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1.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 39(1): 48-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875734

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate risk factors for preeclampsia (PE) in women with pregestational diabetes.Methods: Retrospective cohort study of women with pregestational diabetes cared for at a specialized prenatal care facility. Maternal characteristics at booking and during pregnancy were studied for their association with preeclampsia. Multivariable models were tested using Poisson regression with robust estimates; results were expressed as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).Results: Preeclampsia was diagnosed in 62 of 206 women (30%, 95% CI 24-37%). Previous chronic hypertension was found in 53 subjects (26%; 95% CI 20-32%), of whom 41 (77%, 95% CI 64-88) were type 2 women. Type 1 diabetes, chronic hypertension, systolic blood pressure >124 mmHg at booking and gestational weight gain, either total or excessive for body mass index category, behaved as independent risk factors.Conclusions: In women with pregestational diabetes, some risk factors may predict PE, similar to those found in non-diabetic pregnant women. Two non-modifiable factors (type of diabetes and chronic hypertension) and two modifiable ones (systolic blood pressure levels and gestational weight gain) were found relevant in this cohort. A policy of close monitoring of blood pressure and weight gain, aiming adequate weight gain, may be added to current recommended measures. The high prevalence of PE in women with prepregnancy diabetes, especially those with initial pregnancy systolic blood pressure >124 mmHg, supports a policy of early institution of low dose aspirin. Further multicentric studies will help define the role of these risk factors as contributors to PE in pregestational diabetes.

2.
Popul Health Metr ; 17(1): 15, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) newborns present different health outcomes when classified in different birth weight strata. This study evaluated the relationship of birth weight with Infant mortality (IM) through the influence of biological, social, and health care factors in a time series. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with data collected from Information Systems (Live Births and Mortality). The mortality trends were performed for each birth weight stratum: extremely low, < 1000 g; very low, 1000-1499 g; low, 1500-2499 g; insufficient, 2500-2999 g; adequate, 3000-3900 g; and macrosomia, > 4000 g. Chi-square tests analyzed IM rates. Sequential Poisson regression analyzed the impact of the determinant factors. RESULTS: A total of 277,982 newborns were included in the study and 2088 died before their first year. There was a tendency for a decrease in mortality in all strata of weight. With the exception of macrosomics, all other strata had a higher risk for IM when compared with adequate birth weight. Extremely LBW newborns presented higher risk for mortality when born in a public hospital. A higher percentage of infant deaths were associated with lower maternal age and lower schooling for all strata. Prenatal care with less than three visits demonstrated a risk for IM in low, insufficient, and adequate birth weight strata. The cesarean section was a protective factor for IM in Extremely and Very LBW strata and it was a risk factor in adequate birth weight stratum. CONCLUSIONS: LBW had a greater association with IM, especially those children of younger mothers and those born in public hospitals.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the high prevalence of recurrent wheezing in the pediatric population, it is important to be able to identify environmental risk factors that may affect the etiology of asthma in several regions. OBJECTIVE: to identify possible risk factors associated with asthma in children (9-12 years old) in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1003 school-age children were selected for the cross-sectional study by applying a standardized written questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergy, and a supplementary questionnaire (ISAAC phase II) was added to address personal, family and environmental factors. Of these, 125 children were excluded because they did not accept to do the skin prick test, resulting in a sample of 878. RESULTS: Independent risk factors associated with asthma were bronchiolitis before two years old [OR]=3.11; 2.23-4.33, current rhinitis [0R]=2.07; 1.43-3.0; sharing bedroom during the first year of life [OR]=2.03; 1.36-3.04; atopy [OR]=1,82; 1.26-2.50; use of paracetamol more than 12 times a year [OR]=1.68; 1.20-2.31; use of antibiotics in the first six months of life [OR]=1,57 1;13-2.17; maternal asthma [OR]=1.75; 1.05-2.78, having an indoor cat during the first year of life [OR]=1.73, 1.07-2.78; premature birth [OR]=1.60,1.02-2.50. CONCLUSION: our results show that genetic backgrounds, environmental factors, premature birth, use of antibiotics before six months of life, using paracetamol once per month and the presence of co-morbidities such as rhinitis are the risk factors associated with asthma in Brazilian children.

4.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 53: e03438, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the performance of the Vascular Complications Risk Score in two public referral centers for interventional cardiology. METHOD: Subsample analysis of the Vascular Complications Risk Score, which was developed and validated in the catheterization laboratories of three cardiology referral centers (two public, one private) with a cutoff of <3 for no risk of developing vascular complications and ≥3 for risk. In this new analysis, we excluded data from the private facility, and only included participants from the original (validation) cohort of the two public hospitals. RESULTS: Among the 629 patients studied, 11.8% had vascular complications; of these, 1.8% were major and 10% minor. Among the patients with a score <3, 310 (94.5%) presented no vascular complications; of those with a score ≥3, 50 (17%) developed complications. Of those who developed vascular complications, 18 scored <3; two of these had major complications. CONCLUSION: This subanalysis confirms the ability of the Vascular Complications Risk core to predict low risk of vascular complications in patients with a score < 3.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Cardiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6043, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988325

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to measure intra- and interobserver agreement among radiologists in the assessment of pancreatic perfusion by computed tomography (CT). Thirty-nine perfusion CT scans were analyzed. The following parameters were measured by three readers: blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP). Statistical analysis was performed using the Bland-Altman method, linear mixed model analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). There was no significant intraobserver variability for the readers regarding BF, BV or TTP. There were session effects for BF in the pancreatic body and MTT in the pancreatic tail and whole pancreas. There were reader effects for BV in the pancreatic head, pancreatic body and whole pancreas. There were no effects for the interaction between session and reader for any perfusion parameter. ICCs showed substantial agreement for the interobserver measurements and moderate to substantial agreement for the intraobserver measurements, with the exception of MTT. In conclusion, satisfactory reproducibility of measurements was observed for TTP in all pancreatic regions, for BF in the head and BV in the tail, and these parameters seem to ensure a reasonable estimation of pancreatic perfusion.

6.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03438, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1013170

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the performance of the Vascular Complications Risk Score in two public referral centers for interventional cardiology. Method: Subsample analysis of the Vascular Complications Risk Score, which was developed and validated in the catheterization laboratories of three cardiology referral centers (two public, one private) with a cutoff of <3 for no risk of developing vascular complications and ≥3 for risk. In this new analysis, we excluded data from the private facility, and only included participants from the original (validation) cohort of the two public hospitals. Results: Among the 629 patients studied, 11.8% had vascular complications; of these, 1.8% were major and 10% minor. Among the patients with a score <3, 310 (94.5%) presented no vascular complications; of those with a score ≥3, 50 (17%) developed complications. Of those who developed vascular complications, 18 scored <3; two of these had major complications. Conclusion: This subanalysis confirms the ability of the Vascular Complications Risk core to predict low risk of vascular complications in patients with a score < 3.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do Escore de Risco para Complicações Vasculares em duas instituições públicas de referência para cardiologia intervencionista. Método: Análise de subamostras do Escore de Risco para Complicações Vasculares, que foi desenvolvida e validada nos laboratórios de cateterização de três instituições de referência em cardiologia (duas públicas, uma particular) com um valor de corte de <3 para nenhum risco de desenvolver complicações vasculares e ≥3 para risco. Nesta nova análise, excluímos dados do centro particular e apenas incluímos participantes da coorte original (validação) dos dois hospitais públicos. Resultados: Entre os 629 participantes estudados, 11,8% tiveram complicações vasculares; destas, 1,8% foram maiores e 10%, menores. Entre os pacientes com um escore <3, 310 (94,5%) não apresentaram nenhuma complicação vascular; daqueles com um escore ≥3, 50 (17%) desenvolveram complicações. Daqueles que desenvolveram complicações vasculares, 18 pontuaram <3; dois destes tiveram complicações maiores. Conclusão: Esta subanálise confirma a habilidade do Escore de Risco para Complicações Vasculares de predizer baixo risco de complicações vasculares em pacientes com um escore <3.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño del Score de Riesgo para Complicaciones Vasculares en dos centros públicos de referencia para cardiología intervencionista. Método: Análisis de submuestras del Score de Riesgo para Complicaciones Vasculares, que fue desarrollado y validado en los laboratorios de cateterización de tres centros de referencia en cardiología (dos públicos, uno privado) con punto de corte <3 para ningún riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones vasculares y ≥3 para riesgo. En este nuevo análisis, excluimos datos de la institución privada y solo incluimos a participantes de la cohorte original (validación) de dos hospitales públicos. Resultados: Entre los 629 participantes estudiados, el 11,8% tuvieron complicaciones vasculares; de estas, el 1,8% fueron mayores y el 10%, menores. Entre los pacientes con un score <3, 310 (94,5%) no presentaron ninguna complicación vascular; de aquellos con un score ≥3, 50 (17%) desarrollaron complicaciones. De los que desarrollaron complicaciones vasculares, 18 tuvieron un puntaje <3; dos de estos tuvieron complicaciones mayores. Conclusión: Este subanálisis confirma la habilidad del Score de Riesgo para Complicaciones Vasculares de predecir bajo riesgo de complicaciones vasculares en pacientes con un score <3.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/enfermagem , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Fatores de Risco , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea
7.
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(2): 181-185, 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023686

RESUMO

Dando continuidade aos artigos da série "Perguntas que você sempre quis fazer, mas nunca teve coragem", que tem como objetivo responder e sugerir referências para o melhor entendimento das principais dúvidas dos pesquisadores do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre sobre estatística, este segundo artigo se propõe a responder às principais dúvidas levantadas sobre Teste de Hipóteses. São discutidas questões referentes à metodologia de um teste de hipóteses na concepção clássica de Inferência Estatística, bem como tamanho de efeito, tipos de erros, valor de p e poder. Os conceitos são abordados numa linguagem acessível ao público leigo e diversas referências são sugeridas para os curiosos em relação ao tema. (AU)


Continuing the series of articles "Questions you have always wanted to ask, but never had the courage to", which aims to answer the most common questions of researchers at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre regarding statistics and to suggest references for a better understanding, this second article addresses the topic of hypothesis testing. The hypothesis testing method is discussed from a classical conception of statistical inference, including effect size, type of errors, p-value and power. The concepts are explained in plain language for lay readers and several references are suggested for those curious about the topic. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Testes de Hipótese , Interpretação Estatística de Dados
8.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 39: e20170230, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identify in patients with type 2 diabetes what changes in the feet would be associated with demographic, clinical, biochemical and treatment characteristics and which would increase the risk of mortality. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal study evaluating the alterations in feet of outpatients attended at a nursing visit. Data from the clinical history and foot exam were collected from 918 medical records of a convenience sample. RESULTS: At 10 years, the cumulative mortality attributable to peripheral polyneuropathy was 44.7%, to peripheral artery disease was 71.7%, to both conditions were 62.4%, and to amputation was 67.6%. After multivariate analysis, duration of nursing follow-up remained as the only protective factor against death (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of death in these patients decreased when they had consultations with a nurse educator. Ischemic feet, amputation, and coronary artery disease remained independent risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Pé Diabético/mortalidade , Amputação/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Pé Diabético/enfermagem , Pé Diabético/prevenção & controle , Neuropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização
9.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 143(1): 59-65, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes among women with pre-gestational diabetes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of pregnant women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes attending a university hospital in Brazil. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were compared among deliveries between May 1, 2005, and December 31, 2010, and between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015. Risks were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total 220 women were included. Type 1 diabetes was more frequent in 2005-2010 than in 2011-2015, and type 2 diabetes was more frequent in 2011-2015 (P=0.005). History of macrosomia (P=0.011), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (P=0.015), and pre-gestational excess weight (body mass index >25 kg/m2 ; P=0.003) was more frequent in 2011-2015. For women with type 1 diabetes, pre-gestational weight (P=0.007) and glycated hemoglobin (P=0.026) were higher in 2011-2015. For women with type 2 diabetes, previous hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (P=0.032) were more prevalent and family history of diabetes (P<0.001) less prevalent in 2011-2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were similar for type 1 and type 2, and across both periods. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes became more common over the two time periods and women with type 1 diabetes had higher pre-gestational weight. Perinatal outcomes were similar.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 62(1): 55-63, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694632

RESUMO

Objective Our objective was to evaluate gestational weight gain (GWG) patterns and their relation to birth weight. Subjects and methods We prospectively enrolled 474 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) at a university hospital (Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2009-May 2015). GWG was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines; birth weight was classified as large (LGA) or small (SGA) for gestational age. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined. Results Adequate GWG occurred in 121 women [25.5%, 95% CI: 22, 30%]; excessive, in 180 [38.0%, 95% CI: 34, 43%]; and insufficient, in 173 [36.5%, 95% CI: 32, 41%]. In women with normal body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of SGA was higher in those with insufficient compared to adequate GWG (30% vs. 0%, p < 0.001). In women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, excessive GWG increased the prevalence of LGA [aRR 2.58, 95% CI: 1.06, 6.29] and protected from SGA [aRR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.64]. Insufficient vs. adequate GWG did not influence the prevalence of SGA [aRR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.31, 1.22]; insufficient vs. excessive GWG protected from LGA [aRR 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.91]. Conclusions One quarter of this cohort achieved adequate GWG, indicating that specific ranges have to be tailored for GDM. To prevent inadequate birth weight, excessive GWG in women with higher BMI and less than recommended GWG in normal BMI women should be avoided; less than recommended GWG may be suitable for overweight and obese women.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 55-63, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887628

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective Our objective was to evaluate gestational weight gain (GWG) patterns and their relation to birth weight. Subjects and methods We prospectively enrolled 474 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) at a university hospital (Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2009-May 2015). GWG was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines; birth weight was classified as large (LGA) or small (SGA) for gestational age. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined. Results Adequate GWG occurred in 121 women [25.5%, 95% CI: 22, 30%]; excessive, in 180 [38.0%, 95% CI: 34, 43%]; and insufficient, in 173 [36.5%, 95% CI: 32, 41%]. In women with normal body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of SGA was higher in those with insufficient compared to adequate GWG (30% vs. 0%, p < 0.001). In women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, excessive GWG increased the prevalence of LGA [aRR 2.58, 95% CI: 1.06, 6.29] and protected from SGA [aRR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.64]. Insufficient vs. adequate GWG did not influence the prevalence of SGA [aRR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.31, 1.22]; insufficient vs. excessive GWG protected from LGA [aRR 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.91]. Conclusions One quarter of this cohort achieved adequate GWG, indicating that specific ranges have to be tailored for GDM. To prevent inadequate birth weight, excessive GWG in women with higher BMI and less than recommended GWG in normal BMI women should be avoided; less than recommended GWG may be suitable for overweight and obese women.

13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 66(3): 442-446, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Esophageal variceal bleeding is a severe complication of portal hypertension. The standard diagnostic screening test and therapeutic procedure for esophageal varices (EV) is endoscopy, which is invasive in pediatric patients. This study aimed to evaluate the role of noninvasive parameters as predictors of large varices in children with intrahepatic portal hypertension. METHODS: Participants included in this cross-sectional study underwent a screening endoscopy. Variceal size, red marks, and portal gastropathy were assessed and rated. Patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 (G1) with small or no varices and Group 2 (G2) with large varices. The population consisted of 98 children with no history of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, with a mean age of 8.9 ±â€Š4.7 years. The main outcome evaluated was the presence of large varices. RESULTS: The first endoscopy session revealed the presence of large varices in 32 children. The best noninvasive predictors for large varices were platelets (Area under the ROC Curve [AUROC] 0.67; 95% CI 0.57-0.78), the Clinical Prediction Rule (CPR; AUROC 0.65; 95% CI 0.54-0.76), and risk score (AUROC 0.66; 95% CI 0.56-0.76). The logistic regression model showed that children with a CPR value under 114 were 8.59 times more likely to have large varices. Risk scores higher than -1.2 also increased the likelihood of large varices (OR 6.09; P = 0.014), as did a platelet count/spleen size z score lower than 25 (OR 3.99; P = 0.043). The combination of these three tests showed a high negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The CPR, the risk score, and the platelet count/spleen size z score could be helpful in identifying cirrhotic children who may be eligible for endoscopy.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/sangue , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/sangue , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Baço/patologia
14.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 33(6): 887-892, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulna length (UL) has been used in mathematical formulas to predict the body height of healthy and sick individuals. However, the evaluation of its use with patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) is scarce. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical equation to estimate critically ill patients' height using the UL measure and to evaluate its agreement with measured standing height. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed at the ICU of a tertiary hospital in Brazil. A total of 100 patients aged ≥18 years who had their body height measured before ICU admission were enrolled. The equation was developed through multiple linear regression, and its agreement was assessed through paired Student's t test and Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: The following formula was obtained: height in cm = 153.492 - (7.97 × sex [sex: male = 1, female = 2]) + (0.974 × UL [in cm]). The difference between means of measured height (MH) and height estimated from UL was not significant (166.26 ± 8.75 cm and 166.30 ± 5.29 cm, respectively, P = .96), and a significant correlation (r = 0.624, P < .001) was detected. In the Bland-Altman analysis, UL was in agreement with MH; however, there was a significant bias (P < .001) suggesting that it may be disproportional and dependent on the average's height value. CONCLUSION: The mathematical equation for height estimation using UL developed in this study matched the MH of critically ill patients. However, we suggest more studies for its validation.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Estatura , Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Perna (Membro) , Conceitos Matemáticos , Ulna , Adulto , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Brasil , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 39: e20170230, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-978489

RESUMO

Resumo OBJETIVO SIdentificar em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 quais alterações nos pés estariam associadas às características demográficas, clínicas, bioquímicas e de tratamento e quais delas aumentariam o risco de mortalidade. MÉTODOS Estudo longitudinal retrospectivo que avaliou as alterações nos pés de pacientes externos atendidos em consulta de enfermagem. Os dados da história clínica e do exame dos pés foram coletados de 918 prontuários de uma amostra por conveniência. RESULTADOS Em 10 anos, a mortalidade cumulativa atribuída a polineuropatia sensitiva periférica foi 44,7%, pela doença vascular periférica 71,7%, pela associação das duas condições 62,4% e pela amputação 67,6%. Após análise multivariável, o tempo de acompanhamento com enfermeiros permaneceu como único fator de proteção para a mortalidade (p < 0,001). CONCLUSÃO O risco de morrer nesses pacientes diminuiu quando consultaram com enfermeiros educadores. Permaneceu como fator de risco independente pacientes com pé isquêmico, amputação e doença arterial coronariana.


Resumen OBJETIVOS Identificar en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 que alteraciones en los pies estarían asociadas a las características demográficas, clínicas, bioquímicas y de tratamiento y cuáles de ellas aumentarían el riesgo de mortalidad. MÉTODOS Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo que evaluó los cambios en los pies de pacientes externos atendidos en consulta de enfermería. Los datos de la historia clínica y del examen de los pies fueron recolectados de 918 prontuarios, una muestra por conveniencia. RESULTADOS En 10 años, la mortalidad acumulativa atribuida a la polineuropatía sensitiva periférica fue 44.7%, por la enfermedad vascular periférica 71.7%, por la asociación de las dos condiciones 62.4% y por la amputación 67.6%. Después del análisis multivariable, el tiempo de acompañamiento con enfermeros permaneció como único factor de protección para la mortalidad (p < 0,001). CONCLUSIÓN El riesgo de morir en estos pacientes disminuyó cuando consultaron con enfermeros educadores. Se mantuvo como factor de riesgo independiente pacientes con pie isquémico, amputación y enfermedad arterial coronaria.


Abstract OBJECTIVES Identify in patients with type 2 diabetes what changes in the feet would be associated with demographic, clinical, biochemical and treatment characteristics and which would increase the risk of mortality. METHODS Retrospective longitudinal study evaluating the alterations in feet of outpatients attended at a nursing visit. Data from the clinical history and foot exam were collected from 918 medical records of a convenience sample. RESULTS At 10 years, the cumulative mortality attributable to peripheral polyneuropathy was 44.7%, to peripheral artery disease was 71.7%, to both conditions were 62.4%, and to amputation was 67.6%. After multivariate analysis, duration of nursing follow-up remained as the only protective factor against death (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The risk of death in these patients decreased when they had consultations with a nurse educator. Ischemic feet, amputation, and coronary artery disease remained independent risk factors.

16.
Clin. biomed. res ; 38(4): 414-418, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024774

RESUMO

A revista do HCPA (Clinical & Biomedical Research) está reabrindo a seção de Bioestatística com o intuito de apresentar artigos explicativos, conceituais ou tutoriais, de modo a elucidar os leitores sobre os mais diversos temas estatísticos. Neste contexto, este artigo será o primeiro de uma série que tem como objetivo responder algumas das questões mais levantadas por pesquisadores da área da saúde. Começando pela Estatística Descritiva, alguns conceitos são esclarecidos e diversas referências são indicadas para o estudo do tema e para análises em SPSS ou R-project. (AU)


The HCPA journal (Clinical & Biomedical Research) is reopening its Biostatistics section with the aim of presenting readers with explanatory, conceptual or tutorial articles on a wide range of statistical topics. In this context, this is the first in a series of articles seeking to answer some of the questions raised by health researchers. Starting with descriptive statistics, some concepts are introduced and several references are indicated for those interested in studying the topic and performing analyses in SPSS or R-project. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise Estatística , Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados
17.
Pediatr Transplant ; 21(8)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034612

RESUMO

MLVI has been used to assess adherence. To determine the MLVI in children <12 years of age at transplantation and to identify demographic correlates and consequences for the graft. This is a retrospective study of 50 outpatients (4.0 ± 3.5 years), at least 13-month post-liver transplantation. The outcomes evaluated were MLVI, ALT > 60 IU/L, ACR, death, and graft loss. We analyzed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, indication for transplantation, and type of donor. Student's t test and the chi-square test were used. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ .05. Seventy-two percent were infants or preschoolers, 62% biliary atresia. Seventy-four percent of the mothers had middle-school education, and 54% of the families had an income ≤3632.4 US$/y. Twenty-two (44%) patients had a MLVI ≥ 2 SD; this was more prevalent in families with higher incomes (P = .045). ALT levels > 60 IU/L were more common in MLVI ≥ 2 SD group (P = .035). ACR episodes were similar between groups (P = 1.000). No patient died or lost the graft. MLVI ≥ 2 SD may be an indicator of the risk of medication non-adherence.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/sangue , Transplante de Fígado , Adesão à Medicação , Tacrolimo/sangue , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(9): 2963-2970, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954147

RESUMO

This study analyses the relationship between femicides and indicators of socio-economic condition, demography, access to communications, and health situation, in Brazilian state capitals and large-population municipalities. It is an ecological study using the standardized mean coefficient of female mortality due to aggression as a marker for femicide in the years 2007-09 and 2011-13. The Pearson Correlation test was used for the statistical analysis between the outcome and 17 independent variables, and those that were statistically significant (p < 0.05) were introduced into a multivariate linear regression model, using backward elimination. In the first three-year period the average rate of femicide was 4.5 deaths per 100,000 women, and in the second period it was 4.9/100,000. Poverty (ß = -0.330; p = 0.006), Pentecostalism (ß = 0.237; p = 0.002) and male mortality by aggression (ß = 0.841; p = 0.000) were associated with femicides. The negative association between poverty and feminine deaths indicates a paradoxical relationship, in that women who die in the richer regions are mostly poor. A relationship was also found between gender violence, fundamentalist religious beliefs, and urban violence.


Assuntos
Agressão , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pobreza , Religião , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(9): 2963-2970, Set. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890445

RESUMO

Resumo Este estudo objetiva analisar a relação entre feminicídios e indicadores socioeconômicos, demográficos, de acesso e saúde em capitais e municípios brasileiros de grande porte populacional. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que utilizou o coeficiente médio padronizado da mortalidade feminina por agressão como marcador de feminicídio nos triênios de 2007-2009 e 2011-2013. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste de Correlação de Pearson entre o desfecho e 17 variáveis independentes, e as que apresentaram significância estatística (p < 0,05) foram introduzidas em um modelo de regressão linear multivariada, método Backward. No primeiro triênio a taxa média de feminicídio foi de 4,5 óbitos por 100 mil mulheres, e no segundo período foi de 4,9/100 mil. Pobreza (β = -0,330; p = 0,006), pentecostalismo (β = 0,237; p = 0,002) e mortalidade masculina por agressão (β = 0,841; p = 0,000) estiveram associados aos feminicídios. A associação negativa entre pobreza e mortes femininas indica uma relação paradoxal, na medida em que as mulheres que morrem nas regiões mais ricas são pobres em sua maioria. Ainda, encontrou-se relação entre violência de gênero, fundamentalismos e violência urbana.


Abstract This study analyses the relationship between femicides and indicators of socio-economic condition, demography, access to communications, and health situation, in Brazilian state capitals and large-population municipalities. It is an ecological study using the standardized mean coefficient of female mortality due to aggression as a marker for femicide in the years 2007-09 and 2011-13. The Pearson Correlation test was used for the statistical analysis between the outcome and 17 independent variables, and those that were statistically significant (p < 0.05) were introduced into a multivariate linear regression model, using backward elimination. In the first three-year period the average rate of femicide was 4.5 deaths per 100,000 women, and in the second period it was 4.9/100,000. Poverty (β = -0.330; p = 0.006), Pentecostalism (β = 0.237; p = 0.002) and male mortality by aggression (β = 0.841; p = 0.000) were associated with femicides. The negative association between poverty and feminine deaths indicates a paradoxical relationship, in that women who die in the richer regions are mostly poor. A relationship was also found between gender violence, fundamentalist religious beliefs, and urban violence.

20.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 135(4): 376-382, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793129

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:: The prevalence and characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have changed over time, reflecting the nutritional transition and changes in diagnostic criteria. We aimed to evaluate characteristics of women with GDM over a 20-year interval. DESIGN AND SETTING:: Comparison of two pregnancy cohorts enrolled in different periods, in university hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil: 1991 to 1993 (n = 216); and 2009 to 2013 (n = 375). METHODS:: We applied two diagnostic criteria to the cohorts: International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG)/World Health Organization (WHO); and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). We compared maternal-fetal characteristics and outcomes between the cohorts and within each cohort. RESULTS:: The women in the 2010s cohort were older (31 ± 7 versus 30 ± 6 years), more frequently obese (29.4% versus 15.2%), with more hypertensive disorders (14.1% versus 5.6%) and at increased risk of cesarean section (adjusted relative risk 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.4 - 2.3), compared with those in the 1990s cohort. Neonatal outcomes such as birth weight category and hypoglycemia were similar. In the 1990s cohort, women only fulfilling IADPSG/WHO or only fulfilling NICE criteria had similar characteristics and outcomes; in the 2010s cohort, women only diagnosed through IADPSG/WHO were more frequently obese than those diagnosed only through NICE (33 ± 8 kg/m2 versus 28 ± 6 kg/m2; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:: The epidemic of obesity seems to have modified the profile of women with GDM. Despite similar neonatal outcomes, there were differences in the intensity of treatment over time. The IADPSG/WHO criteria seemed to identify a profile more associated with obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/complicações , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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