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1.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040781

RESUMO

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has been increasingly used to diagnose clinically significant prostate cancer (csPC) because of its usefulness in combination with anatomic and functional data. MRI-targeted biopsy, such as MRI-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion image-guided prostate biopsy, has high accuracy in the detection and localization of csPC. This novel diagnostic technique contributes to the development of tailor-made medicine as focal therapy, which cures the csPC while preserving the anatomical structures related to urinary and sexual function. In the early days of focal therapy, TRUS-guided systematic biopsy was used for patient selection, and treatment was performed for patients with low-risk PC. With the introduction of mpMRI and mapping biopsy, the treatment range is now determined based on individualized cancer localization. In recent prospective studies, 87.4% of treated patients had intermediate- and high-risk PC. However, focal therapy has two main limitations. First, a randomized controlled trial would be difficult to design because of the differences in pathological features between patients undergoing focal therapy and radical treatment. Therefore, pair-matched studies and/or historical controlled studies have been performed to compare focal therapy and radical treatment. Second, no long-term (≥ 10-year) follow-up study has been performed. However, recent prospective studies have encouraged the use of focal therapy as a treatment strategy for localized PC because it contributes to high preservation of continence and erectile function.

2.
Cytopathology ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether intraoperative squash cytology could provide surgeons with a qualitative diagnosis of brain lesions when frozen section diagnosis is equivocal. METHODS: The study included 51 lesions that were diagnosed intraoperatively as equivocal brain tumour on the basis of frozen section. We retrospectively classified the lesions into five groups according to the final histopathological diagnoses (I: malignant lymphomas; II: diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglia tumours; III: pituitary adenomas, IV: metastatic carcinomas; V: others). We assessed the squash cytology features of Groups I-IV and of the specific lesion types, and compared features among the groups. RESULTS: The four groups differed in a range of salient cytomorphological features: lymphoglandular bodies in Group I (eight of nine cases), cytoplasmic fibrillary processes in Group II (six of eight cases), low-grade nuclear atypia in Group III (seven of seven cases), and large nuclei (approximately 80 µm2 ) and nuclear crush artefacts in Group IV (seven of nine cases). CONCLUSION: Findings of lymphoglandular bodies on intraoperative squash cytology can be considered characteristic of malignant lymphomas, while cytoplasmic fibrillary processes indicate diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumours. We conclude that squash cytology could yield a qualitative intraoperative diagnosis in over 25% of cases for which frozen section yields a diagnosis of equivocal brain tumour.

3.
Pathol Int ; 70(1): 31-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823459

RESUMO

To address the diagnostic performance of scratch-imprint cytology (SIC), in this study we compared intraoperative diagnoses of pulmonary lesions between SIC and frozen section histology (FSH) for accuracy with respect to the final pathological diagnosis. We histologically divided 206 pulmonary lesions (resected surgically) into two groups (benign and malignant) and compared each intraoperative diagnosis by SIC and FSH with the final pathological diagnoses. We also examined the radiological existence of pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules in each group. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 91.5%, 100%, 100%, 63.6%, and 92.6%, respectively for SIC, and 98.2%, 100%, 100%, 92.1% and 98.5%, respectively, for FSH. Thus, we concluded that diagnosis by SIC is reliable for malignancy, but not for benign lesions. All pure GGO nodules (19; 9.2%) were noninfectious and malignant with a high accuracy of FSH diagnosis (100%), in comparison with those of low accuracy with a SIC diagnosis (57.9%). SIC can be an appropriate intraoperative diagnostic tool where multiple cytotechnologists observe intraoperative SIC preparations scratched evenly across the whole lesion including the peripheral area of the mass.

4.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(13): 1643-1651, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticulosis is a common disease, and the coexistence of colonic diverticulosis and colorectal cancer is often seen clinically. It is very rare that colon cancer arises from the mucosa of a colonic diverticulum. When colon cancer arises in a diverticulum and then tends to develop outside the wall, without developing within the lumen, the differential diagnosis from complicating lesions due to colonic diverticulitis is difficult. CASE SUMMARY: A 76-year-old man was admitted to a nearby clinic with a chief complaint of discomfort and urinary frequency. Since a vesicosigmoidal fistula was seen on abdominal computed tomography, he was referred to our hospital. Laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was performed because the various diagnostic findings were diagnosed as a vesicosigmoidal fistula with diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. However, on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as a vesicosigmoidal fistula due to colon cancer arising in the diverticulum. Laparoscopic partial resection of the bladder was performed because local recurrence was observed in the bladder wall one and a half years after surgery. It is currently one year after reoperation, but there has been no recurrence or metastasis. CONCLUSION: Colon cancer arising in a diverticulum of the colon should be considered when diverticulitis with complications is observed.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(11)2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181722

RESUMO

The dynamics of a hydrogen bonding network (HBN) relating to macroscopic properties of hydrogen bonding liquids were observed as a significant relaxation process by dielectric spectroscopy measurements. In the cases of water and water rich mixtures including biological systems, a GHz frequency relaxation process appearing at around 20 GHz with the relaxation time of 8.2 ps is generally observed at 25 °C. The GHz frequency process can be explained as a rate process of exchanges in hydrogen bond (HB) and the rate becomes higher with increasing HB density. In the present work, this study analyzed the GHz frequency process observed by suitable open-ended coaxial electrodes, and physical meanings of the fractal nature of water structures were clarified in various aqueous systems. Dynamic behaviors of HBN were characterized by a combination of the average relaxation time and the distribution of the relaxation time. This fractal analysis offered an available approach to both solution and dispersion systems with characterization of the aggregation or dispersion state of water molecules. In the case of polymer-water mixtures, the HBN and polymer networks penetrate each other, however, the HBN were segmented and isolated more by dispersed and aggregated particles in the case of dispersion systems. These HBN fragments were characterized by smaller values of the fractal dimension obtained from the fractal analysis. Some examples of actual usages suggest that the fractal analysis is now one of the most effective tools to understand the molecular mechanism of HBN in aqueous complex materials including biological systems.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Água/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica
6.
Case Rep Oncol ; 12(1): 332-338, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123460

RESUMO

This is a case of a 75-year-old man who was diagnosed with anaplastic pancreatic ductal carcinoma (spindle cell type). His image findings showed pancreatic head cysts and pancreatic head, body, and tail tumors respectively. EUS-FNA was performed to the pancreatic head and pancreatic body tumors, and the same high atypical type cells suspected of cancer were obtained from either specimen, and finally total pancreatectomy was performed. On the specimen, there were 4 lesions in the pancreas; histology showed that the same anaplastic pancreatic ductal carcinoma (spindle cell type) was obtained from the pancreatic head cyst and the pancreatic tumors.

7.
Pathol Int ; 69(4): 211-218, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990957

RESUMO

We aimed to propose a biosafety algorithm for the protection of pathology staff during intraoperative examinations of pulmonary lesions when working with cytological imprints and/or frozen sections for the intraoperative diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. We examined 148 pulmonary surgical tissues obtained intraoperatively for imprint cytology (IC) and for frozen sectioning and compared the diagnoses against the final pathological diagnoses. We analyzed concordance and non-concordance rates and then used the data to produce a biosafety algorithm. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of scratch-IC were 91%, 100%, 100%, 50% and 92%, respectively, and those of frozen sectioning were 99%, 100%, 100%, 96% and 99%, respectively. Our data indicate that frozen sectioning is unnecessary if scratch-IC yields a 'malignant' diagnosis but recommended with a 'benign' diagnosis. When a scratch-IC preparation deemed inadequate for a diagnosis or an abscess, the pathologist must consult the surgeon concerning the possibility of granuloma with caseous necrosis and should ask the surgeon to be prepared for a frozen section. If granuloma with caseous necrosis is found in the frozen section, the pathologist must immediately communicate the information to entire staff and perform a PCR test before making a permanent section.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Abscesso Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Citodiagnóstico , Feminino , Secções Congeladas , Granuloma/patologia , Granuloma/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Abscesso Pulmonar/patologia , Abscesso Pulmonar/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes
8.
J Clin Exp Hematop ; 59(1): 1-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918139

RESUMO

The microenvironment influences the behavior of follicular lymphoma (FL) but the specific roles of the immunomodulatory BTLA and TNFRSF14 (HVEM) are unknown. Therefore, we examined their immunohistochemical expression in the intrafollicular, interfollicular and total histological compartments in 106 FL cases (57M/49F; median age 57-years), and in nine relapsed-FL with transformation to DLBCL (tFL). BTLA expression pattern was of follicular T-helper cells (TFH) in the intrafollicular and of T-cells in the interfollicular compartments. The mantle zones were BTLA+ in 35.6% of the cases with similar distribution of IgD. TNFRSF14 expression pattern was of neoplastic B lymphocytes (centroblasts) and "tingible body macrophages". At diagnosis, the averages of total BTLA and TNFRSF14-positive cells were 19.2%±12.4STD (range, 0.6%-58.2%) and 46.7 cells/HPF (1-286.5), respectively. No differences were seen between low-grade vs. high-grade FL but tFL was characterized by low BTLA and high TNFRSF14 expression. High BTLA correlated with good overall survival (OS) (total-BTLA, Hazard Risk=0.479, P=0.022) and with high PD-1 and FOXP3+Tregs. High TNFRSF14 correlated with poor OS and progression-free survival (PFS) (total-TNFRSF14, HR=3.9 and 3.2, respectively, P<0.0001), with unfavorable clinical variables and higher risk of transformation (OR=5.3). Multivariate analysis including BTLA, TNFRSF14 and FLIPI showed that TNFRSF14 and FLIPI maintained prognostic value for OS and TNFRSF14 for PFS. In the GSE16131 FL series, high TNFRSF14 gene expression correlated with worse prognosis and GSEA showed that NFkB pathway was associated with the "High-TNFRSF14/dead-phenotype".In conclusion, the BTLA-TNFRSF14 immune modulation pathway seems to play a role in the pathobiology and prognosis of FL.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos B/química , Linfócitos B/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/química
9.
Pathol Int ; 69(3): 165-171, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719801

RESUMO

We report a case of high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) concomitant with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis. The patient was an 82-year-old man in whom narrowing of the main pancreatic duct was detected incidentally by abdominal ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography further revealed abrupt narrowing plus distal dilatation of the duct, from the pancreatic body to the tail. Distal pancreatectomy was performed under a preoperative diagnosis of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm. Macroscopic examination of the surgical specimen showed an ill-demarcated, white-gray area and prominent pancreatic atrophy, while histological analysis detected small (<5 mm in diameter) cystic dilatations of the main pancreatic duct and some branch ducts plus pancreatic atrophy with fibrosis and fatty replacement of acinar cells. We also detected variously sized papillary projections, fused glands, and scattered focal papillary proliferation of columnar ductal epithelium comprising cells with elongated, mildly hyperchromatic nuclei, consistent with high-grade PanIN. In addition, we observed marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, periductal storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed abundant immunogloblin G4-positive plasma cells, indicative of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The coexistence of high-grade PanIN and marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, typical of AIP, point to a close association between the former, as a carcinogenic process, and the latter, as an immune response.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite/patologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnóstico , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/diagnóstico
10.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 12(3): 209-212, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603836

RESUMO

We reported the case of a 50-year-old man diagnosed with extrinsic NK/T-cell lymphoma. He was initially diagnosed with locally advanced unresected pancreatic duct carcinoma and was treated with combination chemotherapy using gemcitabine and nabpaclitaxel. One month after treatment, he developed bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a deep ulcer lesion from the duodenal bulb to the inner wall of the descending section that was not observed before treatment. Coil embolization was performed, but the necrotic area widened after treatment; the patient died of disseminated intravascular coagulation after 1 week. Autopsy showed a soft white-tone lesion that extended from the ulcer wall to the gallbladder wall and around the intrahepatic bile duct. Lesions were also found in the spleen, lungs, kidney, and bone marrow, and immunohistochemistry confirmed extrinsic NK/T-cell lymphoma (extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type). In conclusion, histological diagnosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma is difficult at an early stage, and the clinical course often shows rapid tumor progression, particularly bleeding in the digestive organs or widespread perforation and penetration. NK/T-cell lymphoma should be ruled out in patients with bile duct and pancreatic tumors in whom tissue diagnosis via biopsy cannot be performed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esplênicas/diagnóstico , Autopsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Cytopathology ; 30(1): 74-81, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the reliability of imprint cytology (IC) for intraoperative diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. METHODS: We reviewed 113 cases of pulmonary lesion resection for which a scratch imprint was made intraoperatively. We divided the specimens into two groups (benign and malignant) and compared the scratch IC-based diagnoses against the final histopathological diagnoses in each group for concordance. We also analysed those cases in which the scratch IC preparation was classified as inadequate. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of IC diagnoses among the patient cohort were 87.7% (72/82), 100% (7/7), 100% (72/72), 41.2% (7/17) and 88.8% (79/89), respectively. IC yielded some false-negative results in terms of malignancy, although most of these imprints were of early cancer or cancer with mild cytological atypia. Five (41.6%) of 12 lesions for which the imprint was deemed inadequate were diagnosed histologically as granulomas with caseous necrosis. CONCLUSION: IC-based diagnoses of pulmonary lesions as malignant corresponded well with the final histopathological diagnoses, but IC-based diagnoses of negative (ie, without malignant cells) were not as reliable. Thus, pathologists should recognise the limitations of IC, especially for identifying malignant lesions. Also, the possibility of latent bacterial infection in a granuloma with caseous necrosis indicates that an IC preparation deemed inadequate for diagnosis should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Citodiagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha , Feminino , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia
12.
Am J Case Rep ; 19: 1301-1305, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) sometimes leads to a shock state and sudden death due to acute massive pulmonary arterial thrombosis. The origins of pulmonary arterial thrombi are varied, but most arise from deep vein thrombosis. We herein presented a very rare cause of PTE due to paradoxical embolism caused by arteriovenous fistula from common iliac artery to common iliac vein. CASE REPORT A 74-year-old man was admitted because of increasing dyspnea on exertion. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was made and corticosteroid therapy was started. On the 5th hospital day, the patient suddenly developed cardiopulmonary arrest and died despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An autopsy revealed that the left main pulmonary artery was occluded by a massive but organized thrombus that was similar to an arterial thrombus in the right common iliac artery. On histopathological examination, the emboli in the pulmonary artery demonstrated characteristics similar to thrombus in the common iliac artery. This suggested that the emboli had passed through the arteriovenous fistula from the right common iliac artery to the common iliac vein. CONCLUSIONS This is a very rare cause of fatal paradoxical pulmonary thromboembolism. Paradoxical emboli passing through arteriovenous fistula from the right common iliac artery to the common iliac vein are a rare cause of PTE.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Fístula Arteriovenosa/complicações , Morte Súbita/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Autopsia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Raras , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
13.
Int J Hematol ; 108(6): 647-651, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144001

RESUMO

Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but often life-threatening condition. However, there is no consensus on appropriate management for this condition, due to its rarity. Here, we report three cases of malignant lymphoma with spontaneous splenic rupture. In each case, progression of splenic bleeding was rapid and complicated by malignant lymphoma. Spontaneous splenic rupture complicated by malignant lymphoma may cause exacerbation of anemia and hypovolemic shock. When splenic rupture is indicated by abdominal pain, tachycardia, or hypotension in a patient with splenomegaly, abdominal examination should be performed immediately, and emergency transcatheter arterial embolization and/or splenectomy should be considered.


Assuntos
Linfoma/complicações , Ruptura Esplênica/diagnóstico , Ruptura Esplênica/etiologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Coagulação Sanguínea , Medula Óssea/patologia , Ciclofosfamida , Doxorrubicina , Embolização Terapêutica , Humanos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona , Rituximab , Baço/patologia , Esplenectomia , Ruptura Esplênica/terapia , Esplenomegalia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina
14.
Mol Med Rep ; 18(1): 1081-1087, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767232

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that free­floating cancer cells (FFCCs) in the lymph node sinuses were of prognostic significance for colorectal and gastric cancer. The present study investigated the clinical significance of detecting FFCCs using Fast Red staining for cytokeratin in stage I/II non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and hilar lymph node positive NSCLC patients who underwent curative resection. Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 164 patients (including 22 hilar lymph node positive patients) were investigated. Resected lymph nodes were stained for cytokeratin using an anti­cytokeratin antibody. In order to achieve a clear distinction from coal dust, an anti­cytokeratin antibody was labeled with a secondary antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase, which was detected by a reaction with Fast Red/naphthol that produced a red color. Patients were considered to be positive for FFCCs (FFCCs+) if one or more than one free­floating cytokeratin­positive cell was detected in the lymph node sinuses, which could not be detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Among all 164 patients, a significant difference was observed in 5­year relapse­free survival (5Y­RFS) rates, with 76.9 and 33.3% being achieved by FFCCs­ and FFCCs+ patients, respectively (P<0.001). Similarly, the 5­year overall survival (5Y­OS) rate was significantly lower in FFCCs+ patients, with 86.6% being achieved by FFCCs­ and 65.8% by FFCCs+ patients, respectively (P=0.014). Among 22 hilar lymph node­positive patients, a significant difference was also observed in 5Y­RFS, with 53.8 and 0.0% being achieved by FFCCs­ and FFCCs+ patients, respectively (P=0.006). The 5Y­OS tended to be lower in FFCCs+ patients, with 69.2 and 53.3% being achieved by FFCCs­ and FFCCs+ patients, respectively (P=0.463). The findings of the present study suggested the presence of FFCCs in stage I/II NSCLC patients was associated with a poor prognosis. In addition, FFCCs in hilar lymph node­positive patients may potential be a useful marker in foreseeing the recurrence of cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Linfonodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 42(7): 936-950, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738359

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis patients often develop the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtype of methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (DLBCL). We characterized the genomic profile and pathologic characteristics of 20 biopsies using an integrative approach. DLBCL was associated with extranodal involvement, a high/high-intermediate international prognostic index in 53% of cases, and responded to MTX withdrawal. The phenotype was nongerminal center B-cell in 85% of samples and Epstein-Barr encoding region positive (EBER) in 65%, with a high proliferation index and intermediate MYC expression levels. The immune microenvironment showed high numbers of CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD163 M2 macrophages with an (CD163/CD68) M2 ratio of 3.6. Its genomic profile was characterized by 3p12.1-q25.31, 6p25.3, 8q23.1-q24.3, and 12p13.33-q24.33 gains, 6q22.31-q24.1 and 13q21.33-q34 losses, and 1p36.11-p35.3 copy neutral loss-of-heterozygosity. This profile was closer to nongerminal center B-cell DLBCL not-otherwise-specified, but with characteristic 3q, 12q, and 20p gains and lower 9p losses (P<0.05). We successfully verified array results using fluorescent DNA in situ hybridization on PLOD2, MYC, WNT1, and BCL2. Protein immunohistochemistry revealed that DLBCL expressed high IRF4 (6p25.3) and SELPLG (12q24.11) levels, intermediate TNFRSF14 (1p36.32; the exons 1 to 3 were unmutated), BTLA (3q13.2), PLOD2 (3q24), KLHL6 (3q27.1), and MYC (8q24.21) levels, and low AICDA (12p13.31) and EFNB2 (13q33.3) levels. The correlation between the DNA copy number and protein immunohistochemistry was confirmed for BTLA, PLOD2, and EFNB2. The characteristics of EBER versus EBER cases were similar, with the exception of specific changes: EBER cases had higher numbers of CD163 M2 macrophages and FOXP3 regulatory T lymphocytes, high programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 expression levels, slightly fewer genomic changes, and 3q and 4p focal gains. In conclusion, DLBCL has a characteristic genomic profile with 3q and 12 gains, 13q loss, different expression levels of relevant pathogenic biomarkers, and a microenvironment with high numbers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and M2 macrophages.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Acta Cytol ; 62(3): 223-230, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether intraoperative cytological evaluation of squash preparations is of benefit for differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas. METHODS: Squash preparations of 42 astrocytomas were classified histologically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 classification system as grade II (n = 12), grade III (n = 11), and grade IV (n = 19) and were divided into 2 groups, namely a low-grade group (grade II) and a high-grade group (grades III and IV). The focus was on morphological cell and vessel characteristics, namely nuclear atypia, chromatin pattern, nuclear enlargement, variation in nuclear size, the presence of nucleoli, mitosis, tumor necrosis, cell density, multibranched vessels, and vascular dilatation, and these characteristics were compared between the low- and high-grade groups. RESULTS: Nuclear atypia, the presence of coarse chromatin, variations in nuclear size, and cell density ≥200 per high-power field were significantly more prevalent in high- than in low-grade astrocytomas (p = 0.0407, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). Vessels with > 3 branches and a mean vessel diameter ≥20 µm were more prevalent in high- than in low-grade astrocytomas (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Squash preparation cytology provides added benefit for the intraoperative identification of high-grade astrocytoma.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/diagnóstico , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astrocitoma/irrigação sanguínea , Astrocitoma/cirurgia , Biópsia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biomed Rep ; 8(4): 373-377, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541458

RESUMO

The present study evaluated three-dimensional shear wave elastography (3D SWE) in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Clinically significant prostate cancer was defined by a minimum of one biopsy core with a Gleason score of 3+4 or 6 with a maximum cancer core length >4 mm. Patients with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.0-20.0 ng/ml who were suspected of having prostate cancer from multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) were prospectively recruited. The 3D SWE was performed pre-biopsy, after which patients underwent MRI-transrectal ultrasound image-guided targeted biopsies for cancer-suspicious lesions and 12-core systematic biopsies. The pathological biopsy results were compared with the mpMRI and 3D SWE images. A total of 12 patients who were suspected of having significant cancer on mpMRI were included. The median pre-biopsy PSA value was 5.65 ng/ml. Of the 12 patients, 10 patients were diagnosed as having prostate cancer. In the targeted biopsy lesions, there was a significant difference in Young's modulus between the cancer-detected area (median 64.1 kPa, n=20) and undetected area (median 30.8 kPa, n=8; P<0.0001). On evaluation of receiver operating characteristics, a cut-off value of the Young's modulus of 41.0 kPa was used for the detection of clinically significant cancer, with which the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of cancer detection were 58, 97, 86 and 87%, respectively. When combining this cut-off tissue elasticity value with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scores, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cancer detection were improved to 70, 98, 91 and 92%, respectively. In the cancer-detected lesions, a significant correlation was identified between the tissue elasticity value of the lesions and Gleason score (r=0.898, P<0.0001). In conclusion, PI-RADS combined with measurement of Young's modulus by 3D SWE may improve the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer.

18.
Mod Pathol ; 31(2): 313-326, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984304

RESUMO

Most high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements are aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Occasional double-hit follicular lymphomas have been described but the clinicopathological features of these tumors are not well known. To clarify the characteristics of double-hit follicular lymphomas, we analyzed 10 cases of double-hit follicular lymphomas and 15 cases of high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements for clinicopathological and genome-wide copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity profiles. For double-hit follicular lymphomas, the median age was 67.5 years (range: 48-82 years). The female/male ratio was 2.3. Eight patients presented with advanced clinical stage. The median follow-up time was 20 months (range: 1-132 months). At the end of the follow-up, 8 patients were alive, 2 patients were dead including 1 patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformation. Rearrangements of MYC/BCL2, MYC/BCL6, and MYC/BCL2/BCL6 were seen in 8, 1, and 1 cases, respectively. The partner of MYC was IGH in 6 cases. There were no cases of histological grade 1, 4 cases of grade 2, 5 cases of grade 3a, and 1 case of grade 3b. Two cases of grade 3a exhibited immunoblast-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated 9 cases with ≥50% MYC-positive cells. There was significant difference in MYC intensity (P=0.00004) and MIB-1 positivity (P=0.001) between double-hit follicular lymphomas and high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements. The genome profile of double-hit follicular lymphomas was comparable with conventional follicular lymphomas (GSE67385, n=198) with characteristic gains of 2p25.3-p11.1, 7p22.3-q36.3, 12q11-q24.33, and loss of 18q21.32-q23 (P<0.05). In comparison with high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements, double-hit follicular lymphomas had fewer copy-number alterations and minimal common region of gain at 2p16.1 (70%), locus also significant against conventional follicular lymphomas (P=0.0001). In summary, double-hit follicular lymphomas tended to be high-grade histology, high MYC protein expression, high MYC/IGH fusion, and minimal common region of gain at 2p16.1. Double-hit follicular lymphomas seemed to be a different disease from high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements and have an indolent clinical behavior similar to follicular lymphomas without MYC rearrangement.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Fenótipo
19.
Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi ; 109(4): 194-203, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631082

RESUMO

(Objective) To evaluate the efficacy and invasiveness of focal therapy with transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for localized prostate cancer based on spatial location of significant cancer with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion image-guided biopsy. (Methods) Patients with low- and intermediate-risk significant prostate cancer who were followed-up at least 1 year, were prospectively recruited. The spatial localization of the significant cancer was determined by MRI-TRUS fusion image-guided transperineal prostate biopsy. Focal therapy targeting the regions of significant cancer was performed by transrectal HIFU using a Sonablate® 500 (SonaCare Medical, Indianapolis, IN, USA). Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics, multi-parametric MRI, and MRI-TRUS fusion image-guided prostate biopsy were analyzed to determine the treatment efficacy. Questionnaires and uroflowmetry were performed to evaluate the invasiveness. (Results) Ten men with median age of 67 years (range, 48-79), median PSA level of 7.07 ng/ml (range, 4.67-15.99), median prostate volume of 25 ml (range, 19-36) were treated. Median operative time was 29.5 minutes (range, 14-85). Catheterization was performed within 24 hours after the treatment in all patients. The median PSA concentration significantly decreased to 1.35 ng/ml (p<0.0001) at 3 months after the treatment. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed the disappearance of blood flow in all targeted regions of the prostate. MRI-TRUS fusion image-guided prostate biopsy detected the significant cancer out of the treated region in 1 patient. In urinary function, residual urine was significantly increased at 3 months after the treatment (p=0.007), but improved to the preoperative level (p=0.411). There was no significant deterioration in IPSS, IPSS QOL, OABSS, and the urinary function domain of EPIC between before and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the treatment. In sexual function, there was no significant difference in IIEF-5 and the sexual domain of EPIC between before and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the treatment. In quality of life, there was no significant difference in EPIC and SF-36 between before and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the treatment. The proportion of men with erections sufficient for penetration and ejaculation remained unchanged at 100% (5 of 5 patients). No serious adverse events were recorded. (Conclusions) The focal therapy with HIFU has the potential to provide accurate treatment with low morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. Further large studies are required to investigate the effects of the focal therapy with HIFU for analysis of oncological and functional outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer.

20.
Int J Urol ; 24(4): 288-294, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of real-time elastic fusion image-guided transperineal prostate biopsy with needle tracking involving a mechanical position-encoded stepper in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer for biopsy-naïve men. METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with serum prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.0-20 ng/mL and suspicious of prostate cancer on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. They underwent targeted biopsies for cancer-suspicious lesions and 12-core systematic biopsies. Pathological findings from biopsy cores and whole-mount specimens (for those who underwent radical prostatectomy) were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 250 patients were included, in whom targeted and systematic biopsies detected significant cancers in 55% and 25%, respectively (P < 0.001). The targeted biopsy cores (n = 527) showed significantly greater biopsy-proven significant cancer detection rates (P < 0.001), cancer core length (P < 0.0001), cancer core percentage (P < 0.001) and Gleason scores (P < 0.001) than did the systematic biopsies. The significant cancer detection rate for targeted lesions (those with Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System classification scores of 5) was 80%. Biopsy-proven significant cancer detection rates for targeted lesions ≤10 mm and >10 mm were similar for Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System scores of 4 (P = 0.707) and 5 (P = 0.386). In whole-mount specimens (n = 30), locations for 95% of significant cancers were diagnosed preoperatively. Targeted biopsies alone diagnosed 79% of significant cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Although targeted biopsies are superior to systematic biopsies in detecting significant cancers, systematic biopsies maintain an important role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Períneo/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
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