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1.
J Sch Health ; 89(8): 629-635, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of students' heights and weights measured by school staff for body mass index (BMI) screening/reporting has not been established. This study examined school staffs' measurement accuracy, comparing accuracy by staff- and student-level characteristics. METHODS: School staff and researchers measured the height and weight of 1008 4th-8th grade students, within 1 month of each other. Bland-Altman plots, mean differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to examine measurement accuracy. Linear mixed effects models assessed accuracy by staff- and student-level characteristics. RESULTS: Bland-Altman plots revealed no appreciable bias in differences between researcher and staff measurements. The mean absolute difference between researcher and school staff measurements were 1.0 ± 1.6 cm (height), 0.7 ± 1.8 kg (weight), and 0.4 ± 0.8 kg/m2 (BMI). Inter-rater ICC values were ≥0.97, demonstrating "excellent" reliability. Categorical weight status was correctly classified for 94% of students (kappa 0.90), and for 96% with a BMI ≥95th% (kappa 0.94). Physical education (PE) teachers were slightly less accurate than school nurses in measuring height (0.4 cm less accurate; p = .045) and weight (0.4 kg; p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: School staff conducted height/weight measurements on 4th-8th grade students with high accuracy. Resultant school-based BMI reports using similar protocols should validly reflect weight status for almost all students.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(1): 147-156, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In resource-constrained facilities or during resuscitation, immediate paediatric weight estimation remains a fundamental challenge. We aimed to develop and validate weight estimation models based on ulna length and forearm width and circumference measured by simple and portable tools; and to compare them against previous methods (advanced paediatric life support (APLS), Theron and Traub-Johnson formulas). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of anthropometric measurements. Four ulna- and forearm-based weight estimation models were developed in the training set (n 1016). Assessment of bias, precision and accuracy was examined in the validation set (n 457). SETTING: National Children's Study-Formative Research in Anthropometry (2011-2012). SUBJECTS: Multi-racial/ethnic infants and children aged <6 years (n 1473). RESULTS: Developed Models 1-4 had high predictive precision (R 2=0·91-0·97). Mean percentage errors between predicted and measured weight were significantly smaller across the developed models (0·1-0·7 %) v. the APLS, Theron and Traub-Johnson formulas (-1·7, 9·2 and -4·9 %, respectively). Root-mean-squared percentage error was overall smaller among Models 1-4 v. the three existing methods (range=7·5-8·7 v. 9·8-13·3 %). Further, Models 1-4 were within 10 and 20 % of actual weight in 72-87 and 95-99 % of the weight estimations, respectively, which outperformed any of the three existing methods. CONCLUSIONS: Ulna length, forearm width and forearm circumference by simple and portable tools could serve as valid and reliable surrogate measures of weight among infants and children aged <6 years with improved precision over the existing age- or length-based methods. Further validation of these models in physically impaired or non-ambulatory children is warranted.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Antebraço , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ulna , Estados Unidos
3.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 88(1): 79-90, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Childhood stunting is a prevalent problem in low- and middle-income countries and is associated with long-term adverse neurodevelopment and health outcomes. In this review, we define indicators of growth, discuss key challenges in their analysis and application, and offer suggestions for indicator selection in clinical research contexts. METHODS: Critical review of the literature. RESULTS: Linear growth is commonly expressed as length-for-age or height-for-age z-score (HAZ) in comparison to normative growth standards. Conditional HAZ corrects for regression to the mean where growth changes relate to previous status. In longitudinal studies, growth can be expressed as ΔHAZ at 2 time points. Multilevel modeling is preferable when more measurements per individual child are available over time. Height velocity z-score reference standards are available for children under the age of 2 years. Adjusting for covariates or confounders (e.g., birth weight, gestational age, sex, parental height, maternal education, socioeconomic status) is recommended in growth analyses. CONCLUSION: The most suitable indicator(s) for linear growth can be selected based on the number of available measurements per child and the child's age. By following a step-by-step algorithm, growth analyses can be precisely and accurately performed to allow for improved comparability within and between studies.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Antropometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gráficos de Crescimento , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Classe Social
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 105(1): 111-120, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) has long been used in anthropometric assessments of nutritional status in field settings, especially in emergency situations, but percentile ranges for healthy, well-nourished children are currently unavailable. OBJECTIVE: We developed reference curves for MUAC and derived measures of arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) on the basis of the population used in the current CDC body mass index growth charts. DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional MUAC and triceps (triceps skinfold thickness) data from 32,952 US children aged 1-20 y. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape were used to calculate semiparametric smoothed percentiles and L, M, and S coefficients needed for z-score estimation by age and sex. Equations were developed with the use of the height-for-age z score (HAZ) to adjust for the associations of stature with upper arm measures. RESULTS: MUAC increased with age steadily throughout the growing period. For children <5 y old, lower percentile ranges varied markedly across age and sex such that the single cutoff (<11.5 or 12.5 cm) for field screening of acute malnutrition did not track along the same percentile. AFA and AMA growth patterns exhibited sex-specific trends including multiple distinct age-related inflections that were more pronounced in males for AFA-for-age than in females. HAZ and age were substantially and independently related with all arm measures. CONCLUSIONS: The new reference percentile ranges for midupper arm measures for healthy children provide a useful nutritional assessment tool in a wide variety of settings. Height status (HAZ) has complex independent associations with arm measures irrespective of the distributional ranking by age and sex. Prediction equations that account for these effects further extend the practical use of the new curves.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Braço , Composição Corporal , Músculo Esquelético , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Pregas Cutâneas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antropometria/métodos , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 24(7): 1561-71, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27184359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the percentage of body fat (%BF)-BMI relationship, identify %BF levels corresponding to adult BMI cut points, and examine %BF-BMI agreement in a diverse Hispanic/Latino population. METHODS: %BF by bioelectrical impedance analysis was corrected against %BF by (18) O dilution in 434 participants of the ancillary Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Corrected %BF was regressed against 1/BMI in the parent study (n = 15,261), fitting models for each age group, by sex, and Hispanic/Latino background; predicted %BF was then computed for each BMI cut point. RESULTS: Bioelectrical impedance analysis underestimated %BF by 8.7 ± 0.3% in women and 4.6 ± 0.3% in men (P < 0.0001). The %BF-BMI relationship was nonlinear and linear for 1/BMI. Sex- and age-specific regression parameters between %BF and 1/BMI were consistent across Hispanic/Latino backgrounds (P > 0.05). The precision of the %BF-1/BMI association weakened with increasing age in men but not women. The proportion of participants classified as nonobese by BMI but as having obesity by %BF was generally higher among women and older adults (16.4% in women vs. 12.0% in men aged 50-74 years). CONCLUSIONS: %BF was linearly related to 1/BMI with consistent relationship across Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. BMI cut points consistently underestimated the proportion of Hispanics/Latinos with excess adiposity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Neurodev Disord ; 7: 36, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26568773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally adopted children have often experienced early adversity and growth suppression as a consequence of institutional care. Furthermore, these children are at risk for impaired cognitive development due to their early adverse experiences. This study examined the association between physical growth, the growth hormone (GH) system, and general cognitive functioning post-adoption. Based on previous research, we expected to find that a child's initial physical growth status and normalization of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH-IGF-1) axis would be positive predictors of general cognitive functioning. METHODS: Post-institutionalized children (n = 46) adopted from Eastern Europe were seen approximately 1 month after their arrival into the USA to determine baseline measurements. They were seen again 6 and 30 months later for two follow-up sessions. Measures included anthropometry, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Information about parental education was also collected. RESULTS: We found that a child's general cognitive functioning at 30 months post-adoption was predicted by their general developmental scores at 6 months post-adoption, their initial height status, and markers of the growth hormone system. Children with lower initial IGFBP-3 standard deviation (SD) scores had higher verbal IQ scores at 30 months. Furthermore, a child's initial height was found to be a significant positive predictor of non-verbal IQ. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an association between a child's suppressed physical growth in response to early adversity and alterations in GH system functioning and subsequent recovery in cognitive functioning.

7.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 69(7): 632-8, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25680365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and childhood growth remains controversial. An examination on whether infant feeding practices mediate this relationship may improve our understanding of it. METHODS: We investigated whether the relationships among GWG, birth weight and childhood anthropometrics were mediated through infant feeding practices (breastfeeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods) in a cross-sectional multiethnic study of 1387 mothers and their children aged 0-5.9 years in the USA (2011-2012). Child anthropometrics included age-specific and sex-specific z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), height/length-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height/length (WHZ) and body mass index-for-age (BMIZ); and ulnar length, a marker for limb growth. We used structural equation modelling to calculate standardised path coefficients and total, direct and indirect associations of GWG, birth weight and infant feeding practices with child anthropometrics. RESULTS: Maternal GWG had a positive indirect association with all anthropometrics mediated via birth weight, whereas longer breastfeeding duration reduced the positive associations of GWG and birth weight with WAZ, WHZ and BMIZ in non-Hispanics (ß=-0.077, -0.064 and -0.106, respectively). Longer breastfeeding duration and introducing solid foods at a later age were positively associated with ulnar length (ß=0.023 and 0.030, respectively) but not HAZ, suggesting a distinct association, for the first time, with limb growth. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that promoting longer breastfeeding duration among women with excessive GWG who had high birthweight newborns may mitigate the potential for their offspring to develop obesity. In addition, findings reinforce the importance of promoting appropriate GWG and preventing high birth weight, which are positively associated with childhood anthropometrics.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 83(1): 36-44, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25633306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Evidence is unclear whether prenatal smoking affects age at menarche and pubertal development, and its impact upon hormones has not been well studied. We aim to identify potential pathways through which prenatal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affect reproductive hormones in girls approaching puberty. METHODS: We examined the association between prenatal smoking, current ETS and luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B (InB) in 6- to 11-year-old girls in the 3rd National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Parents/guardians completed interviewer-assisted questionnaires on health and demographics at the time of physical examination. Residual blood samples were analyzed for reproductive hormones in 2008. RESULTS: Of 660 girls, 19 and 39% were exposed to prenatal smoke and current ETS, respectively. Accounting for multiple pathways in structural equation models, prenatally exposed girls had significantly lower LH (ß = -0.205 log-mIU/ml, p < 0.0001) and InB (ß = -0.162, log-pg/ml, p < 0.0001). Prenatal smoking also influenced LH positively and InB negatively indirectly through BMI-for-age. ETS was positively associated with LH, but not with InB. CONCLUSION: Exposure to maternal smoking may disrupt reproductive development manifesting in altered hormone levels near puberty.


Assuntos
Inibinas/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Puberdade/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
9.
J Pediatr ; 166(3): 743-50, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25557963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships between peripubertal and pubertal timing and growth, along with glucocorticoid exposure, to the reduced final adult height seen in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). STUDY DESIGN: Chart review of 104 children with classic CAH (41 males: 28 salt-wasting, 13 simple-virilizing; 63 females: 38 salt-wasting, 25 simple-virilizing) were selected from a cohort from 3 medical institutions in Minnesota. Triple logistic modeling of longitudinal data was performed to determine patterns of peripubertal and pubertal growth. RESULTS: Hydrocortisone dose was similar between subtypes and during all growth periods. Simple-virilizing boys (P < .01) and girls (P < .01) were diagnosed later than their salt-wasting counterparts. Height at take-off SDS was reduced for patients with salt-wasting (boys: P < .01; girls: P < .01), and bone age at take-off SDS was more advanced for patients with simple-virilizing (boys: P < .01; girls: P = .05). Bone age at pubertal onset SDS was advanced for all patients, but more so for boys and girls with simple-virilizing. Although all patients had reduced final adult height SDS, this was more pronounced in patients with salt-wasting. CONCLUSION: Reduced final adult height SDS in patients with salt-wasting vs simple-virilizing may be attributable in part to a later age of diagnosis and resultant less prolonged exposure to hydrocortisone. This finding suggests that duration of hydrocortisone treatment in the peripubertal period, independent of the hydrocortisone dose, may affect final adult height in patients with CAH.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Matern Child Health J ; 19(6): 1408-16, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25480471

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to assess the developmental status of children living in the severely adverse environment of institutional care and the examination of risk factors with regard to developmental status, including degree of stunting and emotional-behavioral and anemia status. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess development status in 103 children aged 14.9 months (SD = 6.8) in six Kazakh institutions. The Behavioral Rating Scales were used to assess emotional-behavioral regulation. Physical growth measures were converted to z scores using World Health Organization growth charts. Venous blood was collected for assessment of anemia. Our findings indicated that young children in institutions were developmentally compromised, with duration of institutional care correlated with the severity of delay. Negative predictors of developmental status included: Poor emotional-behavioral regulation, degree of stunting and age at assessment. A particularly large percentage of children were found to be anemic. Additionally, low birth weight was found to be a significant negative predictor of development. Our findings indicate that institutional care has a detrimental impact on the development and emotional regulation of young children. Time in institutional care is a negative predictor for cognitive status for children placed at birth. Moreover stunting was found to be a useful indicator of the degree of impact of early adversity on cognitive development. Particular attention is needed for special-needs children such as those with low birth weight, since their development was found to be more sensitive to early adversity than that of normal birth weight children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança Institucionalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Crianças Órfãs/psicologia , Crianças Órfãs/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 28(1-2): 111-5, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25153568

RESUMO

The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3-10 years old, were recruited (n=60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n=15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n=17), and controls (n=28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (p<0.05). Age-adjusted head circumference (HC) was significantly smaller (p<0.05) in IAs. Insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a marker of growth hormone action, was higher in US neglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (p<0.05) between control and US neglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system.


Assuntos
Adoção , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Adoção/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 115(3): 353-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25300225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast density is an established predictor of breast cancer risk, and there is considerable interest in associations of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet, with breast density. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary energy density (ED) is associated with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in young women. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with women who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study. %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Diet was assessed by three 24-hour recalls. Dietary ED (kilocalories/gram) was calculated using three methods: food only, food and caloric beverages, and food and all beverages. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: One hundred seventy-two women (aged 25 to 29 years) who were enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study. Participants who reported breast augmentation or reduction surgery or were pregnant or lactating within 3 months before breast density assessment were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ADBV and %DBV. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used. Final models were adjusted for race, smoking status, education, parity, duration of sex hormone use, whole body percent fat, childhood body mass index z score, and energy from beverages. RESULTS: After adjustment, each 1 kcal/g unit increase in food-only ED was associated with a 25.9% (95% CI 6.2% to 56.8%) increase in %DBV (P=0.01). Childhood body mass index z score modified the association between food-only ED and %DBV such that a significant positive association was observed only in women who were heavier as children. Food-only ED was not associated with ADBV in all women, but a borderline significant positive association was observed in women who had higher childhood body mass index z scores. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to suggest a potential role for dietary ED in breast density; the effects of long-term exposure to high-ED diets on breast cancer risk remain unknown.


Assuntos
Mama/anatomia & histologia , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mama/ultraestrutura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Análise Multivariada
13.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 65(2-3): 175-83, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25413656

RESUMO

Using serial data from the Fels Longitudinal Study, we investigated the effects of early and late attainment of the peak height velocity (PHV) in childhood on the timing of the appearance of the metabolic syndrome later in life. We aimed to show if early attainment of PHV engenders greater risks for chronic diseases in boys than in girls. Therefore, we defined those boys and girls in sex-specific quartiles of the study population that were slowest to attain PHV as having a slow tempo of development, and those in the growth that most rapidly attained PHV as having a rapid tempo of development. Boys who experienced an early onset of PHV tended to have a higher risk for the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and impaired fasting glucose than those who had late onset of PHV. Girls who had an early onset of PHV tended to develop more abdominal obesity than females who had a late onset of PHV.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Pediatr Res ; 76(6): 564-70, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25192395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hormonal indicators could be useful for detecting early pubertal onset, but there is little research on how they are related to puberty in U.S. girls. We determined median age at hormonal onset of puberty based on luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B (InB) and explored the extent to which body composition moderates this timing process. METHODS: We analyzed anthropometric and hormone data of 698 US peri-pubertal girls ages 6-11.99 y who had participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994. RESULTS: Median age of hormonal onset of puberty was 10.43 y by LH and 10.08 y by InB cut-offs (1.04 mIU/ml for LH and 17.89 pg/ml for InB). Postnatal weight gain modulated onset, making it earlier by 10-11 mo among the highest (greater than +1 SD) relative to normal weight gainers. Onset occurred first in non-Hispanic black (NHB) girls, 10.08 y (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.07-10.09), followed by Mexican-American (MXAM) at 10.64 y (95% CI: 10.63-10.65), and at 10.66 y (95% CI: 10.66-10.67) for non-Hispanic white (NHW) girls using LH. With InB, onset occurred first in MXAM girls at 9.9 y, and at 10.3 y and 10.4 y for their NHB and NHW peers, respectively. CONCLUSION: Preadolescent weight gain lowers the age at hormonal onset as defined by LH concentrations. Preventing obesity in childhood may also avert the earlier initiation of the maturation process even at the hormonal level.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Inibinas/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Puberdade/sangue , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Puberdade/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
15.
J Nutr ; 144(9): 1480-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25031329

RESUMO

Surrogate measures are needed when recumbent length or height is unobtainable or unreliable. Arm span has been used as a surrogate but is not feasible in children with shoulder or arm contractures. Ulnar length is not usually impaired by joint deformities, yet its utility as a surrogate has not been adequately studied. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the accuracy and reliability of ulnar length measured by different tools as a surrogate measure of recumbent length and height. Anthropometrics [recumbent length, height, arm span, and ulnar length by caliper (ULC), ruler (ULR), and grid (ULG)] were measured in 1479 healthy infants and children aged <6 y across 8 study centers in the United States. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models for recumbent length and height were developed by using ulnar length and arm span as surrogate measures. The agreement between the measured length or height and the predicted values by ULC, ULR, ULG, and arm span were examined by Bland-Altman plots. All 3 measures of ulnar length and arm span were highly correlated with length and height. The degree of precision of prediction equations for length by ULC, ULR, and ULG (R(2) = 0.95, 0.95, and 0.92, respectively) was comparable with that by arm span (R(2) = 0.97) using age, sex, and ethnicity as covariates; however, height prediction by ULC (R(2) = 0.87), ULR (R(2) = 0.85), and ULG (R(2) = 0.88) was less comparable with arm span (R(2) = 0.94). Our study demonstrates that arm span and ULC, ULR, or ULG can serve as accurate and reliable surrogate measures of recumbent length and height in healthy children; however, ULC, ULR, and ULG tend to slightly overestimate length and height in young infants and children. Further testing of ulnar length as a surrogate is warranted in physically impaired or nonambulatory children.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Braço , Estatura , Ulna , Estatura/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 99(6): 1487-98, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24760972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics are a heterogeneous group of individuals with a variation in dietary habits that is reflective of their cultural heritage and country of origin. It is important to identify differences in their dietary habits because it has been well established that nutrition contributes substantially to the burden of preventable diseases and early deaths in the United States. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the distribution of usual intakes (of both food groups and nutrients) by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds by using National Cancer Institute methodology. DESIGN: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study that recruited participants who were 18-74 y of age from 4 US cities in 2008-2011 (Miami, Bronx, Chicago, and San Diego). Participants who provided at least one 24-h dietary recall and completed a food propensity questionnaire (n = 13,285) were included in the analyses. Results were adjusted for age, sex, field center, weekend, sequencing, and typical amount of intake. RESULTS: Overall, Cubans (n = 2128) had higher intakes of total energy, macronutrients (including all subtypes of fat), and alcohol than those of other groups. Mexicans (n = 5371) had higher intakes of vitamin C, calcium, and fiber. Lowest intakes of total energy, macronutrients, folate, iron, and calcium were reported by Dominicans (n = 1217), whereas Puerto Ricans (n = 2176) had lowest intakes of vitamin C and fiber. Food-group servings reflected nutrient intakes, with Cubans having higher intakes of refined grains, vegetables, red meat, and fats and Dominicans having higher intakes of fruit and poultry, whereas Puerto Ricans had lowest intakes of fruit and vegetables. Central and South Americans (n = 1468 and 925, respectively) were characterized by being second in their reported intakes of fruit and poultry and the highest in fish intake in comparison with other groups. CONCLUSION: Variations in diet noted in this study, with additional analysis, may help explain diet-related differences in health outcomes observed in Hispanics and Latinos.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente , Saúde da População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pediatr ; 164(5): 1141-1146.e1, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24560184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of the average daily dose of hydrocortisone (HC) on the amount of growth attained in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The effect of glucocorticoid therapy on adult height (AH) in children with CAH has yet to be elucidated. STUDY DESIGN: Triple-logistic models estimating components of growth and maturation were fitted to longitudinal records of 104 patients with classic CAH from 3 pediatric medical centers in Minnesota between 1955 and 2012. A total of 3664 clinical encounters were examined. Random-effects longitudinal models with time-related covariates were used to estimate the effect of HC therapy on linear growth. RESULTS: The predicted AH z-score (-0.7) was similar between the sexes and among CAH subtypes. The mean growth period HC dose was 18.9 ± 5.6 mg/m(2)/day. In the final regression model, HC dose was negatively associated with predicted AH, with each mg/m(2)/day increase in average growth period HC dose predicting a 0.37-cm decrease in AH (P < .004). CONCLUSION: This study has quantified the fractional reduction in predicted final AH with an incremental increase in HC dose. These findings have important clinical implications in the decision making balance between HC replacement dose and adrenal androgen suppression in children with CAH.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Minnesota , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMJ Open ; 4(2): e003768, 2014 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24508849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and body mass index (BMI) values of children (aged 4-10 years), when measured at home by means of newly developed instruction leaflets in comparison with simple estimated parental reports. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with control and intervention group using simple randomisation. SETTING: Belgian children and their parents recruited via schools (multistage cluster sampling design). PARTICIPANTS: 164 Belgian children (53% male; participation rate 62%). INTERVENTION: Parents completed a questionnaire including questions about the height and weight of their child. Parents in the intervention group received instruction leaflets to measure their child's weight and height. Classes were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures up to 2 weeks after parental reports. OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight, height and BMI category of the child were derived from the index measurements and the parental reports. RESULTS: Mean parent-reported weight was slightly more underestimated in the intervention group than in the control group relative to the index weights. However, for all three parameters (weight, height and BMI), correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the intervention group. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity was respectively, 75% and 60% in the intervention group, and 67% and 43% in the control group. Weighed κ for classifying children in the correct BMI category was 0.30 in the control group and was 0.51 in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Although mean parent-reported weight was slightly more underestimated in the intervention than in the control group, correlations were higher and there was considerably less misclassification into valid BMI categories for the intervention group. This pattern suggests that most of the parental deviations from the index measurements were probably due to random errors of measurement and that diagnostic measures could improve by encouraging parents to measure their children's weight and height at home by means of instruction leaflets.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Folhetos , Pais , Bélgica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Child Obes ; 10(1): 50-7, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staged clinical treatment of pediatric obesity is recommended, but untested. Understanding the lowest intensity stage's effectiveness is necessary for future research. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial of children ages 4 to <9 years. Participants were recruited after routine evaluations at a primary care pediatric clinic revealed a BMI ≥85th percentile. The intervention was patterned after the "Prevention plus, Stage 1" treatment recommended by an expert committee. Groups were compared for changes, over a 3-month time period, in BMI z-score and parental reports of behavioral issues related to childhood obesity using intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-two (30% of eligible) children were enrolled and 64 were remeasured at 3-month follow-up. ITT analysis revealed that both groups improved mean BMI z-score [adjusted change -0.07, control, and -0.04, intervention; 95% confidence interval (CI) of difference=-0.14-0.20]. Over half of the children in each group improved their BMI z-score (adjusted proportion decreasing=55% in control vs. 72% in intervention; 95% CI of difference=-0.07-0.42). The intervention group improved comparatively to the control group on numerous behavioral indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the lowest intensity stage of current recommendations is feasible and possibly of benefit toward lifestyle changes. Results of this study can be used by future clinical researchers designing protocols to test the full multi-staged approach for the treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity in primary care clinical settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/educação , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
20.
Infant Ment Health J ; 35(2): 94-101, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25798515

RESUMO

This article describes the nutritional and developmental status of young children living in Baby Houses (orphanages for children ages 0-3 years) in Kazakhstan. In 2009/2010, 308 children under age 3 years living in 10 Baby Houses were measured for height/length and weight. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (N. Bayley, 2006) were used to assess mental and motor development. Blood was collected on a subsample to assess key nutritional factors. The World Health Organization growth charts were used to calculate Z-scores. Cut points for wasting (moderate to severe low weight for length/height growth), underweight (low weight for age), stunting (low length/height for age), development, and biomarkers used established guidelines. Most (n = 286) children had complete data on z-scores. Of these, 22.1% were experiencing wasting, 31.5% were underweight, and 36.7% had stunting. The nutritional status of the children, based on blood biomarkers, revealed that 37.1% of the children were anemic, 21.4% had low albumin, 38.1% had low vitamin D, 5.5% were iodine-deficient, and 2% had low serum zinc. One half had mild to significant mental and motor delays. Children living at these Baby Houses in Kazakhstan have substantial nutritional deficits and developmental delays. Focused attention is needed to provide a nutritionally enhanced diet and improved developmental opportunities to improve the long-term outcomes for these children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Crianças Órfãs/estatística & dados numéricos , Orfanatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Crianças Órfãs/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Iodo/deficiência , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Albumina Sérica/análise , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/sangue
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