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2.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3021-3027, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537189

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Prior studies have shown a linear relationship between computed tomography (CT)-derived radiodensity and water uptake, or brain edema, within stroke lesions. To test the hypothesis that intravenous glibenclamide (glyburide; BIIB093) reduces ischemic brain water uptake, we quantified the lesional net water uptake (NWU) on serial CT scans from patients enrolled in the phase 2 GAMES-RP Trial (Glyburide Advantage in Malignant Edema and Stroke). Methods- This was a post hoc exploratory analysis of the GAMES-RP study. Noncontrast CT scans performed between admission and day 7 (n=264) were analyzed in the GAMES-RP modified intention-to-treat sample. Quantitative change in CT radiodensity (ie, NWU) and midline shift (MLS) was measured. The gray and white matter NWU were also examined separately. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models were used to assess the effect of intravenous glibenclamide on MLS or NWU. Results- A median of 3 CT scans (interquartile range, 2-4) were performed per patient during the first 7 days after stroke. In a repeated-measures regression model, greater NWU was associated with increased MLS (ß=0.23; 95% CI, 0.20-0.26; P<0.001). Treatment with intravenous glibenclamide was associated with reduced NWU (ß=-2.80; 95% CI, -5.07 to -0.53; P=0.016) and reduced MLS (ß=-1.50; 95% CI, -2.71 to -0.28; P=0.016). Treatment with intravenous glibenclamide reduced both gray and white matter water uptake. In mediation analysis, gray matter NWU (ß=0.15; 95% CI, 0.11-0.20; P<0.001) contributed to a greater proportion of MLS mass effect, as compared with white matter NWU (ß=0.08; 95% CI, 0.03-0.13; P=0.001). Conclusions- In this phase 2 post hoc analysis, intravenous glibenclamide reduced both water accumulation and mass effect after large hemispheric infarction. This study demonstrates NWU is a quantitative and modifiable biomarker of ischemic brain edema accumulation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01794182.

3.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3277-3279, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500555

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We compared the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), calculated using a machine learning-based automatic software tool, RAPID ASPECTS, as well as the median score from 4 experienced readers, with the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) ASPECTS obtained following the baseline computed tomography (CT) in patients with large hemispheric infarcts. Methods- CT and magnetic resonance imaging scans from the GAMES-RP study, which enrolled patients with large hemispheric infarctions (82-300 mL) documented on DWI-magnetic resonance imaging, were evaluated by blinded experienced readers to determine both CT and DWI ASPECTS. The CT scans were also evaluated by an automated software program (RAPID ASPECTS). Using the DWI ASPECTS as a reference standard, the median CT ASPECTS of the clinicians and the automated score were compared using the interclass correlation coefficient. Results- The median CT ASPECTS for the clinicians was 5 (interquartile range, 4-7), for RAPID ASPECTS 3 (interquartile range, 1-6), and for DWI ASPECTS 3 (2-4). Median error for RAPID ASPECTS was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 3) versus 3 (interquartile range, 1-4) for clinicians (P<0.001). The automated score had a higher level of agreement with the median of the DWI ASPECTS, both for the full scale and when dichotomized at <6 versus 6 or more (difference in intraclass correlation coefficient, P=0.001). Conclusions- RAPID ASPECTS was more accurate than experienced clinicians in identifying early evidence of brain ischemia as documented by DWI.

4.
Curr Treat Options Neurol ; 21(9): 43, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396717

RESUMO

The correct spelling of the co-author should be listed as Sarah Nagle, MD.

5.
Curr Treat Options Neurol ; 21(8): 40, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327064

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) adoptive cell therapy is an effective treatment for patients with refractory B cell malignancies. As its use has grown, there has been an increase in the incidence of a serious, potentially fatal neurotoxicity known as immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). This review discusses the clinical manifestations of this neurotoxicity syndrome, current grading systems, management strategies, and proposed biologic mechanisms leading to neurotoxicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research suggests that patients with a higher disease burden and higher CAR-T cell doses are positively associated with the development of ICANS, as are elevated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the presence of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). While patterns observed on neuroimaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) are non-specific for the diagnosis of ICANS, each modality may provide helpful clinical information such as the detection of cerebral edema, the most serious of associated symptoms. Anti-epileptic medications and corticosteroids may ameliorate the symptoms of ICANS. The mechanism for ICANS is currently unknown; however, systemic inflammation and cytokine production triggering a cascade of endothelial activation and BBB disruption likely contribute. With limited treatment options available, further clinical research into the precise mechanism and treatment is urgently needed as the use of CAR-T and other adoptive cell therapies continues to grow.

6.
Neurology ; 93(4): 159-166, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the attitudes and knowledge of American Academy of Neurology (AAN) member neurologists in caring for sexual and gender minority (SGM) patients (e.g., those who identify in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning [LGBTQ+] spectrum) to inform future educational offerings. METHODS: A questionnaire was created in an iterative process by the LGBTQ+ Survey Task Force, consisting of 21 questions examining self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and clinical preparedness in caring for SGM patients. Participants responded to each statement with a 5-point Likert scale ("strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"). The survey was distributed via electronic and conventional mail to a random, representative sample of 1,000 AAN members. RESULTS: The response rate was 13.5% (n = 135). Most respondents (60%-66%) were aware of local and national barriers that inhibit SGM individuals from using health care services; the majority (73%-91%) felt comfortable assessing SGM patients. Over half believed sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) to be social determinants of health (61% and 57%, respectively). Yet a third would not tailor neurologic care based on a patient's SGM identity, and 43% believed that SO/GI has no bearing on the management of neurologic illness. CONCLUSIONS: Most neurologists surveyed were aware of overarching barriers to care experienced by SGM individuals; however, a minority of respondents recognized the intersection of SGM identity with neurologic health. Our results highlight awareness gaps that could be addressed via targeted educational opportunities, ensuring that neurologists provide high-quality neurologic care to patients of all sexual orientations and gender identities.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Neurologistas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurologia/educação , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
8.
Neurology ; 91(23): e2163-e2169, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this secondary analysis of the Glyburide Advantage in Malignant Edema and Stroke (GAMES-RP) Trial, we report the effect of IV glyburide on adjudicated, edema-related endpoints. METHODS: Blinded adjudicators assigned designations for hemorrhagic transformation, neurologic deterioration, malignant edema, and edema-related death to patients from the GAMES-RP phase II randomized controlled trial of IV glyburide for large hemispheric infarct. Rates of these endpoints were compared between treatment arms in the per-protocol sample. In those participants with malignant edema, the effects of treatment on additional markers of edema and clinical deterioration were examined. RESULTS: In the per-protocol sample, 41 patients received glyburide and 36 received placebo. There was no difference in the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (n = 24 [58.5%] in IV glyburide vs n = 23 [63.9%] in placebo, p = 0.91) or the incidence of malignant edema (n = 19 [46%] in IV glyburide vs n = 17 [47%] in placebo, p = 0.94). However, treatment with IV glyburide was associated with a reduced proportion of deaths attributed to cerebral edema (n = 1 [2.4%] with IV glyburide vs n = 8 [22.2%] with placebo, p = 0.01). In the subset of patients with malignant edema, those treated with IV glyburide had less midline shift (p < 0.01) and reduced MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) levels (p < 0.01). The glyburide treatment group had lower rate of NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) increase of ≥4 during the infusion period (n = 7 [37%] in IV glyburide vs n = 12 [71%] in placebo, p = 0.043), and of change in level of alertness (NIHSS subscore 1a; n = 11 [58%] vs n = 15 [94%], p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: IV glyburide was associated with improvements in midline shift, level of alertness, and NIHSS, and there were fewer deaths attributed to edema. Additional studies of IV glyburide in large hemispheric infarction are warranted to corroborate these findings. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01794182. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with large hemispheric infarction, IV glyburide improves some edema-related endpoints.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Edema Encefálico/mortalidade , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
9.
Stroke ; 49(6): 1457-1463, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether subjects aged ≤70 years who were treated with intravenous glyburide (RP-1127; BIIB093; glibenclamide) would have better long-term outcomes than those who received placebo. METHODS: GAMES-RP (Glyburide Advantage in Malignant Edema and Stroke-Remedy Pharmaceuticals) was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial. Eighty-six participants, aged 18 to 80 years, who presented to 18 centers with large hemispheric infarction (baseline diffusion-weighted imaging volumes, 82-300 cm3) randomized within 10 hours of symptom onset were enrolled. In the current exploratory analysis, we included participants aged ≤70 years treated with intravenous glyburide (n=35) or placebo (n=30) who met per-protocol criteria. Intravenous glyburide or placebo was administered in a 1:1 ratio. We analyzed 90-day and 12-month mortality, functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index), and quality of life (EuroQol group 5-dimension). Additional outcomes assessed included blood-brain barrier injury (MMP-9 [matrix metalloproteinase 9]) and cerebral edema (brain midline shift). RESULTS: Participants ≤70 years of age treated with intravenous glyburide had lower mortality at all time points (log-rank for survival hazards ratio, 0.34; P=0.04). After adjustment for age, the difference in functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale) demonstrated a trend toward benefit for intravenous glyburide-treated subjects at 90 days (odds ratio, 2.31; P=0.07). Repeated measures analysis at 90 days, 6 months, and 12 months using generalized estimating equations showed a significant treatment effect of intravenous glyburide on the Barthel Index (P=0.03) and EuroQol group 5-dimension (P=0.05). Participants treated with intravenous glyburide had lower plasma levels of MMP-9 (189 versus 376 ng/mL; P<0.001) and decreased midline shift (4.7 versus 9 mm; P<0.001) compared with participants who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis, participants ≤70 years of age with large hemispheric infarction have improved survival after acute therapy with intravenous glyburide. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01794182.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(1): 37-47, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the outcome of suicidal hanging and the impact of targeted temperature management (TTM) on hanging-induced cardiac arrest (CA) through an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) multicenter retrospective study. METHODS: We analyzed hanging patient data and TTM variables from January 1992 to December 2015. Cerebral performance category score of 1 or 2 was considered good neurologic outcome, while cerebral performance category score of 3 or 4 was considered poor outcome. Classification and Regression Trees recursive partitioning was used to develop multivariate predictive models for survival and neurologic outcome. RESULTS: A total of 692 hanging patients from 17 centers were analyzed for this study. Their overall survival rate was 77%, and the CA survival rate was 28.6%. The CA patients had significantly higher severity of illness and worse outcome than the non-CA patients. Of the 175 CA patients who survived to hospital admission, 81 patients (46.3%) received post-CA TTM. The unadjusted survival of TTM CA patients (24.7% vs 39.4%, p < 0.05) and good neurologic outcome (19.8% vs 37.2%, p < 0.05) were worse than non-TTM CA patients. However, when subgroup analyses were performed between those with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 to 8, the differences between TTM and non-TTM CA survival (23.8% vs 30.0%, p = 0.37) and good neurologic outcome (18.8% vs 28.7%, p = 0.14) were not significant. Targeted temperature management implementation and post-CA management varied between the participating centers. Classification and Regression Trees models identified variables predictive of favorable and poor outcome for hanging and TTM patients with excellent accuracy. CONCLUSION: Cardiac arrest hanging patients had worse outcome than non-CA patients. Targeted temperature management CA patients had worse unadjusted survival and neurologic outcome than non-TTM patients. These findings may be explained by their higher severity of illness, variable TTM implementation, and differences in post-CA management. Future prospective studies are necessary to ascertain the effect of TTM on hanging outcome and to validate our Classification and Regression Trees models. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV; prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Induzida/mortalidade , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(1): 19-24, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever is strongly associated with poor outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that early fever is a direct result of brain injury and thus would be more common in TBI than in patients without brain injury and associated with inflammation. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with major trauma with and without TBI from a busy Level I trauma center intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were assigned to one of four groups based on their presenting Head Abbreviated Injury Severity Scale scores: multiple injuries: head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score greater than 2, one other region greater than 2; isolated head: head AIS score greater than 2, all other regions less than 3; isolated body: one region greater than 2, excluding head/face; minor injury: no region with AIS greater than 2. Early fever was defined as at least one recorded temperature greater than 38.3°C in the first 48 hours after admission. Outcome measures included neurologic deterioration, length of stay in the ICU, hospital mortality, discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, and plasma levels of seven key cytokines at admission and 24 hours (exploratory). RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled, including subjects with multiple injuries (n = 59), isolated head (n = 97), isolated body (n = 100), and minor trauma (n = 12). The incidence of fever was similar in all groups irrespective of injury (11-24%). In all groups, there was a significant association between the presence of early fever and death in the hospital (6-18% vs. 0-3%), as well as longer median ICU stays (3-7 days vs. 2-3 days). Fever was significantly associated with elevated IL-6 at admission (50.7 pg/dL vs. 16.9 pg/dL, p = 0.0067) and at 24 hours (83.1 pg/dL vs. 17.1 pg/dL, p = 0.0025) in the isolated head injury group. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, early fever was not more common in patients with brain injury, though fever was associated with longer ICU stays and death in all groups. Additionally, fever was associated with elevated IL-6 levels in isolated head injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological study, level III.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Febre/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cuidados Críticos , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
12.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 38(6): 768-774, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262434

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health care problem on both individual and public health levels. As a major cause of death and disability in the United States, it is associated with a significant economic and public health burden. Although the evidence to support the use of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest is well established, its use in treating TBI remains controversial. Hypothermia has the potential to mitigate some of the destructive processes that occur as part of secondary brain injury after TBI. Hypothermia can be helpful in lowering intracranial pressure, for example, but its influence on functional outcome is unclear. There is insufficient evidence to support the broad use of prophylactic hypothermia for neuroprotection after TBI. Investigators are beginning to more carefully select patients for temperature modulating therapies, in a more personalized approach. Examples include targeting immunomodulation and scaling hypothermia to achieve metabolic targets. This review will summarize the clinical evidence for the use of hypothermia to limit secondary brain injury following acute TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
13.
Neurocrit Care ; 27(3): 430-446, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573388

RESUMO

Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a major contributor to long-term disability and a leading cause of death worldwide. Medical management of the sTBI patient, beginning with prehospital triage, is aimed at preventing secondary brain injury. This review discusses prehospital and emergency department management of sTBI, as well as aspects of TBI management in the intensive care unit where advances have been made in the past decade. Areas of emphasis include intracranial pressure management, neuromonitoring, management of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, neuroprotective strategies, prognostication, and communication with families about goals of care. Where appropriate, differences between the third and fourth editions of the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury are highlighted.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos
15.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 32(5): E50-E54, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28060200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to apply an objective scale to the vital sign alterations of PSH in order to determine whether 1 element might be predictive of developing PSH. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/DESIGN: We conducted an observational study of consecutive TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤12) and monitored the cohort for clinical evidence of PSH. PSH was defined as a paroxysm of 3 or more of the following characteristics: (1) tachycardia, (2) tachypnea, (3) hypertension, (4) fever, (5) dystonia (rigidity or decerebrate posturing), and (6) diaphoresis, with no other obvious causation (ie, alcohol withdrawal, sepsis). MAIN MEASURES: The Modified Clinical Feature Severity Scale (mCFSS) was applied to each participant once daily for the first 5 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Nineteen (11%) of the 167 patients met criteria for PSH. Patients with PSH had a higher 5-day cumulative mCFSS score than those without PSH (median [interquartile range] = 36 [29-42] vs 29 [22-35], P = .01). Of the 4 components of the mCFSS, elevated temperature appeared to be most predictive of the development of PSH, especially during the first 24 hours (odds ratio = 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.40). CONCLUSION: Early fever after TBI may signal impending autonomic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Hipercinese/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Hipercinese/diagnóstico , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Neurosurg ; 123(4): 891-6, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162047

RESUMO

OBJECT: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The time period of greatest risk for developing DVT after aSAH is not currently known. aSAH induces a prothrombotic state, which may contribute to DVT formation. Using repeated ultrasound screening, the hypothesis that patients would be at greatest risk for developing DVT in the subacute post-rupture period was tested. METHODS: One hundred ninety-eight patients with aSAH admitted to the Oregon Health & Science University Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit between April 2008 and March 2012 were included in a retrospective analysis. Ultrasound screening was performed every 5.2 ± 3.3 days between admission and discharge. The chi-square test was used to compare DVT incidence during different time periods of interest. Patient baseline characteristics as well as stroke severity and hospital complications were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Forty-two (21%) of 198 patients were diagnosed with DVT, and 3 (2%) of 198 patients were symptomatic. Twenty-nine (69%) of the 42 cases of DVT were first detected between Days 3 and 14, compared with 3 cases (7%) detected between Days 0 and 3 and 10 cases (24%) detected after Day 14 (p < 0.05). The postrupture 5-day window of highest risk for DVT development was between Days 5 and 9 (40%, p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, length of hospital stay and use of mechanical prophylaxis alone were significantly associated with DVT formation. CONCLUSIONS: DVT formation most commonly occurs in the first 2 weeks following aSAH, with detection in this cohort peaking between Days 5 and 9. Chemoprophylaxis is associated with a significantly lower incidence of DVT.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 128: 539-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25701906

RESUMO

The central autonomic nervous system (CAN) is a multifaceted, richly connected neural network incorporating the hypothalamus, its descending tracts through the brainstem, the insular cortex and down into the spinal cord. All levels of the CAN are susceptible to injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI), whether from focal or diffuse injury. Focal injuries would be expected to produce localized damage to CAN control centers, whereas the effects of diffuse injuries are presumed to be more diverse and/or widely distributed. As the combination of focal and diffuse injury following TBI can vary widely from one individual to the next, the impact of focal injuries is best understood with reference to the focal ischemic stroke literature. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a common complication following TBI, also has predictable effects on autonomic control that can be understood with reference to spontaneous SAH literature. Finally, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH), a syndrome incorporating episodes of heightened sympathetic drive and motor overactivity following minor stimulation, is discussed as an example of what happens when central inhibitory control of spinal cord autonomics is impaired.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Humanos
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