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1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578909

RESUMO

Proper nutrition during pregnancy is pivotal to maintain good health for the child and the mother. This study evaluates the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed to assess nutrient intake during pregnancy in the GENEIDA (Genetics, Early life Environmental Exposures and Infant Development in Andalusia) prospective birth cohort study. In addition, the nutrient intake was estimated and then compared with European guidelines and other studies. Diet information was collected from 690 pregnant women using a FFQ administered at two periods of pregnancy (used for the reproducibility study) and 24-h dietary recall (for the validity study). Statistical approaches included Spearman's correlation coefficient and percentage agreement, classifying women into the same or adjacent quintiles to assess reproducibility, and limits of agreement (LoA) to evaluate validity. In the study of reproducibility, significant correlations for nutrients adjusted for total energy had an average of 0.417. Moreover, the percentage of subjects classified in the same quintile for nutrient intakes were above 66%. In the validation study, the significant correlation for nutrients adjusted for total energy had an average of 0.272. Nevertheless, the percentage of results in the LoA was above 94%. Our results were similar to other studies suggesting that the FFQ used is a valid tool of collect dietary intakes for South-East Spanish pregnant women.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4728, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354065

RESUMO

Understanding how diet and gut microbiota interact in the context of human health is a key question in personalized nutrition. Genome-scale metabolic networks and constraint-based modeling approaches are promising to systematically address this complex problem. However, when applied to nutritional questions, a major issue in existing reconstructions is the limited information about compounds in the diet that are metabolized by the gut microbiota. Here, we present AGREDA, an extended reconstruction of diet metabolism in the human gut microbiota. AGREDA adds the degradation pathways of 209 compounds present in the human diet, mainly phenolic compounds, a family of metabolites highly relevant for human health and nutrition. We show that AGREDA outperforms existing reconstructions in predicting diet-specific output metabolites from the gut microbiota. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing data of faecal samples from Spanish children representing different clinical conditions, we illustrate the potential of AGREDA to establish relevant metabolic interactions between diet and gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Lens (Planta)/química , Valor Nutritivo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espanha
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199047

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has a profound effect on human health and is modulated by food and bioactive compounds. To study such interaction, in vitro batch fermentations are performed with fecal material, and some experimental designs may require that such fermentations be performed with previously frozen stools. Although it is known that freezing fecal material does not alter the composition of the microbial community in 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing studies, it is not known whether the microbial community in frozen samples could still be used for in vitro fermentations. To explore this, we undertook a pilot study in which in vitro fermentations were performed with fecal material from celiac, cow's milk allergic, obese, or lean children that was frozen (or not) with 20% glycerol. Before fermentation, the fecal material was incubated in a nutritious medium for 6 days, with the aim of giving the microbial community time to recover from the effects of freezing. An aliquot was taken daily from the stabilization vessel and used for the in vitro batch fermentation of lentils. The microbial community structure was significantly different between fresh and frozen samples, but the variation introduced by freezing a sample was always smaller than the variation among individuals, both before and after fermentation. Moreover, the potential functionality (as determined in silico by a genome-scaled metabolic reconstruction) did not differ significantly, possibly due to functional redundancy. The most affected genus was Bacteroides, a fiber degrader. In conclusion, if frozen fecal material is to be used for in vitro fermentation purposes, our preliminary analyses indicate that the functionality of microbial communities can be preserved after stabilization.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Congelamento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Leite , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15193, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312481

RESUMO

There is a lack of sufficient information on the dietary intake and nutritional supplementation of recreational endurance athletes throughout the year. The present observational study sought to assess the dietary intake and nutritional supplementation habits of recreational cyclists and triathletes from Spain. 4,037 cyclists and triathletes completed self-report measures. Nutritional profiles were developed and differences were examined according to sporting discipline and gender. Differences between groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U or chi-squared test. Next, micro- and macro-nutrients were grouped according to whether or not guideline intake amounts were met. The clustering of dietary habits was then examined via K-means cluster analysis. Triathletes took more supplements than cyclists (X2 = 36.489; p value = .000) and females took more supplements than males (X2 = 5.920; p value = .017). Females and triathletes reported greater protein and CHO consumption than males and cyclists, respectively. Triathletes also reported a higher consumption of total fat, MUFA, PUFA, EPA, DHA and fibre. Females and triathletes tended to consume more vitamins and minerals than males and cyclists, respectively. Two main dietary habit clusters emerged which may be used to inform nutritional interventions targeting recreational athletes not meeting nutritional requirements. There is an imbalance in the main nutrients making up the diet of recreational Spanish athletes, characterised by insufficient CHO and excessive protein.

5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206736

RESUMO

Green tea can influence the gut microbiota by either stimulating the growth of specific species or by hindering the development of detrimental ones. At the same time, gut bacteria can metabolize green tea compounds and produce smaller bioactive molecules. Accordingly, green tea benefits could be due to beneficial bacteria or to microbial bioactive metabolites. Therefore, the gut microbiota is likely to act as middle man for, at least, some of the green tea benefits on health. Many health promoting effects of green tea seems to be related to the inter-relation between green tea and gut microbiota. Green tea has proven to be able to correct the microbial dysbiosis that appears during several conditions such as obesity or cancer. On the other hand, tea compounds influence the growth of bacterial species involved in inflammatory processes such as the release of LPS or the modulation of IL production; thus, influencing the development of different chronic diseases. There are many studies trying to link either green tea or green tea phenolic compounds to health benefits via gut microbiota. In this review, we tried to summarize the most recent research in the area.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química
6.
Nat Protoc ; 16(7): 3186-3209, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089022

RESUMO

Knowledge of the effect of foods on gut microbiota composition and functionality is expanding. To isolate the effect of single foods and/or single nutrients (i.e., fiber, polyphenols), this protocol describes an in vitro batch fermentation procedure to be carried out after an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, this is an extension of the previous protocol described by Brodkorb et al. (2019) for studying in vitro digestion. The current protocol uses an oligotrophic fermentation medium with peptone and a high concentration of fecal inoculum from human fecal samples both to provide the microbiota and as the main source of nutrients for the bacteria. This protocol is recommended for screening work to be performed when many food samples are to be studied. It has been used successfully to study gut microbiota fermentation of different foodstuffs, giving insights into their functionality, community structure or ability to degrade particular substances, which can contribute to the development of personalized nutrition strategies. The procedure does not require a specific level of expertise. The protocol takes 4-6 h for preparation of fermentation tubes and 20 h for incubation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/métodos , Fermentação , Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal
7.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3799-3819, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977999

RESUMO

Tea is one of the most consumed beverages around the world and as such, it is constantly the object of novel research. This review focuses on the research performed during the last five years to provide an updated view of the current position of tea regarding human health. According to most authors, tea health benefits can be traced back to its bioactive components, mostly phenolic compounds. Among them, catechins are the most abundant. Tea has an important antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory properties, which make this beverage (or its extracts) a potential aid in the fight against several chronic diseases. On the other hand, some studies report the possibility of toxic effects and it is advisable to reduce tea consumption, such as in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, new technologies are increasing researchers' possibilities to study the effect of tea on human gut microbiota and even against SARS CoV-2. This beverage favours some beneficial gut microbes, which could have important repercussions due to the influence of gut microbiota on human health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá , Antioxidantes/análise , Bebidas/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Catequina/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(12): 3818-3824, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Polyphenols are antioxidant compounds with an impact on different health factors. Thus, it is important to have precise tools to estimate the intake of polyphenols. This study focuses on the development of an intuitive tool to estimating the intake of dietary total polyphenols. DESIGN: The tool was developed in a spreadsheet to improve accessibility and use. It is divided into six different meals for each of the 7 d with a similar format to 24-h diet recalls. The total polyphenol values of 302 foods were included and the possibility of own values. SETTING: Framework of the European project Stance4Health, Granada, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: This tool was tested on 90 participants in different stages of life (girls, women and pregnant women). Ages ranged from 10 to 35 years. RESULTS: The total polyphenol intake obtained was of 1790 ± 629 mg polyphenols/d. The highest consumption of polyphenols was observed in pregnant women (2064 mg/d). Polyphenols intake during the weekend was lower for the three groups compared to the days of the week. The results were comparable with those of other studies. CONCLUSIONS: The current tool allows the estimation of the total intake of polyphenols in the diet in a fast and easy way. The tool will be used as a basis for a future mobile application.

9.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805746

RESUMO

The human body is exposed to oxidative damage to cells and though it has some endogenous antioxidant systems, we still need to take antioxidants from our diet. The main dietary source of antioxidants is vegetables due to their content of different bioactive molecules. However, there are usually other components of the diet, such as foods of animal origin, that are not often linked to antioxidant capacity. Still, these foods are bound to exert some antioxidant capacity thanks to molecules released during gastrointestinal digestion and gut microbial fermentation. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of 11 foods of animal origin has been studied, submitted to different culinary techniques and to an in vitro digestion and gut microbial fermentation. Results have shown how dairy products potentially provide the highest antioxidant capacity, contributing to 60% of the daily antioxidant capacity intake. On the other hand, most of the antioxidant capacity was released during gut microbial fermentation (90-98% of the total antioxidant capacity). Finally, it was found that the antioxidant capacity of the studied foods was much higher than that reported by other authors. A possible explanation is that digestion-fermentation pretreatment allows for a higher extraction of antioxidant compounds and their transformation by the gut microbiota. Therefore, although foods of animal origin cannot be compared to vegetables in the concentration of antioxidant molecules, the processes of digestion and fermentation can provide some, giving animal origin food some qualities that could have been previously unappreciated.

10.
Food Chem ; 323: 126829, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334309

RESUMO

A total of 42 different rums currently marketed in Spain were analyzed to study the effect of aging time and manufacturing steps (filtration, addition of additives or spices, solera aging method, use of different types of aging barrels) on several parameters: color, non-enzymatic browning, antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile. Different analytical techniques to obtain a broader descriptions of the samples were employed: absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS methods), total phenols and HPLC to detect individual phenolic and furanic compounds. Results showed that spectrophotometric techniques could potentially be used to detect adulteration and frauds, as well as to differentiate rums by aging time. Those rums aged longer, especially those aged in oak barrels that had previously contained Bourbon or wine, showed higher phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and concentration of furanic compounds. Filtration results in the loss of antioxidant compounds while adding spices increases their concentration in rums.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(20): 4216-4222, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474524

RESUMO

Polyphenols are bioactive substances of vegetal origin with a significant impact on human health. The assessment of polyphenol intake and excretion is therefore important. The Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) method is the reference assay to measure polyphenols in foods as well as their excretion in urine. However, many substances can influence the method, making it necessary to conduct a prior cleanup using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the Fast Blue BB reagent (FBBB) as a new tool to measure the excretion of polyphenols in urine. Contrary to F-C, FBBB showed no interference in urine, negating the time-consuming and costly SPE cleanup. In addition, it showed excellent linearity (r2 = 0.9997), with a recovery of 96.4% and a precision of 1.86-2.11%. The FBBB method was validated to measure the excretion of polyphenols in spot urine samples from Spanish children, showing a good correlation between polyphenol intake and excretion.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Polifenóis/urina , Criança , Compostos de Diazônio/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo
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