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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008725, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603359

RESUMO

Risk factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in the age-of-onset of allergic diseases are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk variants associated with the age at which symptoms of allergic disease first develop, considering information from asthma, hay fever and eczema. Self-reported age-of-onset information was available for 117,130 genotyped individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. For each individual, we identified the earliest age at which asthma, hay fever and/or eczema was first diagnosed and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this combined age-of-onset phenotype. We identified 50 variants with a significant independent association (P<3x10-8) with age-of-onset. Forty-five variants had comparable effects on the onset of the three individual diseases and 38 were also associated with allergic disease case-control status in an independent study (n = 222,484). We observed a strong negative genetic correlation between age-of-onset and case-control status of allergic disease (rg = -0.63, P = 4.5x10-61), indicating that cases with early disease onset have a greater burden of allergy risk alleles than those with late disease onset. Subsequently, a multivariate GWAS of age-of-onset and case-control status identified a further 26 associations that were missed by the univariate analyses of age-of-onset or case-control status only. Collectively, of the 76 variants identified, 18 represent novel associations for allergic disease. We identified 81 likely target genes of the 76 associated variants based on information from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and non-synonymous variants, of which we highlight ADAM15, FOSL2, TRIM8, BMPR2, CD200R1, PRKCQ, NOD2, SMAD4, ABCA7 and UBE2L3. Our results support the notion that early and late onset allergic disease have partly distinct genetic architectures, potentially explaining known differences in pathophysiology between individuals.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Asma/patologia , Criança , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia
2.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(12): 1091-1102, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Parkinson's disease have increased the scope of biological knowledge about the disease over the past decade. We aimed to use the largest aggregate of GWAS data to identify novel risk loci and gain further insight into the causes of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of 17 datasets from Parkinson's disease GWAS available from European ancestry samples to nominate novel loci for disease risk. These datasets incorporated all available data. We then used these data to estimate heritable risk and develop predictive models of this heritability. We also used large gene expression and methylation resources to examine possible functional consequences as well as tissue, cell type, and biological pathway enrichments for the identified risk factors. Additionally, we examined shared genetic risk between Parkinson's disease and other phenotypes of interest via genetic correlations followed by Mendelian randomisation. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1, 2017, and Aug 9, 2018, we analysed 7·8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 37 688 cases, 18 618 UK Biobank proxy-cases (ie, individuals who do not have Parkinson's disease but have a first degree relative that does), and 1·4 million controls. We identified 90 independent genome-wide significant risk signals across 78 genomic regions, including 38 novel independent risk signals in 37 loci. These 90 variants explained 16-36% of the heritable risk of Parkinson's disease depending on prevalence. Integrating methylation and expression data within a Mendelian randomisation framework identified putatively associated genes at 70 risk signals underlying GWAS loci for follow-up functional studies. Tissue-specific expression enrichment analyses suggested Parkinson's disease loci were heavily brain-enriched, with specific neuronal cell types being implicated from single cell data. We found significant genetic correlations with brain volumes (false discovery rate-adjusted p=0·0035 for intracranial volume, p=0·024 for putamen volume), smoking status (p=0·024), and educational attainment (p=0·038). Mendelian randomisation between cognitive performance and Parkinson's disease risk showed a robust association (p=8·00 × 10-7). INTERPRETATION: These data provide the most comprehensive survey of genetic risk within Parkinson's disease to date, to the best of our knowledge, by revealing many additional Parkinson's disease risk loci, providing a biological context for these risk factors, and showing that a considerable genetic component of this disease remains unidentified. These associations derived from European ancestry datasets will need to be followed-up with more diverse data. FUNDING: The National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health (USA), The Michael J Fox Foundation, and The Parkinson's Foundation (see appendix for full list of funding sources).


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Mov Disord ; 34(12): 1864-1872, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization is a method for exploring observational associations to find evidence of causality. OBJECTIVE: To apply Mendelian randomization between risk factors/phenotypic traits (exposures) and PD in a large, unbiased manner, and to create a public resource for research. METHODS: We used two-sample Mendelian randomization in which the summary statistics relating to single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 5,839 genome-wide association studies of exposures were used to assess causal relationships with PD. We selected the highest-quality exposure genome-wide association studies for this report (n = 401). For the disease outcome, summary statistics from the largest published PD genome-wide association studies were used. For each exposure, the causal effect on PD was assessed using the inverse variance weighted method, followed by a range of sensitivity analyses. We used a false discovery rate of 5% from the inverse variance weighted analysis to prioritize exposures of interest. RESULTS: We observed evidence for causal associations between 12 exposures and risk of PD. Of these, nine were effects related to increasing adiposity and decreasing risk of PD. The remaining top three exposures that affected PD risk were tea drinking, time spent watching television, and forced vital capacity, but these may have been biased and were less convincing. Other exposures at nominal statistical significance included inverse effects of smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: We present a new platform which offers Mendelian randomization analyses for a total of 5,839 genome-wide association studies versus the largest PD genome-wide association studies available (https://pdgenetics.shinyapps.io/MRportal/). Alongside, we report further evidence to support a causal role for adiposity on lowering the risk of PD. © 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causalidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Chá , Televisão , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
4.
Commun Biol ; 2: 328, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508503

RESUMO

The core diagnostic criteria for autism comprise two symptom domains - social and communication difficulties, and unusually repetitive and restricted behaviour, interests and activities. There is some evidence to suggest that these two domains are dissociable, though this hypothesis has not yet been tested using molecular genetics. We test this using a genome-wide association study (N = 51,564) of a non-social trait related to autism, systemising, defined as the drive to analyse and build systems. We demonstrate that systemising is heritable and genetically correlated with autism. In contrast, we do not identify significant genetic correlations between social autistic traits and systemising. Supporting this, polygenic scores for systemising are significantly and positively associated with restricted and repetitive behaviour but not with social difficulties in autistic individuals. These findings strongly suggest that the two core domains of autism are genetically dissociable, and point at how to fractionate the genetics of autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Comportamento Social , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Mucosal Immunol ; 12(5): 1174-1186, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308480

RESUMO

There continues to be a major need for more effective inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapies. IL-13Rα2 is a decoy receptor that binds the cytokine IL-13 with high affinity and diminishes its STAT6-mediated effector functions. Previously, we found that IL-13Rα2 was necessary for IBD in mice deficient in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Here, we tested for the first time a therapeutic antibody specifically targeting IL-13Rα2. We also used the antibody and Il13ra2-/- mice to dissect the role of IL-13Rα2 in IBD pathogenesis and recovery. Il13ra2-/- mice were modestly protected from induction of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Following a 7-day recovery period, Il13ra2-/- mice or wild-type mice administered the IL-13Rα2-neutralizing antibody had significantly improved colon health compared to control mice. Neutralizing IL-13Rα2 to increase IL-13 bioavailability promoted resolution of IBD even if neutralization occurred only during recovery. To link our observations in mice to a large human cohort, we conducted a phenome-wide association study of a more active variant of IL-13 (R130Q) that has reduced affinity for IL-13Rα2. Human subjects carrying R130Q reported a lower risk for Crohn's disease. Our findings endorse moving anti-IL-13Rα2 into preclinical drug development with the goal of accelerating recovery and maintaining remission in Crohn's disease patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa2 de Receptor de Interleucina-13/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade alfa2 de Receptor de Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Animais , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Variação Genética , Humanos , Imunidade , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Subunidade alfa2 de Receptor de Interleucina-13/genética , Camundongos , Razão de Chances
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 278: 173-179, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207454

RESUMO

To improve understanding of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in a large population of individuals with depression, a self-reported antidepressant efficacy survey was designed and administered to 23andMe research participants. Participants with a current depressive episode or with a depressive episode within the last 5 years were queried for the effect of pharmacotherapy during the episode. TRD was defined as non-response to at least two antidepressants taken for at least 5-6 weeks. Non-TRD (NTRD) was defined as responsive to either the first or second medication taken for at least 3-4 weeks. Participants who could not be classified as TRD or NTRD were excluded from the analysis. Approximately 56,000 participants completed the survey, among which approximately 33,000 took medication for a depressive episode. The 3409 participants with self-reported TRD tended to have younger age of onset, and a more persistent course prior to initiation of treatment (e.g., a longer prior average episode duration and residual symptoms between episodes) than the 18,511 participants classified as NTRD. This survey identified depression characteristics, comorbidities, trigger events, and early childhood trauma that distinguish TRD from NTRD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mov Disord ; 34(6): 866-875, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports an extensive and complex genetic contribution to PD. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shed light on the genetic basis of risk for this disease. However, the genetic determinants of PD age at onset are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic determinants of PD age at onset. METHODS: Using genetic data of 28,568 PD cases, we performed a genome-wide association study based on PD age at onset. RESULTS: We estimated that the heritability of PD age at onset attributed to common genetic variation was ∼0.11, lower than the overall heritability of risk for PD (∼0.27), likely, in part, because of the subjective nature of this measure. We found two genome-wide significant association signals, one at SNCA and the other a protein-coding variant in TMEM175, both of which are known PD risk loci and a Bonferroni-corrected significant effect at other known PD risk loci, GBA, INPP5F/BAG3, FAM47E/SCARB2, and MCCC1. Notably, SNCA, TMEM175, SCARB2, BAG3, and GBA have all been shown to be implicated in α-synuclein aggregation pathways. Remarkably, other well-established PD risk loci, such as GCH1 and MAPT, did not show a significant effect on age at onset of PD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we have performed the largest age at onset of PD genome-wide association studies to date, and our results show that not all PD risk loci influence age at onset with significant differences between risk alleles for age at onset. This provides a compelling picture, both within the context of functional characterization of disease-linked genetic variability and in defining differences between risk alleles for age at onset, or frank risk for disease. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Loci Gênicos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glucosilceramidase/genética , Humanos , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 665-684, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929738

RESUMO

The extent to which genetic risk factors are shared between childhood-onset (COA) and adult-onset (AOA) asthma has not been estimated. On the basis of data from the UK Biobank study (n = 447,628), we found that the variance in disease liability explained by common variants is higher for COA (onset at ages between 0 and 19 years; h2g = 25.6%) than for AOA (onset at ages between 20 and 60 years; h2g = 10.6%). The genetic correlation (rg) between COA and AOA was 0.67. Variation in age of onset among COA-affected individuals had a low heritability (h2g = 5%), which we confirmed in independent studies and also among AOA-affected individuals. To identify subtype-specific genetic associations, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the UK Biobank for COA (13,962 affected individuals) and a separate GWAS for AOA (26,582 affected individuals) by using a common set of 300,671 controls for both studies. We identified 123 independent associations for COA and 56 for AOA (37 overlapped); of these, 98 and 34, respectively, were reproducible in an independent study (n = 262,767). Collectively, 28 associations were not previously reported. For 96 COA-associated variants, including five variants that represent COA-specific risk factors, the risk allele was more common in COA- than in AOA-affected individuals. Conversely, we identified three variants that are stronger risk factors for AOA. Variants associated with obesity and smoking had a stronger contribution to the risk of AOA than to the risk of COA. Lastly, we identified 109 likely target genes of the associated variants, primarily on the basis of correlated expression quantitative trait loci (up to n = 31,684). GWAS informed by age of onset can identify subtype-specific risk variants, which can help us understand differences in pathophysiology between COA and AOA and so can be informative for drug development.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(3): 343-352, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718901

RESUMO

Major depression is a debilitating psychiatric illness that is typically associated with low mood and anhedonia. Depression has a heritable component that has remained difficult to elucidate with current sample sizes due to the polygenic nature of the disorder. To maximize sample size, we meta-analyzed data on 807,553 individuals (246,363 cases and 561,190 controls) from the three largest genome-wide association studies of depression. We identified 102 independent variants, 269 genes, and 15 genesets associated with depression, including both genes and gene pathways associated with synaptic structure and neurotransmission. An enrichment analysis provided further evidence of the importance of prefrontal brain regions. In an independent replication sample of 1,306,354 individuals (414,055 cases and 892,299 controls), 87 of the 102 associated variants were significant after multiple testing correction. These findings advance our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of depression and provide several future avenues for understanding etiology and developing new treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 394-403, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804565

RESUMO

Insomnia is the second most prevalent mental disorder, with no sufficient treatment available. Despite substantial heritability, insight into the associated genes and neurobiological pathways remains limited. Here, we use a large genetic association sample (n = 1,331,010) to detect novel loci and gain insight into the pathways, tissue and cell types involved in insomnia complaints. We identify 202 loci implicating 956 genes through positional, expression quantitative trait loci, and chromatin mapping. The meta-analysis explained 2.6% of the variance. We show gene set enrichments for the axonal part of neurons, cortical and subcortical tissues, and specific cell types, including striatal, hypothalamic, and claustrum neurons. We found considerable genetic correlations with psychiatric traits and sleep duration, and modest correlations with other sleep-related traits. Mendelian randomization identified the causal effects of insomnia on depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and the protective effects of educational attainment and intracranial volume. Our findings highlight key brain areas and cell types implicated in insomnia, and provide new treatment targets.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/genética , Cromatina/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sono/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 343, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696823

RESUMO

Being a morning person is a behavioural indicator of a person's underlying circadian rhythm. Using genome-wide data from 697,828 UK Biobank and 23andMe participants we increase the number of genetic loci associated with being a morning person from 24 to 351. Using data from 85,760 individuals with activity-monitor derived measures of sleep timing we find that the chronotype loci associate with sleep timing: the mean sleep timing of the 5% of individuals carrying the most morningness alleles is 25 min earlier than the 5% carrying the fewest. The loci are enriched for genes involved in circadian regulation, cAMP, glutamate and insulin signalling pathways, and those expressed in the retina, hindbrain, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Using Mendelian Randomisation, we show that being a morning person is causally associated with better mental health but does not affect BMI or risk of Type 2 diabetes. This study offers insights into circadian biology and its links to disease in humans.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idoso , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Reino Unido
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(2): 691-699, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 99 loci that contain genetic risk variants shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Many more risk loci shared between these common allergic diseases remain to be discovered, which could point to new therapeutic opportunities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify novel risk loci shared between asthma, hay fever, and eczema by applying a gene-based test of association to results from a published GWAS that included data from 360,838 subjects. METHODS: We used approximate conditional analysis to adjust the results from the published GWAS for the effects of the top risk variants identified in that study. We then analyzed the adjusted GWAS results with the EUGENE gene-based approach, which combines evidence for association with disease risk across regulatory variants identified in different tissues. Novel gene-based associations were followed up in an independent sample of 233,898 subjects from the UK Biobank study. RESULTS: Of the 19,432 genes tested, 30 had a significant gene-based association at a Bonferroni-corrected P value of 2.5 × 10-6. Of these, 20 were also significantly associated (P < .05/30 = .0016) with disease risk in the replication sample, including 19 that were located in 11 loci not reported to contain allergy risk variants in previous GWASs. Among these were 9 genes with a known function that is directly relevant to allergic disease: FOSL2, VPRBP, IPCEF1, PRR5L, NCF4, APOBR, IL27, ATXN2L, and LAT. For 4 genes (eg, ATXN2L), a genetically determined decrease in gene expression was associated with decreased allergy risk, and therefore drugs that inhibit gene expression or function are predicted to ameliorate disease symptoms. The opposite directional effect was observed for 14 genes, including IL27, a cytokine known to suppress TH2 responses. CONCLUSION: Using a gene-based approach, we identified 11 risk loci for allergic disease that were not reported in previous GWASs. Functional studies that investigate the contribution of the 19 associated genes to the pathophysiology of allergic disease and assess their therapeutic potential are warranted.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Genótipo , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Antígeno 2 Relacionado a Fos/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Interleucina-27/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/genética
14.
Hum Genet ; 138(1): 37-47, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392061

RESUMO

Appendicitis affects 9% of Americans and is the most common diagnosis requiring hospitalization of both children and adults. We performed a genome-wide association study of self-reported appendectomy with 18,773 affected adults and 114,907 unaffected adults of European American ancestry. A significant association with appendectomy was observed at 4q25 near the gene PITX2 (rs2129979, p value = 8.82 × 10-14) and was replicated in an independent sample of Caucasians (59 affected, 607 unaffected; p value = 0.005). Meta-analysis of the associated variant across our two cohorts and cohorts from Iceland and the Netherlands (in which this association had previously been reported) showed strong cumulative evidence of association (OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09-1.14; p value = 1.81 × 10-23) and some evidence for effect heterogeneity (p value = 0.03). Eight other loci were identified at suggestive significance in the discovery GWAS. Associations were followed up by measuring gene expression across resected appendices with varying levels of inflammation (N = 75). We measured expression of 27 genes based on physical proximity to the GWAS signals, evidence of being targeted by eQTLs near the signals according to RegulomeDB (score = 1), or both. Four of the 27 genes (including PITX2) showed significant evidence (p values < 0.0033) of differential expression across categories of appendix inflammation. An additional ten genes showed nominal evidence (p value < 0.05) of differential expression, which, together with the significant genes, is more than expected by chance (p value = 6.6 × 10-12). PITX2 impacts morphological development of intestinal tissue, promotes an anti-oxidant response, and its expression correlates with levels of intestinal bacteria and colonic inflammation. Further studies of the role of PITX2 in appendicitis are warranted.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Apendicite/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4285, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327483

RESUMO

Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been proposed as a possible aid in drug development through elucidating mechanisms of action, identifying alternative indications, or predicting adverse drug events (ADEs). Here, we select 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to 19 candidate drug targets for common disease indications. We interrogate these SNPs by PheWAS in four large cohorts with extensive health information (23andMe, UK Biobank, FINRISK, CHOP) for association with 1683 binary endpoints in up to 697,815 individuals and conduct meta-analyses for 145 mapped disease endpoints. Our analyses replicate 75% of known GWAS associations (P < 0.05) and identify nine study-wide significant novel associations (of 71 with FDR < 0.1). We describe associations that may predict ADEs, e.g., acne, high cholesterol, gout, and gallstones with rs738409 (p.I148M) in PNPLA3 and asthma with rs1990760 (p.T946A) in IFIH1. Our results demonstrate PheWAS as a powerful addition to the toolkit for drug discovery.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Asma/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tromboembolia/genética , Reino Unido
16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4264, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323283

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a common skin cancer with genetic susceptibility loci identified in recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) using imputed gene expression levels can identify additional gene-level associations. Here we impute gene expression levels in 6891 cSCC cases and 54,566 controls in the Kaiser Permanente Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort and 25,558 self-reported cSCC cases and 673,788 controls from 23andMe. In a discovery-validation study, we identify 19 loci containing 33 genes whose imputed expression levels are associated with cSCC at false discovery rate < 10% in the GERA cohort and validate 15 of these candidate genes at Bonferroni significance in the 23andMe dataset, including eight genes in five novel susceptibility loci and seven genes in four previously associated loci. These results suggest genetic mechanisms contributing to cSCC risk and illustrate advantages and disadvantages of TWAS as a supplement to traditional GWAS analyses.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
PLoS Genet ; 14(7): e1007394, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001343

RESUMO

Preterm birth is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the susceptibility to preterm birth, but despite many investigations, the genetic basis for preterm birth remain largely unknown. Our objective was to identify rare, possibly damaging, nucleotide variants in mothers from families with recurrent spontaneous preterm births (SPTB). DNA samples from 17 Finnish mothers who delivered at least one infant preterm were subjected to whole exome sequencing. All mothers were of northern Finnish origin and were from seven multiplex families. Additional replication samples of European origin consisted of 93 Danish sister pairs (and two sister triads), all with a history of a preterm delivery. Rare exonic variants (frequency <1%) were analyzed to identify genes and pathways likely to affect SPTB susceptibility. We identified rare, possibly damaging, variants in genes that were common to multiple affected individuals. The glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway was the most significant (p<1.7e-8) with genes containing these variants in a subgroup of ten Finnish mothers, each having had 2-4 SPTBs. This pathway was replicated among the Danish sister pairs. A gene in this pathway, heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1 like (HSPA1L), contains two likely damaging missense alleles that were found in four different Finnish families. One of the variants (rs34620296) had a higher frequency in cases compared to controls (0.0025 vs. 0.0010, p = 0.002) in a large preterm birth genome-wide association study (GWAS) consisting of mothers of general European ancestry. Sister pairs in replication samples also shared rare, likely damaging HSPA1L variants. Furthermore, in silico analysis predicted an additional phosphorylation site generated by rs34620296 that could potentially affect chaperone activity or HSPA1L protein stability. Finally, in vitro functional experiment showed a link between HSPA1L activity and decidualization. In conclusion, rare, likely damaging, variants in HSPA1L were observed in multiple families with recurrent SPTB.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Difosfato de Adenosina/química , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Finlândia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Fosforilação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(15): 2762-2772, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771307

RESUMO

Rosacea is a common, chronic skin disease of variable severity with limited treatment options. The cause of rosacea is unknown, but it is believed to be due to a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. Little is known about the genetics of the disease. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of rosacea symptom severity with data from 73 265 research participants of European ancestry from the 23andMe customer base. Seven loci had variants associated with rosacea at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Further analyses highlighted likely gene regions or effector genes including IRF4 (P = 1.5 × 10-17), a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region flanked by PSMB9 and HLA-DMB (P = 2.2 × 10-15), HERC2-OCA2 (P = 4.2 × 10-12), SLC45A2 (P = 1.7 × 10-10), IL13 (P = 2.8 × 10-9), a region flanked by NRXN3 and DIO2 (P = 4.1 × 10-9), and a region flanked by OVOL1and SNX32 (P = 1.2 × 10-8). All associations with rosacea were novel except for the HLA locus. Two of these loci (HERC-OCA2 and SLC45A2) and another precedented variant (rs1805007 in melanocortin 1 receptor) with an association P value just below the significance threshold (P = 1.3 × 10-7) have been previously associated with skin phenotypes and pigmentation, two of these loci are linked to immuno-inflammation phenotypes (IL13 and PSMB9-HLA-DMA) and one has been associated with both categories (IRF4). Genes within three loci (PSMB9-HLA-DMA, HERC-OCA2 and NRX3-DIO2) were differentially expressed in a previously published clinical rosacea transcriptomics study that compared lesional to non-lesional samples. The identified loci provide specificity of inflammatory mechanisms in rosacea, and identify potential pathways for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Rosácea/etiologia , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Adulto , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Antígenos HLA-D/genética , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Interleucina-13/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rosácea/genética , Nexinas de Classificação/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
20.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 652-656, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662168

RESUMO

Hair color is one of the most recognizable visual traits in European populations and is under strong genetic control. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of almost 300,000 participants of European descent. We identified 123 autosomal and one X-chromosome loci significantly associated with hair color; all but 13 are novel. Collectively, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hair color within these loci explain 34.6% of red hair, 24.8% of blond hair, and 26.1% of black hair heritability in the study populations. These results confirm the polygenic nature of complex phenotypes and improve our understanding of melanin pigment metabolism in humans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos X , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
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