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1.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236950

RESUMO

The Complement 1 trial investigated the efficacy and safety of ofatumumab + chlorambucil with chlorambucil monotherapy in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). On long-term follow-up in the chemoimmunotherapy arm vs. the chemotherapy arm there was an estimated 12% (not significant) and 39% risk reduction in overall survival and progression-free survival, respectively. A high rate (61%) of treatment with next-line therapies in both the treatment arms may dilute any potential OS difference and confound the interpretation of the OS results. Addition of ofatumumab to chlorambucil demonstrated clinical benefit and tolerability as a frontline treatment option in patients unfit for fludarabine-containing therapy, with no new safety concerns.

2.
Future Oncol ; 16(10): 517-523, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207333

RESUMO

Treatment standards for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been transformed with the advent of effective inhibitors of B-cell receptor signaling such as ibrutinib - a first-in-class inhibitor of BTK. Off-target kinase inhibitions by ibrutinib are thought to contribute to its adverse events. Zanubrutinib is a next-generation BTK inhibitor with minimal off-target effects, sustained BTK occupancy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph nodes from patients with B-cell malignancies and promising responses in patients with CLL. Described here is a head-to-head Phase III study comparing the efficacy and safety of zanubrutinib with those of ibrutinib in patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma in the relapsed/refractory setting.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition alone leads to incomplete responses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Combination therapy may reduce activation of escape pathways and deepen responses. This open-label, phase 1b, sequential dose-escalation and dose-expansion study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of the selective BTK inhibitor tirabrutinib (TIRA) alone, in combination with the phosphoinositide-3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor idelalisib (IDELA), or with the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor entospletinib (ENTO) in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients received either TIRA monotherapy (80 mg QD) or TIRA 20 mg to 150 mg QD in combination with either IDELA (50 mg BID or 100 mg QD) or ENTO (200 mg or 400 mg QD). RESULTS: Fifty-three patients were included. Systemic TIRA exposure was comparable between monotherapy and combination therapy. No maximum tolerated dose was identified. Across all treatment groups, the most common adverse event was diarrhea (43%, 1 patient grade ≥3); discontinuation due to adverse events was uncommon (13%). Objective response rates were 83%, 93%, and 100%, and complete responses were 7%, 7%, and 10% in patients receiving TIRA, TIRA/IDELA, and TIRA/ENTO, respectively. As of February 21, 2019, 46/53 patients continue to receive treatment on study. CONCLUSIONS: TIRA in combination with IDELA or ENTO was well tolerated in patients with CLL, establishing an acceptable safety profile for concurrent selective inhibition of BTK with either PI3Kδ or SYK. This small study did not establish a superior efficacy of the combinations over TIRA alone. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02457598).

4.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103498

RESUMO

A retrospective analysis of presentation clinical, laboratory and immunophenotypic features of 1 081 patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) clones [glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-deficient blood cells] identified at our hospital by flow cytometry over the past 25 years was undertaken. Three distinct clusters of patients were identified and significant correlations between presentation disease type and PNH clone sizes were evident. Smaller PNH clones predominate in cytopenic and myelodysplastic subtypes; large PNH clones were associated with haemolytic, thrombotic and haemolytic/thrombotic subtypes. Rare cases with an associated chronic myeloproliferative disorder had either large or small PNH clones. Cytopenia was a frequent finding, highlighting bone marrow failure as the major underlying feature associated with the detection of PNH clones in the peripheral blood. Red cell PNH clones showed significant correlations between the presence of type II (partial GPI deficiency) red cells and thrombotic disease. Haemolytic PNH was associated with type III (complete GPI deficiency) red cell populations of >20%. Those with both haemolytic and thrombotic features had major type II and type III red cell populations. Distinct patterns of presentation age decade were evident for clinical subtypes with a peak incidence of haemolytic PNH in the 30-49 year age group and a biphasic age distribution for the cytopenia group.

7.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949012

RESUMO

Eculizumab is first-line treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH); however, approximately 11%-27% of patients may experience breakthrough hemolysis (BTH) on approved doses of eculizumab. Ravulizumab, a new long-acting C5 inhibitor with a four-times longer mean half-life than eculizumab, provides immediate, complete, and sustained C5 inhibition over 8-week dosing intervals. In two phase 3 studies, ravulizumab was noninferior to eculizumab (Pinf ≤0.0004) for the BTH endpoint; fewer patients experienced BTH with ravulizumab versus eculizumab in both studies (301 [complement inhibitor-naive patients], 4.0% vs 10.7%; 302 [patients stabilized on eculizumab at baseline], 0% vs 5.1%). In the current analysis, patient-level data were evaluated to assess causes and clinical parameters associated with incidents of BTH reported during the 26-week treatment periods in the ravulizumab phase 3 PNH studies. Of the five BTH events occurring in ravulizumab-treated patients across the studies, none were temporally associated with suboptimal C5 inhibition (free C5 ≥0.5 µg/mL); four (80.0%) were temporally associated with complement-amplifying conditions (CACs). Of the 22 events occurring in eculizumab-treated patients, eleven were temporally associated with suboptimal C5 inhibition, including three events also associated with concomitant infection. Six events were associated with CACs only. Five events were unrelated to free C5 elevation or reported CACs. These results suggest that the immediate, complete, and sustained C5 inhibition achieved through weight-based dosing of ravulizumab reduces the risk of BTH by eliminating BTH associated with suboptimal C5 inhibition in patients with PNH. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: Study 301, NCT02946463; Study 302, NCT03056040.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the phase III DUO trial, duvelisib, an oral dual PI3K-δ,γ inhibitor, demonstrated significantly improved efficacy versus ofatumumab [median (m) progression-free survival (PFS), 13.3 vs. 9.9 months (HR, 0.52; P < 0.0001); overall response rate [ORR], 74% vs. 45% (P < 0.0001)], with a manageable safety profile in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). We report results from patients with progressive disease (PD) after ofatumumab who crossed over to duvelisib in the DUO trial. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with radiographically confirmed PD after ofatumumab received duvelisib 25 mg twice daily in 28-day cycles until PD, intolerance, death, or study withdrawal. The primary endpoint was ORR per investigator. Secondary endpoints included duration of response (DOR), PFS, and safety. RESULTS: As of December 14, 2018, 90 ofatumumab-treated patients in the DUO trial prior to crossover had an ORR of 29%, mDOR of 10.4 months, and mPFS of 9.4 months. After crossover, 77% of patients (69/90) achieved a response, with an mDOR of 14.9 months and mPFS of 15.7 months. Patients with del(17p) and/or TP53 mutations had similar outcomes [ORR, 77% (20/26); mPFS, 14.7 months]. Notably, 73% of patients (47/64) with disease previously refractory to ofatumumab achieved a response. The most frequent any-grade/grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were diarrhea (47%/23%), neutropenia (26%/23%), pyrexia (24%/4%), cutaneous reactions (23%/4%), and thrombocytopenia (10%/6%). CONCLUSION: Duvelisib demonstrated high response rates with good durability and a manageable safety profile in patients with R/R CLL/SLL who progressed on ofatumumab, including patients with high-risk disease and disease previously refractory to ofatumumab.

9.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919090

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing studies in Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have revealed novel genetic variants that have been associated with disease characteristics and outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of recurrent molecular abnormalities in patients with CLL. Therefore, we assessed their incidences and associations with other clinical and genetic markers in the prospective multicenter COMPLEMENT1 trial (treatment naive patients not eligible for intensive treatment randomized to chlorambucil (CHL) vs. ofatumumab-CHL (O-CHL)). Baseline samples were available from 383 patients (85.6%) representative of the total trial cohort. Mutations were analyzed by amplicon-based targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS). In 52.2% of patients we found at least one mutation and the incidence was highest in NOTCH1 (17.0%), followed by SF3B1 (14.1%), ATM (11.7%), TP53 (10.2%), POT1 (7.0%), RPS15 (4.4%), FBXW7 (3.4%), MYD88 (2.6%) and BIRC3 (2.3%). While most mutations lacked prognostic significance, TP53 (HR2.02,p<0.01), SF3B1 (HR1.66,p=0.01) and NOTCH1 (HR1.39,p=0.03) were associated with inferior PFS in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent prognostic role of TP53 for PFS (HR1.71,p=0.04) and OS (HR2.78,p=0.02) and of SF3B1 for PFS only (HR1.52,p=0.02). Notably, NOTCH1 mutation status separates patients with a strong and a weak benefit from ofatumumab addition to CHL (NOTCH1wt:HR0.50,p<0.01, NOTCH1mut:HR0.81,p=0.45). In summary, TP53 and SF3B1 were confirmed as independent prognostic and NOTCH1 as a predictive factor for reduced ofatumumab efficacy in a randomized chemo (immune)therapy CLL trial. These results validate NGS-based mutation analysis in a multicenter trial and provide a basis for expanding molecular testing in the prognostic workup of patients with CLL. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00748189.

10.
Blood ; 135(6): 411-428, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794600

RESUMO

Spontaneous regression is a recognized phenomenon in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but its biological basis remains unknown. We undertook a detailed investigation of the biological and clinical features of 20 spontaneous CLL regression cases incorporating phenotypic, functional, transcriptomic, and genomic studies at sequential time points. All spontaneously regressed tumors were IGHV-mutated with no restricted IGHV usage or B-cell receptor (BCR) stereotypy. They exhibited shortened telomeres similar to nonregressing CLL, indicating prior proliferation. They also displayed low Ki-67, CD49d, cell-surface immunoglobulin M (IgM) expression and IgM-signaling response but high CXCR4 expression, indicating low proliferative activity associated with poor migration to proliferation centers, with these features becoming increasingly marked during regression. Spontaneously regressed CLL displayed a transcriptome profile characterized by downregulation of metabolic processes as well as MYC and its downstream targets compared with nonregressing CLL. Moreover, spontaneous regression was associated with reversal of T-cell exhaustion features including reduced programmed cell death 1 expression and increased T-cell proliferation. Interestingly, archetypal CLL genomic aberrations including HIST1H1B and TP53 mutations and del(13q14) were found in some spontaneously regressing tumors, but genetic composition remained stable during regression. Conversely, a single case of CLL relapse following spontaneous regression was associated with increased BCR signaling, CLL proliferation, and clonal evolution. These observations indicate that spontaneously regressing CLL appear to undergo a period of proliferation before entering a more quiescent state, and that a complex interaction between genomic alterations and the microenvironment determines disease course. Together, the findings provide novel insight into the biological processes underpinning spontaneous CLL regression, with implications for CLL treatment.

12.
Blood ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876911

RESUMO

Therapeutic targeting of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) has dramatically improved survival outcomes for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). Acalabrutinib is an oral, highly selective BTK inhibitor that allows for twice-daily dosing due to its selectivity. In this phase 1b/2 study, 134 patients with relapsed/refractory CLL or SLL (median age, 66 years [range, 42-85]; median prior therapies, 2 [range, 1-13]) received acalabrutinib 100 mg twice daily for a median of 41 months (range, 0.2-58). Median trough BTK occupancy at steady-state was 97%. Most adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate and were most commonly diarrhea (52%) and headache (51%). Grade {greater than or equal to}3 AEs (occurring in {greater than or equal to}5% of patients) were neutropenia (14%), pneumonia (11%), hypertension (7%), anemia (7%), and diarrhea (5%). Atrial fibrillation and major bleeding AEs (all grades) occurred in 7% and 5% of patients, respectively. Most patients (56%) remain on treatment; the primary reasons for discontinuation were progressive disease (21%) and AEs (11%). The overall response rate, including partial response with lymphocytosis, with acalabrutinib was 94%; responses were similar regardless of genomic features (presence of del(11)(q22.3), del(17)(p13.1), complex karyotype, or immunoglobulin variable region heavy chain mutation status). Median duration of response and progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reached; the estimated 45-month PFS was 62% (95% CI, 51%-71%). BTK mutation was detected in 6/9 (67%) patients at relapse. This updated and expanded study confirms the efficacy, durability of response, and long-term safety of acalabrutinib, justifying its further investigation in previously untreated and treated patients with CLL/SLL. (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02029443).

13.
Leukemia ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628428

RESUMO

RESONATE-2 is a phase 3 study of first-line ibrutinib versus chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Patients aged ≥65 years (n = 269) were randomized 1:1 to once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg continuously or chlorambucil 0.5-0.8 mg/kg for ≤12 cycles. With a median (range) follow-up of 60 months (0.1-66), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) benefits for ibrutinib versus chlorambucil were sustained (PFS estimates at 5 years: 70% vs 12%; HR [95% CI]: 0.146 [0.098-0.218]; OS estimates at 5 years: 83% vs 68%; HR [95% CI]: 0.450 [0.266-0.761]). Ibrutinib benefit was also consistent in patients with high prognostic risk (TP53 mutation, 11q deletion, and/or unmutated IGHV) (PFS: HR [95% CI]: 0.083 [0.047-0.145]; OS: HR [95% CI]: 0.366 [0.181-0.736]). Investigator-assessed overall response rate was 92% with ibrutinib (complete response, 30%; 11% at primary analysis). Common grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) included neutropenia (13%), pneumonia (12%), hypertension (8%), anemia (7%), and hyponatremia (6%); occurrence of most events as well as discontinuations due to AEs decreased over time. Fifty-eight percent of patients continue to receive ibrutinib. Single-agent ibrutinib demonstrated sustained PFS and OS benefit versus chlorambucil and increased depth of response over time.

14.
Am J Hematol ; 94(12): 1353-1363, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512258

RESUMO

Ibrutinib, a once-daily oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, is approved in the United States and Europe for treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The phase 3 RESONATE study showed improved efficacy of single-agent ibrutinib over ofatumumab in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL, including those with high-risk features. Here we report the final analysis from RESONATE with median follow-up on study of 65.3 months (range, 0.3-71.6) in the ibrutinib arm. Median progression-free survival (PFS) remained significantly longer for patients randomized to ibrutinib vs ofatumumab (44.1 vs 8.1 months; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.148; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.113-0.196; P˂.001). The PFS benefit with ibrutinib vs ofatumumab was preserved in the genomic high-risk population with del(17p), TP53 mutation, del(11q), and/or unmutated IGHV status (median PFS 44.1 vs 8.0 months; HR: 0.110; 95% CI: 0.080-0.152), which represented 82% of patients. Overall response rate with ibrutinib was 91% (complete response/complete response with incomplete bone marrow recovery, 11%). Overall survival, censored for crossover, was better with ibrutinib than ofatumumab (HR: 0.639; 95% CI: 0.418-0.975). With up to 71 months (median 41 months) of ibrutinib therapy, the safety profile remained consistent with prior reports; cumulatively, all-grade (grade ≥3) hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred in 21% (9%) and 12% (6%) of patients, respectively. Only 16% discontinued ibrutinib because of adverse events (AEs). These long-term results confirm the robust efficacy of ibrutinib in relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL irrespective of high-risk clinical or genomic features, with no unexpected AEs. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01578707).

15.
Blood Adv ; 3(16): 2474-2481, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434681

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with mutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes (IGHV-M), particularly those lacking poor-risk genomic lesions, often respond well to chemoimmunotherapy (CIT). DNA methylation profiling can subdivide early-stage patients into naive B-cell-like CLL (n-CLL), memory B-cell-like CLL (m-CLL), and intermediate CLL (i-CLL), with differing times to first treatment and overall survival. However, whether DNA methylation can identify patients destined to respond favorably to CIT has not been ascertained. We classified treatment-naive patients (n = 605) from 3 UK chemo and CIT clinical trials into the 3 epigenetic subgroups, using pyrosequencing and microarray analysis, and performed expansive survival analysis. The n-CLL, i-CLL, and m-CLL signatures were found in 80% (n = 245/305), 17% (53/305), and 2% (7/305) of IGHV-unmutated (IGHV-U) cases, respectively, and in 9%, (19/216), 50% (108/216), and 41% (89/216) of IGHV-M cases, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional analysis identified m-CLL as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.87; P = .018) in CLL4, and for progression-free survival (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.57; P = .002) in ARCTIC and ADMIRE patients. The analysis of epigenetic subgroups in patients entered into 3 first-line UK CLL trials identifies m-CLL as an independent marker of prolonged survival and may aid in the identification of patients destined to demonstrate prolonged survival after CIT.

16.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(11): 715-722.e6, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain genomic features, such as del(11q), expression of unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) gene, or complex karyotype, predict poorer outcomes to chemotherapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined the pooled long-term follow-up data from PCYC-1115 (RESONATE-2), PCYC-1112 (RESONATE), and CLL3001 (HELIOS), comprising a total of 1238 subjects, to determine the prognostic significance of these markers in patients treated with ibrutinib. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 47 months, ibrutinib-treated patients had longer progression-free survival (PFS) than patients treated in the comparator arm, regardless of genomic risk factors. Among patients treated with ibrutinib, we found that high-risk genomic features were not associated with shorter PFS (63-75% across all subgroups at 42 months) or overall survival (79-83% across all subgroups at 42 months). Surprisingly, we observed that ibrutinib-treated patients with del(11q) actually had a significantly longer PFS than ibrutinib-treated patients without del(11q) (42-month PFS rate 70% vs. 65%, P = .02). CONCLUSION: These analyses not only demonstrate that genomic risk factors previously associated with poor outcomes lose their adverse prognostic significance but also that del(11q) can be associated with a superior PFS with ibrutinib therapy.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(30): 2722-2729, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been revolutionized by targeted therapies that either inhibit proliferation (ibrutinib) or reactivate apoptosis (venetoclax). Both significantly improve survival in CLL and replace chemoimmunotherapy for many patients. However, individually, they rarely lead to eradication of measurable residual disease (MRD) and usually are taken indefinitely or until progression. We present the CLARITY trial that combined ibrutinib with venetoclax to eradicate detectable CLL with the intention of stopping therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CLARITY is a phase II trial that combined ibrutinib with venetoclax in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. The primary end point was eradication of MRD after 12 months of combined therapy. Key secondary end points were response by International Workshop on CLL criteria, safety, and progression-free and overall survival. RESULTS: In 53 patients after 12 months of ibrutinib plus venetoclax, MRD negativity (fewer than one CLL cell in 10,000 leukocytes) was achieved in the blood of 28 (53%) and the marrow of 19 (36%). Forty-seven patients (89%) responded, and 27 (51%) achieved a complete remission. After a median follow-up of 21.1 months, one patient progressed, and all patients were alive. A single case of biochemical tumor lysis syndrome was observed. Other adverse effects were mild and/or manageable and most commonly were neutropenia or GI events. CONCLUSION: The combination of ibrutinib plus venetoclax was well tolerated in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. There was a high rate of MRD eradication that led to the cessation of therapy in some patients. The progression-free and overall survival rates are encouraging for relapsed and refractory CLL.

19.
Blood Adv ; 3(12): 1799-1807, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196847

RESUMO

Ibrutinib, a first-in-class once-daily oral Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is continued until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. We conducted an integrated safety analysis of single-agent ibrutinib from randomized phase 3 studies PCYC-1112 (RESONATE, n = 195) and PCYC-1115/1116 (RESONATE-2, n = 135), and examined longer-term safety separately in the phase 1b/2 PCYC-1102/1103 study (n = 94, 420 mg/d). In the integrated analysis (ibrutinib treatment up to 43 months), the most common adverse events (AEs) were primarily grade 1/2; diarrhea (n = 173, 52% any-grade; n = 15, 5% grade 3) and fatigue (n = 119, 36% any-grade; n = 10, 3% grade 3). The most common grade 3/4 AEs were neutropenia (n = 60, 18%) and pneumonia (n = 38, 12%). Over time, prevalence of AEs of interest (diarrhea, fatigue, grade ≥3 infection, bleeding, and neutropenia) trended down; prevalence of hypertension increased, but incidence decreased after year 1. AEs led to dose reductions in 42 (13%) patients and permanent discontinuations in 37 (11%); dose modifications due to AEs were most common during year 1 and decreased in frequency thereafter. The most common AEs (preferred term) contributing to discontinuation included pneumonia (n = 4), anemia (n = 3), and atrial fibrillation (n = 3). With long-term follow-up on PCYC-1102/1103 (ibrutinib treatment up to 67 months), grade 3/4 AEs were generally similar to those in the integrated analysis. Overall, AEs were primarily grade 1/2 and manageable during prolonged ibrutinib treatment in patients with CLL. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01578707, #NCT01722487, #NCT01724346, #NCT01105247, and #NCT01109069.

20.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(7): e366-e374, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically validated prognostic models for overall survival do not exist for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who are on targeted therapies. We aimed to create a prognostic model to identify high-risk individuals who do not achieve a good outcome with available targeted therapies. METHODS: In this retrospective, pooled cohort study, 2475 patients with CLL treated between June 22, 2012, and Sept 23, 2015, in six randomised trials of ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax, or at the Mayo Clinic CLL Database (MCCD) were included. Eligible patients had CLL, were previously treated, were aged 18 years or older, had ECOG performance status 0-1, and required further treatment as per the international workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. There was heterogeneity in other eligibility criteria. We evaluated 28 candidate factors known to affect the overall survival of these patients and applied univariate and multivariate analyses to derive the risk score in a training dataset (n=727) of patients treated with ibrutinib or chemoimmunotherapy. We validated the score in an internal-validation dataset (n=242) of patients treated with ibrutinib or chemoimmunotherapy and three external-validation datasets (idelalisib or chemoimmunotherapy dataset, n=897; venetoclax or chemoimmunotherapy dataset, n=389; and the MCCD [including patients treated with heterogeneous therapies], n=220), applying C-statistics as a measure of discrimination. FINDINGS: The derived model consisted of four factors (one point each; serum ß2-microglobulin ≥5 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase >upper limit of normal, haemoglobin <110 g/L for women or <120 g/L for men, and time from initiation of last therapy <24 months), separating patients into low (score 0-1), intermediate (score 2-3), and high risk (score 4) groups. The risk score was prognostic for overall survival in the training dataset (CS=0·74, 95% CI 0·60-0·85, log-rank p<0·0001), and in the internal-validation (CS=0·79, 0·56-0·97, log-rank p=0·0003), and all three external-validation cohorts (idelalisib or chemoimmunotherapy: CS=0·71, 0·59-0·81, log-rank p<0·0001; venetoclax or chemoimmunotherapy: CS =0·76, 0·66-0·85, log-rank p=0·014; MCCD cohort: CS=0·61, 0·56-0·66), log-rank p<0·0001). The risk score is available on Calculate by QxMD. INTERPRETATION: We present the first validated risk score to predict overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL treated with targeted therapy. The model is applicable to patients treated with all currently approved targeted therapies (ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax) and chemoimmunotherapy. This tool allows the identification of a well defined cohort of previously treated patients with CLL who are at high risk of death, and could be used in future prospective trials to test therapeutic options for these patients with an unmet clinical need. FUNDING: Lymphoma Research Foundation, Lymphoma Research Fund (Andrew D Zelenetz), and National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microglobulina beta-2/sangue
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