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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-16, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify any relationship between hearing loss and mild cognitive impairment. METHOD: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library up to 24 June 2020. Prospective, cohort and cross-sectional, and observational studies that reported on the relationship between mild cognitive impairment and hearing loss were included. RESULTS: A total of 34 studies reporting data on 48 017 participants were included. Twenty-three studies observed a significant association between hearing loss and mild cognitive impairment. The pooled risk ratio across all studies of prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in people with hearing loss was 1.44 (random-effects; 95 per cent CI = 1.27-1.64; p < 0.00001; I2 = 0 per cent). Significantly more people with mild cognitive impairment had peripheral hearing loss compared with those without (risk ratio, 1.40 random-effects; 95 per cent CI = 1.10-1.77; p = 0.005; I2 = 0 per cent). When the incidence was studied, significantly more people with peripheral hearing loss had mild cognitive impairment compared with those without (risk ratio = 2.06 random-effects; 95 per cent CI = 1.35-3.15; p = 0.0008; I2 = 97 per cent); however; a high level of statistical heterogeneity was evident. CONCLUSION: Most of the studies included in this systematic review observed a significant association between hearing loss and mild cognitive impairment.

2.
Tech Coloproctol ; 25(6): 675-682, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pilonidal sinus is a hole in the natal cleft which may cause severe pain and become infected. The evidence base for management of pilonidal sinus is said to be poor quality, poorly focused and rapidly proliferating. We undertook a systematic mapping review to provide a broad overview of the field and support the identification of research priorities. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE from inception to 22nd Nov 2020 for primary research studies focused on the management of pilonidal sinus. We extracted data on study design and categorised studies under five major headings ('non-surgical treatment', 'surgical treatment', 'aftercare' and 'other'), producing frequency counts for different study designs. Gaps in research were identified from published systematic reviews and tabulated. RESULTS: We identified 983 eligible studies, of which 36 were systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses; 121 were randomised controlled trials), and 826 observational studies of various design. The majority of studies evaluated surgical techniques (n = 665), or adjuvant medical interventions (n = 98). The literature on wound care has developed most recently, and the evidence base includes 30% randomised controlled trials. Gaps analysis highlighted comparison of surgical techniques including flaps, laser depilation, and wound care interventions as potential areas for randomised controlled trials. CONCLUSIONS: This mapping review summarises eight decades of research on the management of pilonidal sinus. Further research is needed to identify front-running interventions, understand variation in practice and patient values, and to prioritise future research.


Assuntos
Remoção de Cabelo , Seio Pilonidal , Dermatopatias , Humanos , Seio Pilonidal/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Cicatrização
3.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting genetic condition in which daily therapies to maintain lung health are critical, yet treatment adherence is low. Previous interventions to increase adherence have been largely unsuccessful and this is likely due to a lack of focus on behavioural evidence and theory alongside input from people with CF. This intervention is based on a digital platform that collects and displays objective nebuliser adherence data. The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific components of an intervention to increase and maintain adherence to nebuliser treatments in adults with CF with a focus on reducing effort and treatment burden. METHODS: Intervention development was informed by the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) and person-based approach (PBA). A multidisciplinary team conducted qualitative research to inform a needs analysis, selected, and refined intervention components and methods of delivery, mapped adherence-related barriers and facilitators, associated intervention functions and behaviour change techniques, and utilised iterative feedback to develop and refine content and processes. RESULTS: Results indicated that people with CF need to understand their treatment, be able to monitor adherence, have treatment goals and feedback and confidence in their ability to adhere, have a treatment plan to develop habits for treatment, and be able to solve problems around treatment adherence. Behaviour change techniques were selected to address each of these needs and were incorporated into the digital intervention developed iteratively, alongside a manual and training for health professionals. Feedback from people with CF and clinicians helped to refine the intervention which could be tailored to individual patient needs. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention development process is underpinned by a strong theoretical framework and evidence base and was developed by a multidisciplinary team with a range of skills and expertise integrated with substantial input from patients and clinicians. This multifaceted development strategy has ensured that the intervention is usable and acceptable to people with CF and clinicians, providing the best chance of success in supporting people with CF with different needs to increase and maintain their adherence. The intervention is being tested in a randomised controlled trial across 19 UK sites.

4.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(1): 7-17, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418300

RESUMO

AIM: Recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease is common. Anastomotic configuration may influence recurrence and the mesentery may be key. Recently the Kono-S anastomosis and radical mesenteric excision have been proposed as methods of reducing recurrence. We analysed the literature pertaining to these novel techniques. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library for, and selected, studies evaluating Kono-S anastomosis and/or radical mesenteric excision in Crohn's disease. We assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials and the Joanna Briggs Institute tool for nonrandomized trials. A narrative synthesis was used to summarize the findings. RESULTS: Nine studies (896 patients) were identified. Apart from one randomized controlled trial with a low risk of bias the overall level of evidence was poor (Grade IV). The Kono-S anastomosis was associated with a lower incidence of endoscopic and surgical recurrence (0%-3.4% vs 15%-24.4% respectively). Complications, particularly anastomotic leak rate, were also lower (1.8% vs 9.3% respectively). Evidence from a single poor quality study suggested that mesenteric excision may reduce surgical recurrence rates compared with mesentery preservation. CONCLUSION: The existing literature suggests that the Kono-S anastomosis is safe and may reduce endoscopic and surgical recurrence, but level of evidence is mainly poor. One element of the Kono-S technique, preservation of the mesentery, may be detrimental to recurrence. Further, higher quality, studies are required to investigate these techniques. Such studies should consider the impact of the degree of mesenteric resection in addition to the anastomosis on disease recurrence.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Fístula Anastomótica , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Humanos , Íleo/cirurgia , Mesentério/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva
5.
Colorectal Dis ; 22(12): 2170-2180, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757339

RESUMO

AIM: Randomized trials comparing surgical techniques for rectal prolapse are not always feasible. We assessed whether non-randomized comparisons of those who have had surgery with those still waiting would be confounding baseline health status. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study in seven UK hospitals. Participants were ≥ 18 years and listed for surgical interventions of equivalent intensity for rectal prolapse. They were defined as short or long waiters (≤ 18 or > 18 weeks, respectively). Time on the waiting list was compared with baseline comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index) and change from baseline in health status (EQ-5D-5L) at the time of surgery. RESULTS: In all, 203 patients were analysed. Median (interquartile range) waiting time was 13.7 weeks (8.1, 20.4) varying across sites. Baseline comorbidity was not an important predictor of waiting time. Median Charlson comorbidity index was 2 (0, 3) for short and 1 (0, 3) for long waiters. A change in waiting time by a week was associated with negligible improvement in the EQ-5D-5L index of 0.001 (95% CI -0.000 to 0.003, P = 0.106). CONCLUSION: Negligible change in patient reported health status while on the waiting list and lack of effect of comorbidities in influencing waiting time support the use of non-randomized pre-/post-studies to compare the effects of surgical interventions for rectal prolapse.


Assuntos
Prolapso Retal , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Prolapso Retal/cirurgia , Listas de Espera
6.
Nature ; 584(7822): 579-583, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760001

RESUMO

New Guinea is the world's largest tropical island and has fascinated naturalists for centuries1,2. Home to some of the best-preserved ecosystems on the planet3 and to intact ecological gradients-from mangroves to tropical alpine grasslands-that are unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region4,5, it is a globally recognized centre of biological and cultural diversity6,7. So far, however, there has been no attempt to critically catalogue the entire vascular plant diversity of New Guinea. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, expert-verified checklist of the vascular plants of mainland New Guinea and surrounding islands. Our publicly available checklist includes 13,634 species (68% endemic), 1,742 genera and 264 families-suggesting that New Guinea is the most floristically diverse island in the world. Expert knowledge is essential for building checklists in the digital era: reliance on online taxonomic resources alone would have inflated species counts by 22%. Species discovery shows no sign of levelling off, and we discuss steps to accelerate botanical research in the 'Last Unknown'8.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Classificação/métodos , Ilhas , Plantas/classificação , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Internet , Nova Guiné , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Colorectal Dis ; 22(4): 459-464, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701620

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal recovery describes the restoration of normal bowel function in patients with bowel disease. This may be prolonged in two common clinical settings: postoperative ileus and small bowel obstruction. Improving gastrointestinal recovery is a research priority but researchers are limited by variation in outcome reporting across clinical studies. This protocol describes the development of core outcome sets for gastrointestinal recovery in the contexts of postoperative ileus and small bowel obstruction. METHOD: An international Steering Group consisting of patient and clinician representatives has been established. As overlap between clinical contexts is anticipated, both outcome sets will be co-developed and may be combined to form a common output with disease-specific domains. The development process will comprise three phases, including definition of outcomes relevant to postoperative ileus and small bowel obstruction from systematic literature reviews and nominal-group stakeholder discussions; online-facilitated Delphi surveys via international networks; and a consensus meeting to ratify the final output. A nested study will explore if the development of overlapping outcome sets can be rationalized. DISSEMINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION: The final output will be registered with the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials initiative. A multi-faceted, quality improvement campaign for the reporting of gastrointestinal recovery in clinical studies will be launched, targeting international professional and patient groups, charitable organizations and editorial committees. Success will be explored via an updated systematic review of outcomes 5 years after registration of the core outcome set.


Assuntos
Íleus , Obstrução Intestinal , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Íleus/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
BJS Open ; 3(3): 354-366, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183452

RESUMO

Background: Small bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency, and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality across the world. The literature provides little information on the conservatively managed group. The aim of this study was to describe the burden of small bowel obstruction in the UK. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in 131 acute hospitals in the UK between January and April 2017, delivered by trainee research collaboratives. Adult patients with a diagnosis of mechanical small bowel obstruction were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included complications, unplanned intensive care admission and readmission within 30 days of discharge. Practice measures, including use of radiological investigations, water soluble contrast, operative and nutritional interventions, were collected. Results: Of 2341 patients identified, 693 (29·6 per cent) underwent immediate surgery (within 24 h of admission), 500 (21·4 per cent) had delayed surgery after initial conservative management, and 1148 (49·0 per cent) were managed non-operatively. The mortality rate was 6·6 per cent (6·4 per cent for non-operative management, 6·8 per cent for immediate surgery, 6·8 per cent for delayed surgery; P = 0·911). The major complication rate was 14·4 per cent overall, affecting 19·0 per cent in the immediate surgery, 23·6 per cent in the delayed surgery and 7·7 per cent in the non-operative management groups (P < 0·001). Cox regression found hernia or malignant aetiology and malnutrition to be associated with higher rates of death. Malignant aetiology, operative intervention, acute kidney injury and malnutrition were associated with increased risk of major complication. Conclusion: Small bowel obstruction represents a significant healthcare burden. Patient-level factors such as timing of surgery, acute kidney injury and nutritional status are factors that might be modified to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal/mortalidade , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Doença Aguda , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento Conservador/normas , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Tech Coloproctol ; 23(5): 435-443, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) is a simple chronic inflammatory condition resulting from loose hairs forcibly inserted into vulnerable tissue in the natal cleft. It is an acquired disease with a slight familial tendency. There is no agreement on optimum treatment and the multitude of therapeutic options cannot be compared due to the lack of a universally adopted classification of the disease. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine how presentations of PSD are classified and reported. METHODS: A systematic review of the English language literature was undertaken searching studies published after 1980. RESULTS: Eight classification systems of PSD were identified. Most classification systems were based on anatomical pathology hypotheses. The location and number of sinuses were the main factors defining classification systems. No articles were retrieved that assessed the validity and/or reliability of the classification system employed. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest a correlation between prognosis outcome and subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evidence available from the literature reviewed we have no recommendations regarding the use of the current classification of PSD. A well-recognised and practical classification system to guide clinical practice is required.


Assuntos
Seio Pilonidal/classificação , Humanos , Seio Pilonidal/cirurgia , Prognóstico
11.
Colorectal Dis ; 21(9): 994-1003, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963659

RESUMO

AIM: Closure of a diverting ileostomy following restorative surgery is often associated with significant short-term morbidity and variable long-term bowel function. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate if preoperative stimulation of the defunctioned bowel restores bowel function more quickly after ileostomy closure and improves postoperative outcomes when compared with standard preoperative care. METHOD: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for studies evaluating preoperative bowel stimulation in patients with a temporary ileostomy after low anterior resection or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, regardless of their design, publication type or language. Study selection, data extraction and study assessment were performed by one reviewer and verified by another. Study results were synthesized narratively. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Eight studies involving a total of 267 participants were included. The studies had a moderate to high risk of bias and were of varying methodological quality. Preoperative stimulation of the defunctioned bowel reduced the time to postoperative restoration of bowel function and the length of hospital stay when compared with standard preoperative care. Other functional outcomes and postoperative complication rates were similar to those of standard preoperative care. The overall quality of evidence was very low. CONCLUSION: Despite these promising early results, there is insufficient high-quality evidence to recommend routine implementation of preoperative bowel stimulation in clinical practice. Nevertheless, there is no evidence suggesting that the intervention worsens outcomes or is unsafe, paving the way for rigorous assessment of effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness within the context of well-designed clinical trials.


Assuntos
Ileostomia , Enteropatias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Humanos , Proctocolectomia Restauradora , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Tech Coloproctol ; 22(10): 755-766, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is associated with poor outcomes in surgical patients and corrective enteral feeding may not be possible. This is a particular problem in the acute setting where malnutrition is prevalent. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill surgical patients. METHODS: This review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017079567). Searches of the CENTRAL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were performed using a predefined strategy. Randomised trials published in English since 1995, reporting a comparison of PN vs any comparator in a critically ill surgical population were included. The primary outcome was mortality. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation assessment. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model to assess variation in mortality and length of stay. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs were identified; standard PN was compared vs other forms of PN in ten studies, to PN with variable dose amino acids in one, and to enteral nutrition (EN) in three. In trials comparing glutamine-supplemented PN (PN-GLN) to PN, a non-significant reduction in mortality was noted (risk difference - 0.08. 95% CI - 0.17, 0.01, p = 0.08). A trend for a reduction in length of stay was seen in PN-GLN to PN comparator (mean reduction - 2.4, 95% CI - 7.19 to 2.32 days, I2 = 92%). Impact on other outcome measures varied in direction of effect. CONCLUSIONS: PN may offer benefit in critically ill surgical patients. The size and quality of studies lead to uncertainty around the estimates of clinical effect, meaning a robust trial is required.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Desnutrição , Nutrição Parenteral , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Nutrição Enteral/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desnutrição/terapia , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Tech Coloproctol ; 21(7): 501-519, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One in three patients with Crohn's disease will develop a perianal fistulae, and one third of these will achieve long-term healing or closure. A barrier to conducting well-designed clinical trials for these patients is a lack of understanding of prognostic factors. This systematic review sets out to identify factors associated with prognosis of perianal Crohn's fistulae. METHODS: This review was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42016050316) and conducted in line with PRISMA guidelines along a predefined protocol. English-language studies assessing baseline factors related to outcomes of fistulae treatment in adult patients were included. Searches were performed on MEDLINE and Embase databases. Screening of abstracts and full texts for eligibility was performed prior to extraction of data into predesigned forms. Bias was assessed using the QUIPS tool. RESULTS: Searches identified 997 papers. Following removal of duplicates and secondary searches, 923 were screened for inclusion. Forty-seven papers were reviewed at full-text level and 13, 2 of which were randomised trials, were included in the final qualitative review. Two studies reported distribution of Crohn's disease as a prognostic factor for healing. Two studies found that CARD15 mutations decreased response of fistulae to antibiotics. Complexity of fistulae anatomy was implicated in prognosis by 4 studies. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review has identified potential prognostic markers, including genetic factors and disease behaviour. We cannot, however, draw robust conclusions from this heterogeneous group of studies; therefore, we recommend that a prospective cohort study of well-characterised patients with Crohn's perianal fistulae is undertaken.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/complicações , Fístula Retal/etiologia , Cicatrização , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Prognóstico , Fístula Retal/tratamento farmacológico , Fístula Retal/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
PhytoKeys ; (69): 121-128, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698588

RESUMO

During the course of a recent research project on Adenocaulon and Eriachaenium it became apparent that some of the species names had not been typified. In this study we located and designated as much type material as possible for these two genera. We indicate holotypes or lectotypes where appropriate, including one for the type of the genus Adenocaulon.

16.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 42(10): 1137-48, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26358739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) is recognised treatment for symptomatic Crohn's strictures. Several case series report its efficacy. A systematic analysis for overall efficacy can inform the design of future studies. AIM: To examine symptomatic (SR) and technical response (TR) and adverse events (AE) of EBD. Stricture characteristics were also explored. METHODS: A systematic search strategy of COCHRANE, MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed. All original studies reporting outcomes of EBD for Crohn's strictures were included. SR was defined as obstructive symptom-free outcome at the end of follow-up, TR as post-dilatation passage of the endoscope through a stricture, and adverse event as the presence of complication (perforation and/or bleeding). Pooled event rates across studies were expressed with summative statistics. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies included 1089 patients and 2664 dilatations. Pooled event rates for SR, TR, complications and perforations were 70.2% (95% CI: 60-78.8%), 90.6% (95% CI: 87.8-92.8%), 6.4% (95% CI: 5.0-8.2) and 3% (95% CI: 2.2-4.0%) respectively. Cumulative surgery rate at 5 year follow-up was 75%. Pooled unweighted TR, SR, complication, perforation and surgery rates were 84%, 45%, 15%, 9% and 21% for de novo and 84%, 58%, 22%, 5% and 32% for anastomotic strictures. Outcomes between two stricture types were no different on subgroup meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy and complication rates for endoscopic balloon dilatation were higher than previously reported. From the few studies with 5 year follow-up the majority required surgery. Future studies are needed to determine whether endoscopic balloon dilatation has significant long-term benefits.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/terapia , Dilatação/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Constrição Patológica/terapia , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Dilatação/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 161: 18-29, 2015 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25457988

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Information regarding the beneficial use of native Brazilian plants was compiled by a number of European naturalists in the 19th century. The Scottish surgeon botanist George Gardner (1812-1849) was one such naturalist; however, the useful plants recorded in his manuscripts have not yet been studied in depth. AIM OF THE STUDY: To present data recorded by Gardner in his manuscript Catalogue of Brazilian Plants regarding the use of native plants by Brazilian people and evaluate the extent to which they have been explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on useful plants were obtained from Gardner׳s manuscript Catalogue of Brazilian Plants deposited in the Archives of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. The identification of each plant was determined and/or updated by consulting the preserved botanical collections of Gardner deposited in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (hereafter K), and expert determinations in other herbaria where duplicates are held. Correlated pharmacological studies for each plant were obtained from the PubMed database. Information recorded in Gardner׳s diary and previously published elsewhere complemented these data. RESULTS: A total of 63 useful plants was recorded from the Catalogue and a further 30 from Gardner׳s book Travels in the Interior of Brazil (Gardner, 1846). Of the recorded names in the Catalogue, 46 (73%) could be identified to species by consulting specimens collected by Gardner and held at Kew. Thirty-six different traditional uses were registered for the identified plants, the most common being as febrifuges, to treat venereal complaints and as purgatives. Fewer than 50% of these species have been the focus of published pharmacological studies, yet for those which have been thus investigated, the efficacies reported by Gardner were confirmed. CONCLUSION: The data recorded by Gardner represent a rich, relatively unexplored source of information regarding the traditional uses of Brazilian plants which merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/história , Fitoterapia/história , Plantas Medicinais , Brasil , História do Século XIX , Humanos
19.
Colorectal Dis ; 13(10): 1085-99, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20412095

RESUMO

AIM: Antioxidants, such as vitamin A, C and E, selenium and ß-carotene, have been proposed as possible agents in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer and have been the subject of recent trials and reviews. This review aimed to assess the present evidence on the effect of antioxidants on the incidence of colorectal neoplasms in the general population. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken comparing antioxidants alone or in combination with other agents vs placebo. The following databases were searched for published and unpublished literature: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Biological Abstracts and Research Registers. Studies were quality appraised and extracted. Meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Twelve studies were identified as relevant. In the nine comparing antioxidants with no antioxidants (n=148 922), there was no difference in the incidence of colorectal cancer [relative risk (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.13]. One study assessed the effect of antioxidants on adenoma formation (n=15 538) and did not demonstrate a statistically significant effect (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.97-2.23). Of 14 discrete analyses for different combinations of antioxidants, only one reported a statistically significant increase in relative risk of adenoma formation in participants receiving vitamin E (RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.09-1.79, P=0.02) or vitamin E plus ß-carotene (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01-2.63, P=0.04). Effectiveness did not seem to differ between healthy populations, participants with cardiovascular risk factors or populations exposed to smoking or asbestos. CONCLUSION: The review demonstrates that antioxidants (vitamin A, C and E, selenium and ß-carotene), as single agents, in combination with other antioxidants or in combination with other agents, are not effective in the chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia in the general population. This questions their involvement in future randomized controlled trials of chemoprevention in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Adenoma/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , beta Caroteno/uso terapêutico
20.
Health Technol Assess ; 14(32): 1-206, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20594533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the UK: incidence increases with age, median age at diagnosis being over 70 years. Approximately 25% of cases occur in individuals with a family history of CRC, including 5% caused by familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary non-polyposis CRC (HNPCC). Most develop from adenomatous polyps arising from the intestine lining. Individuals with these polyps undergo polypectomy and are invited for endoscopic surveillance. Screening via faecal occult blood testing has been rolled out across the UK. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of drug and micronutrient interventions for the prevention of CRC and/or adenomatous polyps. Interventions considered include: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors; folic acid; calcium; vitamin D and antioxidants (including vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene). Chemoprevention was assessed in the general population, in individuals at increased risk of CRC, and in individuals with FAP or HNPCC. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing drug and nutritional agents for the prevention of CRC or adenomatous polyps. A separate search identified qualitative studies relating to individuals' views, attitudes and beliefs about chemoprevention. MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, DARE, NHS-EED (NHS Economic Evaluation Database), HTA database, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS previews and the Current Controlled Trials research register were searched in June 2008. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. REVIEW METHODS: The synthesis methods used were systematic review and meta-analysis for RCTs and qualitative framework synthesis for qualitative studies. A health economic model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of chemoprevention for two populations with different levels of risk of developing CRC: the general population and an intermediate-risk population. RESULTS: The search identified 44 relevant RCTs and six ongoing studies. A small study of aspirin in FAP patients produced no statistically significant reduction in polyp number but a possible reduction in polyp size. There was a statistically significant 21% reduction in risk of adenoma recurrence [relative risk (RR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.92] in an analysis of aspirin versus no aspirin in individuals with a history of adenomas or CRC. In the general population, a significant 26% reduction in CRC incidence was demonstrated in studies with a 23-year follow-up (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.97). Non-aspirin NSAID use in FAP individuals produced a non-statistically significant reduction in adenoma incidence after 4 years of treatment and follow-up and reductions in polyp number and size. In individuals with a history of adenomas there was a statistically significant 34% reduction in adenoma recurrence risk (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.72) and a statistically significant 55% reduction in advanced adenoma incidence (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.58). No studies assessed the effect of non-aspirin NSAIDs in the general population. There were no studies of folic acid in individuals with FAP or HNPCC. There was no significant effect of folic acid versus placebo on adenoma recurrence (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.39) or advanced adenoma incidence in individuals with a history of adenomas. In the general population there was no significant effect of folic acid on risk of CRC (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.64), although studies were of relatively short duration. Calcium use by FAP patients produced no significant reduction in polyp number or disease progression. In individuals with a history of adenomas there was a statistically significant 18% reduction in risk of adenoma recurrence (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.98) and a non-significant reduction in risk of advanced adenomas (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.17). In the general population there was no significant effect of calcium on risk of CRC (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.34), although studies were of relatively short duration. There were no studies of antioxidant use in individuals with FAP or HNPCC, and in individuals with a history of adenomas no statistically significant differences in relative risk of adenoma recurrence were found. In the general population there was no difference in incidence of CRC (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.13) with antioxidant use compared with no antioxidant use. Twenty studies reported qualitative findings concerning chemoprevention. People are more likely to use NSAIDs if there is a strong perceived need. Perceptions of risk and benefit also influence decision-making and use. People have fewer concerns about using antioxidants or other supplements, but their perception of the benefits of these agents is less well-defined. The model analysis suggested that the most cost-effective age-range policy in the general population would be to provide chemoprevention to all individuals within the general population from age 50 to 60 years. The use of aspirin in addition to screening within the general population is likely to result in a discounted cost per life-year gained of around 10,000 pounds and a discounted cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of around 23,000 pounds compared with screening alone. In the intermediate-risk group the most economically viable age-range policy would be to provide chemoprevention to individuals following polypectomy aged 61 to 70 years. Calcium is likely to have a discounted cost per QALY gained of around 8000 pounds compared with screening alone. Although aspirin in addition to screening should be more effective and less costly than screening alone, under the current assumptions of benefits to harms of aspirin and calcium, aspirin is expected to be extendedly dominated by calcium. LIMITATIONS: Whilst a number of studies were included in the review, the duration of follow-up was generally insufficient to detect an effect on cancer incidence. Given the uncertainties and ambiguities in the evidence base, the results of the health economic analysis should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin and celecoxib may reduce recurrence of adenomas and incidence of advanced adenomas in individuals with an increased risk of CRC and calcium may reduce recurrence of adenomas in this group. COX-2 inhibitors may decrease polyp number in patients with FAP. There is some evidence for aspirin reducing the incidence of CRC in the general population. Both aspirin and NSAIDs are associated with adverse effects so it will be important to consider the risk-benefit ratio before recommending these agents for chemoprevention. The economic analysis suggests that chemoprevention has the potential to represent a cost-effective intervention, particularly when targeted at intermediate-risk populations following polypectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/economia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Econômicos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , beta Caroteno/uso terapêutico
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