the amount of side chains in the film and influence the device performance.

5.
Langmuir ; 31(37): 10303-9, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315142

RESUMO

In this work we examine small conjugated molecules bearing a thiol headgroup as self assembled monolayers (SAM). Functional groups in the SAM-active molecule shift the work function of gold to n-channel semiconductor regimes and improve the wettability of the surface. We examine the effect of the presence of methylene linkers on the orientation of the molecule within the SAM. 3,4,5-Trimethoxythiophenol (TMP-SH) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylthiol (TMP-CH2-SH) were first subjected to computational analysis, predicting work function shifts of -430 and -310 meV. Contact angle measurements show an increase in the wetting envelope compared to that of pristine gold. Infrared (IR) measurements show tilt angles of 22 and 63°, with the methylene-linked molecule (TMP-CH2-SH) attaining a flatter orientation. The actual work function shift as measured with photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) is even larger, -600 and -430 meV, respectively. The contact resistance between gold electrodes and poly[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) (Polyera Aktive Ink, N2200) in n-type OFETs is demonstrated to decrease by 3 orders of magnitude due to the use of TMP-SH and TMP-CH2-SH. The effective mobility was enhanced by two orders of magnitude, significantly decreasing the contact resistance to match the mobilities reported for N2200 with optimized electrodes.

6.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0128555, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042422

RESUMO

It has been well established that the architecture of chromatin in cell nuclei is not random but functionally correlated. Chromatin damage caused by ionizing radiation raises complex repair machineries. This is accompanied by local chromatin rearrangements and structural changes which may for instance improve the accessibility of damaged sites for repair protein complexes. Using stably transfected HeLa cells expressing either green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled histone H2B or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) labelled histone H2A, we investigated the positioning of individual histone proteins in cell nuclei by means of high resolution localization microscopy (Spectral Position Determination Microscopy = SPDM). The cells were exposed to ionizing radiation of different doses and aliquots were fixed after different repair times for SPDM imaging. In addition to the repair dependent histone protein pattern, the positioning of antibodies specific for heterochromatin and euchromatin was separately recorded by SPDM. The present paper aims to provide a quantitative description of structural changes of chromatin after irradiation and during repair. It introduces a novel approach to analyse SPDM images by means of statistical physics and graph theory. The method is based on the calculation of the radial distribution functions as well as edge length distributions for graphs defined by a triangulation of the marker positions. The obtained results show that through the cell nucleus the different chromatin re-arrangements as detected by the fluorescent nucleosomal pattern average themselves. In contrast heterochromatic regions alone indicate a relaxation after radiation exposure and re-condensation during repair whereas euchromatin seemed to be unaffected or behave contrarily. SPDM in combination with the analysis techniques applied allows the systematic elucidation of chromatin re-arrangements after irradiation and during repair, if selected sub-regions of nuclei are investigated.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Cromatina/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Estatística como Assunto , Análise por Conglomerados , Eucromatina , Genoma Humano , Células HeLa , Heterocromatina , Humanos , Probabilidade
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(22): 20234-41, 2014 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25323064

RESUMO

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organic molecules can be used to tune interface energetics and thereby improve charge carrier injection at metal-semiconductor contacts. We investigate the compatibility of SAM formation with high-throughput processing techniques. Therefore, we examine the quality of SAMs, in terms of work function shift and chemical composition as measured with photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy and in dependency on molecular exposure during SAM formation. The functionality of the SAMs is determined by the performance increase of organic field-effect transistors upon SAM treatment of the source/drain contacts. This combined analytical and device-based approach enables us to minimize the necessary formation times via an optimization of the deposition conditions. Our findings demonstrate that SAMs composed of partially fluorinated alkanethiols can be prepared in ambient atmosphere from ethanol solution using immersion times as short as 5 s and still exhibit almost full charge injection functionality if process parameters are chosen carefully. This renders solution-processed SAMs compatible with high-throughput solution-based deposition techniques.

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