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1.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 166, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739789

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors provided an updated accession number in the "Availability of data and materials" section of the declarations.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(8): 2535-2543, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706485

RESUMO

Mobile health and web applications (apps), wearables, and other personal monitoring devices have tremendous potential to improve the management of asthma. More than 500 asthma-related apps, whether standalone or paired with sensors on inhalers, are currently available for health education, symptom recording, tracking of inhaler use, displaying environmental alerts, and providing medication reminders. Benefits of these tools include the ability to longitudinally collect symptom, trigger, and inhaler usage data, allowing the detection of significant changes over time to help patients and their caregivers determine whether symptoms are worsening. In addition, data from external information sources, including weather, allergen, and air quality reports, can be integrated with user-specific data to enhance predictions on when patients may experience symptoms and/or need to avoid triggers. Barriers to adoption of asthma-related apps and inhaler-based devices include uncertain efficacy and effectiveness, potential high cost, sustained user engagement, and concerns about privacy. Moreover, ensuring the acceptability and utility of asthma management apps for individuals of all races/ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, ages, genders, and literacy levels is necessary. Based on studies thus far, mobile health apps and inhaler-based devices have great potential to serve as useful tools in the patient-doctor relationship and revolutionize asthma care.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is associated with asthma and that these associations differ by asthma subtype. Little is known about the shared genetic components between obesity and asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify shared genetic associations between obesity-related traits and asthma subtypes in adults. METHODS: A cross-trait genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using 457,822 subjects of European ancestry from the UK Biobank. Experimental evidence to support the role of genes significantly associated with both obesity-related traits and asthma through a GWAS was sought by using results from obese versus lean mouse RNA sequencing and RT-PCR experiments. RESULTS: We found a substantial positive genetic correlation between body mass index and later-onset asthma defined by asthma age of onset at 16 years or greater (Rg = 0.25, P = 9.56 × 10-22). Mendelian randomization analysis provided strong evidence in support of body mass index causally increasing asthma risk. Cross-trait meta-analysis identified 34 shared loci among 3 obesity-related traits and 2 asthma subtypes. GWAS functional analyses identified potential causal relationships between the shared loci and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) quantitative trait loci and shared immune- and cell differentiation-related pathways between obesity and asthma. Finally, RNA sequencing data from lungs of obese versus control mice found that 2 genes (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase-like [ACOXL] and myosin light chain 6 [MYL6]) from the cross-trait meta-analysis were differentially expressed, and these findings were validated by using RT-PCR in an independent set of mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our work identified shared genetic components between obesity-related traits and specific asthma subtypes, reinforcing the hypothesis that obesity causally increases the risk of asthma and identifying molecular pathways that might underlie both obesity and asthma.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13384-13393, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213543

RESUMO

Sensing misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cells initiate the ER stress response and, when overwhelmed, undergo apoptosis. However, little is known about how cells prevent excessive ER stress response and cell death to restore homeostasis. Here, we report the identification and characterization of cellular suppressors of ER stress-induced apoptosis. Using a genome-wide CRISPR library, we screen for genes whose inactivation further increases ER stress-induced up-regulation of C/EBP homologous protein 10 (CHOP)-the transcription factor central to ER stress-associated apoptosis. Among the top validated hits are two interacting components of the polycomb repressive complex (L3MBTL2 [L(3)Mbt-Like 2] and MGA [MAX gene associated]), and microRNA-124-3 (miR-124-3). CRISPR knockout of these genes increases CHOP expression and sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by multiple ER stressors, while overexpression confers the opposite effects. L3MBTL2 associates with the CHOP promoter in unstressed cells to repress CHOP induction but dissociates from the promoter in the presence of ER stress, whereas miR-124-3 directly targets the IRE1 branch of the ER stress pathway. Our study reveals distinct mechanisms that suppress ER stress-induced apoptosis and may lead to a better understanding of diseases whose pathogenesis is linked to overactive ER stress response.

6.
Per Med ; 16(3): 247-257, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760118

RESUMO

Personalized medicine is being realized by our ability to measure biological and environmental information about patients. Much of these data are being stored in electronic health records yielding big data that presents challenges for its management and analysis. Here, we review several areas of knowledge that are necessary for next-generation scientists to fully realize the potential of biomedical big data. We begin with an overview of big data and its storage and management. We then review statistics and data science as foundational topics followed by a core curriculum of artificial intelligence, machine learning and natural language processing that are needed to develop predictive models for clinical decision making. We end with some specific training recommendations for preparing next-generation scientists for biomedical big data.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1400, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710127

RESUMO

The widespread use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cig) is a growing public health concern. Diacetyl and its chemical cousin 2,3-pentanedione are commonly used to add flavors to e-cig; however, little is known about how the flavoring chemicals may impair lung function. Here we report that the flavoring chemicals induce transcriptomic changes and perturb cilia function in the airway epithelium. Using RNA-Seq, we identified a total of 163 and 568 differentially expressed genes in primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells that were exposed to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, respectively. DAVID pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of cellular pathways involved in cytoskeletal and cilia processes among the set of common genes (142 genes) perturbed by both diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Consistent with this, qRT-PCR confirmed that the expression of multiple genes involved in cilia biogenesis was significantly downregulated by diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in NHBE cells. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining showed that the number of ciliated cells was significantly decreased by the flavoring chemicals. Our study indicates that the two widely used e-cig flavoring chemicals impair the cilia function in airway epithelium and likely contribute to the adverse effects of e-cig in the lung.

8.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 61(1): 110-120, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694689

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids, commonly used asthma controller medications, decrease symptoms in most patients, but some remain symptomatic despite high-dose treatment. The physiological basis underlying the glucocorticoid response, especially in asthma patients with severe, refractory disease, is not fully understood. We sought to identify differences between the transcriptomic response of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells derived from donors with fatal asthma and donors without asthma to glucocorticoid exposure and to compare ASM-specific changes with those observed in other cell types. In cells derived from nine donors with fatal asthma and eight donors without asthma, RNA sequencing was used to measure ASM transcriptome changes after exposure to budesonide (100 nM 24 h) or control vehicle (DMSO). Differential expression results were obtained for this dataset, as well as 13 publicly available glucocorticoid-response transcriptomic datasets corresponding to seven cell types. Specific genes were differentially expressed in response to glucocorticoid exposure (7,835 and 6,957 in ASM cells derived from donors with fatal asthma and donors without asthma, respectively; adjusted P value < 0.05). Transcriptomic changes in response to glucocorticoid exposure were similar in ASM derived from donors with fatal asthma and donors without asthma, with enriched ontological pathways that included cytokine- and chemokine-related categories. A comparison of glucocorticoid-induced changes in the nonasthma ASM transcriptome with those observed in six other cell types showed that ASM has a distinct glucocorticoid-response signature that is also present in ASM cells from donors with fatal asthma.

9.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 15, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by the acute onset of hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrates in response to an inciting event, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk for ARDS. We hypothesized that HSCT patients with ARDS would have a unique transcriptomic profile identifiable in peripheral blood compared to those that did not undergo HSCT. METHODS: We isolated RNA from banked peripheral blood samples from a biorepository of critically ill ICU patients. RNA-Seq was performed on 11 patients with ARDS (5 that had undergone HSCT and 6 that had not) and 12 patients with sepsis without ARDS (5 that that had undergone HCST and 7 that had not). RESULTS: We identified 687 differentially expressed genes between ARDS and ARDS-HSCT (adjusted p-value < 0.01), including IFI44L, OAS3, LY6E, and SPATS2L that had increased expression in ARDS vs. ARDS-HSCT; these genes were not differentially expressed in sepsis vs sepsis-HSCT. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that many differentially expressed genes were related to response to type I interferon. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal significant differences in whole blood transcriptomic profiles of patients with non-HSCT ARDS compared to ARDS-HSCT patients and point toward different immune responses underlying ARDS and ARDS-HSCT that contribute to lung injury.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/sangue , Análise de Sequência de RNA/tendências
10.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(1): 1-16, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592451

RESUMO

High-throughput, "next-generation" sequencing methods are now being broadly applied across all fields of biomedical research, including respiratory disease, critical care, and sleep medicine. Although there are numerous review articles and best practice guidelines related to sequencing methods and data analysis, there are fewer resources summarizing issues related to study design and interpretation, especially as applied to common, complex, nonmalignant diseases. To address these gaps, a single-day workshop was held at the American Thoracic Society meeting in May 2017, led by the American Thoracic Society Section on Genetics and Genomics. The aim of this workshop was to review the design, analysis, interpretation, and functional follow-up of high-throughput sequencing studies in respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine research. This workshop brought together experts in multiple fields, including genetic epidemiology, biobanking, bioinformatics, and research ethics, along with physician-scientists with expertise in a range of relevant diseases. The workshop focused on application of DNA and RNA sequencing research in common chronic diseases and did not cover sequencing studies in lung cancer, monogenic diseases (e.g., cystic fibrosis), or microbiome sequencing. Participants reviewed and discussed study design, data analysis and presentation, interpretation, functional follow-up, and reporting of results. This report summarizes the main conclusions of the workshop, specifically addressing the application of these methods in respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine research. This workshop report may serve as a resource for our research community as well as for journal editors and reviewers of sequencing-based manuscript submissions in our research field.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(452)2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068570

RESUMO

The inability to produce perfusable microvasculature networks capable of supporting tissue survival and of withstanding physiological pressures without leakage is a fundamental problem facing the field of tissue engineering. Microvasculature is critically important for production of bioengineered lung (BEL), which requires systemic circulation to support tissue survival and coordination of circulatory and respiratory systems to ensure proper gas exchange. To advance our understanding of vascularization after bioengineered organ transplantation, we produced and transplanted BEL without creation of a pulmonary artery anastomosis in a porcine model. A single pneumonectomy, performed 1 month before BEL implantation, provided the source of autologous cells used to bioengineer the organ on an acellular lung scaffold. During 30 days of bioreactor culture, we facilitated systemic vessel development using growth factor-loaded microparticles. We evaluated recipient survival, autograft (BEL) vascular and parenchymal tissue development, graft rejection, and microbiome reestablishment in autografted animals 10 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months after transplant. BEL became well vascularized as early as 2 weeks after transplant, and formation of alveolar tissue was observed in all animals (n = 4). There was no indication of transplant rejection. BEL continued to develop after transplant and did not require addition of exogenous growth factors to drive cell proliferation or lung and vascular tissue development. The sterile BEL was seeded and colonized by the bacterial community of the native lung.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197105, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758070

RESUMO

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, almost exclusively female lung disease linked to inactivating mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a tumor suppressor gene that controls cell metabolic state and growth via regulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1) signaling. mTORC1 is frequently activated in human cancers and, although the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin has a cytostatic effect, it is, in general, unable to elicit a robust curative effect or tumor regression. Using RNA-Seq, we identified (1) Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF2) as one of the genes with the highest fold-change difference between human TSC2-null and TSC2-expressing angiomyolipoma cells from a patient with LAM, and (2) the mouse IGF2 homolog Igf2, as a top-ranking gene according to fold change between Tsc2-/- and Tsc2+/+ mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We extended transcript-level findings to protein level, observing increased Igf2 protein expression and Igf2 secretion by Tsc2-/- MEFs. Increased Igf2 expression was not due to epigenetic imprinting, but was partially mediated through the Stat3 pathway and was completely insensitive to rapamycin treatment. An siRNA-mediated decrease of Igf2 resulted in decreased Stat3 phosphorylation, suggesting presence of an autocrine Igf2/Stat3 amplification cycle in Tsc2-/- MEFs. In human pulmonary LAM lesions and metastatic cell clusters, high levels of IGF2 were associated with mTORC1 activation. In addition, treatment of three primary IGF2-expressing LAM lung cell lines with rapamycin did not result in IGF2 level changes. Thus, targeting of IGF2 signaling may be of therapeutic value to LAM patients, particularly those who are unresponsive to rapamycin.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/biossíntese , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfangioleiomiomatose , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa
14.
Crit Care Med ; 46(7): 1125-1132, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early prediction of undesired outcomes among newly hospitalized patients could improve patient triage and prompt conversations about patients' goals of care. We evaluated the performance of logistic regression, gradient boosting machine, random forest, and elastic net regression models, with and without unstructured clinical text data, to predict a binary composite outcome of in-hospital death or ICU length of stay greater than or equal to 7 days using data from the first 48 hours of hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with split sampling for model training and testing. SETTING: A single urban academic hospital. PATIENTS: All hospitalized patients who required ICU care at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA, from 2001 to 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among eligible 25,947 hospital admissions, we observed 5,504 (21.2%) in which patients died or had ICU length of stay greater than or equal to 7 days. The gradient boosting machine model had the highest discrimination without (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.81-0.84) and with (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.88-0.90) text-derived variables. Both gradient boosting machines and random forests outperformed logistic regression without text data (p < 0.001), whereas all models outperformed logistic regression with text data (p < 0.02). The inclusion of text data increased the discrimination of all four model types (p < 0.001). Among those models using text data, the increasing presence of terms "intubated" and "poor prognosis" were positively associated with mortality and ICU length of stay, whereas the term "extubated" was inversely associated with them. CONCLUSIONS: Variables extracted from unstructured clinical text from the first 48 hours of hospital admission using natural language processing techniques significantly improved the abilities of logistic regression and other machine learning models to predict which patients died or had long ICU stays. Learning health systems may adapt such models using open-source approaches to capture local variation in care patterns.

15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(12): 1552-1564, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509491

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Albuterol, a bronchodilator medication, is the first-line therapy for asthma worldwide. There are significant racial/ethnic differences in albuterol drug response. OBJECTIVES: To identify genetic variants important for bronchodilator drug response (BDR) in racially diverse children. METHODS: We performed the first whole-genome sequencing pharmacogenetics study from 1,441 children with asthma from the tails of the BDR distribution to identify genetic association with BDR. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified population-specific and shared genetic variants associated with BDR, including genome-wide significant (P < 3.53 × 10-7) and suggestive (P < 7.06 × 10-6) loci near genes previously associated with lung capacity (DNAH5), immunity (NFKB1 and PLCB1), and ß-adrenergic signaling (ADAMTS3 and COX18). Functional analyses of the BDR-associated SNP in NFKB1 revealed potential regulatory function in bronchial smooth muscle cells. The SNP is also an expression quantitative trait locus for a neighboring gene, SLC39A8. The lack of other asthma study populations with BDR and whole-genome sequencing data on minority children makes it impossible to perform replication of our rare variant associations. Minority underrepresentation also poses significant challenges to identify age-matched and population-matched cohorts of sufficient sample size for replication of our common variant findings. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of minority data, despite a collaboration of eight universities and 13 individual laboratories, highlights the urgent need for a dedicated national effort to prioritize diversity in research. Our study expands the understanding of pharmacogenetic analyses in racially/ethnically diverse populations and advances the foundation for precision medicine in at-risk and understudied minority populations.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1469-1478.e2, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants in the chromosomal region 17q21 are consistently associated with asthma. However, mechanistic studies have not yet linked any of the associated variants to a function that could influence asthma, and as a result, the identity of the asthma gene(s) remains elusive. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify and characterize functional variants in the 17q21 locus. METHODS: We used the Exome Aggregation Consortium browser to identify coding (amino acid-changing) variants in the 17q21 locus. We obtained asthma association measures for these variants in both the Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort (16,274 cases and 38,269 matched controls) and the EVE Consortium study (5,303 asthma cases and 12,560 individuals). Gene expression and protein localization were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and fluorescence immunostaining, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies were performed to determine the functional effects of coding variants. RESULTS: Two coding variants (rs2305480 and rs11078928) of the gasdermin B (GSDMB) gene in the 17q21 locus were associated with lower asthma risk in both GERA (odds ratio, 0.92; P = 1.01 × 10-6) and EVE (odds ratio, 0.85; joint PEVE = 1.31 × 10-13). In GERA, rs11078928 had a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.45 in unaffected (nonasthmatic) controls and 0.43 in asthma cases. For European Americans in EVE, the MAF of rs2305480 was 0.45 for controls and 0.39 for cases; for all EVE subjects, the MAF was 0.32 for controls and 0.27 for cases. GSDMB is highly expressed in differentiated airway epithelial cells, including the ciliated cells. We found that, when the GSDMB protein is cleaved by inflammatory caspase-1 to release its N-terminal fragment, potent pyroptotic cell death is induced. The splice variant rs11078928 deletes the entire exon 6, which encodes 13 amino acids in the critical N-terminus, and abolishes the pyroptotic activity of the GSDMB protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a functional asthma variant in the GSDMB gene of the 17q21 locus and implicates GSDMB-mediated epithelial cell pyroptosis in pathogenesis.

17.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 58(5): 575-584, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984468

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), a cytokine whose levels are elevated in the airways of patients with asthma, perpetuates airway inflammation and modulates airway structural cell remodeling. However, the role of TGF-ß1 in excessive airway narrowing in asthma, or airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), remains unclear. In this study, we set out to investigate the direct effects of TGF-ß1 on human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cell shortening and hyperresponsiveness. The dynamics of AHR and single-cell excitation-contraction coupling were measured in human precision-cut lung slices and in isolated HASM cells using supravital microscopy and magnetic twisting cytometry, respectively. In human precision-cut lung slices, overnight treatment with TGF-ß1 significantly augmented basal and carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction. In isolated HASM cells, TGF-ß1 increased basal and methacholine-induced cytoskeletal stiffness in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TGF-ß1-induced single-cell contraction was corroborated by concomitant increases in myosin light chain and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 phosphorylation levels, which were attenuated by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 and pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase. Strikingly, these physiological effects of TGF-ß1 occurred through a RhoA-independent mechanism, with little effect on HASM cell [Ca2+]i levels. Together, our data suggest that TGF-ß1 enhances HASM excitation-contraction coupling pathways to induce HASM cell shortening and hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal a potential link between airway injury-repair responses and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma, and define TGF-ß1 signaling as a potential target to reduce AHR in asthma.

18.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 58(4): 530-541, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262264

RESUMO

Two cAMP signaling compartments centered on adenylyl cyclase (AC) exist in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, one containing ß2-adrenergic receptor AC6 and another containing E prostanoid receptor AC2. We hypothesized that different PDE isozymes selectively regulate cAMP signaling in each compartment. According to RNA-sequencing data, 18 of 24 PDE genes were expressed in primary HASM cells derived from age- and sex-matched donors with and without asthma. PDE8A was the third most abundant of the cAMP-degrading PDE genes, after PDE4A and PDE1A. Knockdown of PDE8A using shRNA evoked twofold greater cAMP responses to 1 µM forskolin in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Overexpression of AC2 did not alter this response, but overexpression of AC6 increased cAMP responses an additional 80%. We examined cAMP dynamics in live HASM cells using a fluorescence sensor. PF-04957325, a PDE8-selective inhibitor, increased basal cAMP concentrations by itself, indicating a significant basal level of cAMP synthesis. In the presence of an AC inhibitor to reduce basal signaling, PF-04957325 accelerated cAMP production and increased the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by isoproterenol, but it had no effect on cAMP concentrations or cell proliferation regulated by prostaglandin E2. Lipid raft fractionation of HASM cells revealed PDE8A immunoreactivity in buoyant fractions containing caveolin-1 and AC5/6 immunoreactivity. Thus, PDE8 is expressed in lipid rafts of HASM cells, where it specifically regulates ß2-adrenergic receptor AC6 signaling without effects on signaling by the E prostanoid receptors 2/4-AC2 complex. In airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PDE8 may represent a novel therapeutic target to modulate HASM responsiveness and airway remodeling.

19.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2018: 1338-1347, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815178

RESUMO

Over 140,000 transcriptomic studies performed in healthy and diseased cell and tissue types, at baseline and after exposure to various agents, are available in public repositories. Integrating results of transcriptomic datasets has been an attractive approach to identify gene expression signatures that are more robust than those obtained for individual datasets, especially datasets with small sample size. We developed Reproducible Analysis and Validation of Expression Data (RAVED), a pipeline that facilitates the creation of R Markdown reports detailing reproducible analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data, and used it to analyze asthma and glucocorticoid response microarray and RNA-Seq datasets. Subsequently, we used three approaches to integrate summary statistics of these studies and identify cell/tissue-specific and global asthma and glucocorticoid-induced gene expression changes. Transcriptomic integration methods were incorporated into an online app called REALGAR, where end-users can specify datasets to integrate and quickly obtain results that may facilitate design of experimental studies.

20.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2018: 1561-1570, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815202

RESUMO

Electronic health record (EHR)-derived data has become an invaluable resource for biomedical research, but is seldom used for the study of the health impacts of social and environmental factors due in part to the unavailability of relevant variables. We describe how EHR-derived data can be enhanced via linking of external sources of social, economic and environmental data when patient-related geospatial information is available, and we illustrate an approach to better understand the geospatial patterns of asthma exacerbation rates in Philadelphia. Specifically, we relate the spatial distribution of asthma exacerbations observed in EHR-derived data to that of known and potential risk factors (i.e., economic deprivation, crime, vehicular traffic, tree cover). Areas of highest risk based on integrated social and environmental data were consistent with an area with increased asthma exacerbations, demonstrating that data external to the EHR can enhance our understanding of negative health-related outcomes.

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