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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932241, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal-dominant hereditary disease that is distinguished by multiple polyps in the stomach or intestinal tract. It is associated with a high risk of malignancy. Pathogenic variants in SMAD4 or BMPR1A account for 40% of all cases. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy because of exacerbation of anemia. She had numerous erythematous polyps in most parts of her stomach. Based on biopsy findings, juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) was suspected morphologically, but there was no evidence of malignancy. Colonoscopy showed stemmed hyperplastic polyps and an adenoma; video capsule endoscopy revealed no lesions in the small intestine. After preoperative surveillance, laparoscopic total gastrectomy with D1 lymph node dissection was performed to prevent malignant transformation. The pathological diagnosis was juvenile polyp-like polyposis with adenocarcinoma. In addition, a germline pathogenic variant in the SMAD4 gene was detected with genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS JPS can be diagnosed with endoscopy and genetic testing. Further, appropriate surgical management may prevent cancer-related death in patients with this condition.

2.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115236

RESUMO

[Objective] Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder caused by a germline pathogenic variant in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Endometrial cancer frequently precedes another LS-associated tumor. This study aimed to clarify the incidence and features of LS in young Japanese endometrial cancer patients.[Methods] Sixty-five patients aged 40 years or younger, who were diagnosed with endometrial cancer, were enrolled in this study. Targeted sequencing of a hereditary colorectal cancer-related gene panel including the MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 was conducted on DNA samples extracted from blood cells.[Results] Overall, 6 missense variants (2 in MSH2, 2 in MSH6, and 2 in PMS2), 1 inframe deletion variant in MSH2, 1 splice variant in MSH2, and 1 two-base substitution in the 3' untranslated region in MLH1 were detected in 9 (13.8%) patients. Among these, the splice variant c.1276G > T (p.Ile411_Gly426del16) in MSH2 was annotated as pathogenic, while other variants were of uncertain significance. The patient with the pathogenic variant had a family history of endometrial and colorectal cancer and was diagnosed with endometrial cancer at age 35.[Conclusion] The incidence of LS among Japanese endometrial cancer patients of reproductive age (≤ 40 years) in this study was at least 1.5%; however, 12.3% of patients had variants of uncertain significance in MMR genes.

3.
J Cutan Pathol ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882152

RESUMO

Secretory carcinoma of the skin is an extremely rare adnexal tumor, histopathologically identical to homologous lesions in the salivary glands and breast tissue. Although this tumor was previously reported as indolent, we report a case of secretory carcinoma of the skin with metastases and recurrence. The patient, a 31-year-old women, had a subcutaneous mass in the right axilla. The resected specimen contained a circumscribed mass, with proliferating tumor cells that exhibited prominent nucleoli. They exhibited glandular and papillary growth patterns and there were amphophilic secretions in the glands. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for mammaglobin and S100. The tumor was surrounded by sweat glands and there was no mammary glandular tissue, suggesting that it was derived from axillary sweat glands. Accordingly, we made a diagnosis of secretory carcinoma of the skin. Four years after the operation, there were metastases in both lungs. The resected specimen revealed a tumor identical to that of the original skin tumor. Next-generation sequencing-based multiplex gene assay performed on the metastatic tissue revealed an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This is a rare case report of secretory carcinoma of the skin with lymph node metastases and recurrence in both lungs.

5.
Pathol Int ; 71(5): 360-364, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657250

RESUMO

Recently, two cancer genomic profiling tests have been approved in Japan and implemented in routine clinical practice: the FDA-approved FoundationOne CDx test, and the OncoGuide NCC Oncopanel test. The quality and quantity of DNA significantly affects the sequencing results; therefore, preparing a sufficient amount of high-quality DNA for clinical cancer genomic profiling tests is important. We examined the best practices for the extraction of cancer genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues of pancreatic, lung and colon cancer specimens. We found that the quality of cancer genomic DNA extracted from 10-µm-thick FFPE samples improved significantly, compared with that from 4-µm-thick FFPE samples, suggesting that 10-µm-thick FFPE samples are preferable for clinical cancer genomic profiling tests. For convenience, we created a quick reference table for calculating the required number of FFPE slides.

6.
Amino Acids ; 53(3): 381-393, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598768

RESUMO

While it has been hypothesized that brown adipocytes responsible for mammalian thermogenesis are absent in birds, the existence of beige fat has yet to be studied directly. The present study tests the hypothesis that beige fat emerges in birds as a mechanism of physiological adaptation to cold environments. Subcutaneous neck adipose tissue from cold-acclimated or triiodothyronine (T3)-treated chickens exhibited increases in the expression of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP, an ortholog of mammalian UCP2 and UCP3) gene and some known mammalian beige adipocyte-specific markers. Morphological characteristics of white adipose tissues of treated chickens showed increased numbers of both small and larger clusters of multilocular fat cells within the tissues. Increases in protein levels of avUCP and mitochondrial marker protein, voltage-dependent anion channel, and immunohistochemical analysis for subcutaneous neck fat revealed the presence of potentially thermogenic mitochondria-rich cells. This is the first evidence that the capacity for thermogenesis may be acquired by differentiating adipose tissue into beige-like fat for maintaining temperature homeostasis in the subcutaneous fat 'neck warmer' in chickens exposed to a cold environment.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327492

RESUMO

Hereditary gynecological cancers are caused by several inherited genes. Tumors that arise in the female reproductive system, such as ovaries and the uterus, overlap with hereditary cancers. Several hereditary cancer-related genes are important because they might lead to therapeutic targets. Treatment of hereditary cancers should be updated in line with the advent of various new methods of evaluation. Next-generation sequencing has led to rapid, economical genetic analyses that have prompted a concomitant and significant paradigm shift with respect to hereditary cancers. Molecular tumor profiling is an epochal method for determining therapeutic targets. Clinical treatment strategies are now being designed based on biomarkers based on tumor profiling. Furthermore, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines significantly changed the genetic testing process in 2020 to initially consider multi-gene panel (MGP) evaluation. Here, we reviewed the molecular features and clinical management of hereditary gynecological malignancies, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), and Lynch, Li-Fraumeni, Cowden, and Peutz-Jeghers syndromes. We also reviewed cancer-susceptible genes revealed by MGP tests.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
8.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy is performed for the primary prevention of ovarian cancer in patients with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. We performed risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the first time in Japan in 2008, and we experienced 20 cases of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy through 2019. In the past, the use of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in Japan was restricted because it was not covered by a Japanese National Health Insurance. Since April 2020, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy has been covered by insurance for patients with breast-ovarian cancer syndrome and pre-existing breast cancer, and this surgery is expected to become more widely implemented in Japan. METHODS: To contribute to the widespread use of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in the future, we retrospectively reviewed 20 cases of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy at our hospital cohort study to clarify the issues in its implementation. RESULTS: The variant genes for which risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was indicated were BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 13 (65%) and 7 patients (35%), respectively. The median age at which risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was performed was 49 years (range, 38-58), 13 patients (65%) had gone through menopause, and 16 patients (80%) had a history of breast cancer. Of the five patients (25%) with vasomotor symptoms, four received Chinese medicine, and only one received hormone replacement therapy. Occult cancer was detected in the removed ovaries in two patients (10%), although no postoperative peritoneal carcinogenesis has been observed to date. CONCLUSIONS: Women who paid for risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy out of pocket were older than the recommended age at which the procedure should be performed, and this may explain the higher rate of occult cancers than previously reported. We need to perform risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy at the recommended age to ensure that the procedure is effective for primary prevention.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12581, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724113

RESUMO

The use of primary patient-derived organoids for drug sensitivity and resistance testing could play an important role in precision cancer medicine. We developed expandable ovarian cancer organoids in < 3 weeks; these organoids captured the characteristics of histological cancer subtypes and replicated the mutational landscape of the primary tumours. Seven pairs of organoids (3 high-grade serous, 1 clear cell, 3 endometrioid) and original tumours shared 59.5% (36.1-73.1%) of the variants identified. Copy number variations were also similar among organoids and primary tumours. The organoid that harboured the BRCA1 pathogenic variant (p.L63*) showed a higher sensitivity to PARP inhibitor, olaparib, as well as to platinum drugs compared to the other organoids, whereas an organoid derived from clear cell ovarian cancer was resistant to conventional drugs for ovarian cancer, namely platinum drugs, paclitaxel, and olaparib. The overall success rate of primary organoid culture, including those of various histological subtypes, was 80% (28/35). Our data show that patient-derived organoids are suitable physiological ex vivo cancer models that can be used to screen effective personalised ovarian cancer drugs.

10.
J Hum Genet ; 65(12): 1045-1053, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661284

RESUMO

The management of secondary findings (SFs), which are beyond the intended purpose of the analysis, from clinical comprehensive genomic analysis using next generation sequencing (NGS) presents challenges. Policy statements regarding their clinical management have been announced in Japan and other countries. In Japan, however, the current status of and attitudes of clinical genetics professionals toward reporting them are unclear. We conducted a questionnaire survey of clinical genetics professionals at two time points (2013 and 2019) to determine the enforcement of the SF management policy in cases of comprehensive genetic analysis of intractable diseases and clinical cancer genome profiling testing. According to the survey findings, 40% and 70% of the respondents stated in the 2013 and 2019 surveys, respectively, that they had an SF policy in the field of intractable diseases, indicating that SF policy awareness in Japan has changed significantly in recent years. Furthermore, a total of 80% of respondents stated that their facility had established a policy for clinical cancer genome profiling testing in the 2019 survey. In both surveys, the policies included the selection criteria for genes to be disclosed and the procedure to return SFs, followed by recommendations and proposals regarding SFs in Japan and other countries. To create a better list of the genes to be disclosed, further examination is needed considering the characteristics of each analysis.

11.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566746

RESUMO

Panel sequencing of susceptibility genes for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome has uncovered numerous germline variants; however, their pathogenic relevance and ethnic diversity remain unclear. Here, we examined the prevalence of germline variants among 568 Japanese patients with BRCA1/2-wildtype HBOC syndrome and a strong family history. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified on 12 causal genes for 37 cases (6.5%), with recurrence for 4 SNVs/indels and 1 CNV. Comparisons with non-cancer east-Asian populations and European familial breast cancer cohorts revealed significant enrichment of PALB2, BARD1, and BLM mutations. Younger onset was associated with but not predictive of these mutations. Significant somatic loss-of-function alterations were confirmed on the wildtype alleles of genes with germline mutations, including PALB2 additional somatic truncations. This study highlights Japanese-associated germline mutations among patients with BRCA1/2 wildtype HBOC syndrome and a strong family history, and provides evidence for the medical care of this high-risk population.

12.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(5): 657-661, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378667

RESUMO

The development of specialized training programs for medical personnel, particularly nurses, clinical laboratory technicians, and pharmacists, is considered critical for the promotion of genomic medicine throughout Japan. Specifically, medical personnel skilled at analyzing and understanding high-throughput genomic data are in high demand. In this symposium, we will introduce the basic knowledge and skills necessary for processing genomic data.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados/educação , Terapia Genética/métodos , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Corpo Clínico/educação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Competência Clínica , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Japão , Mutação
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4429, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157140

RESUMO

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important drug targets with diverse therapeutic applications. However, there are still more than a hundred orphan GPCRs, whose protein functions and biochemical features remain unidentified. Gpr176 encodes a class-A orphan GPCR that has a role in circadian clock regulation in mouse hypothalamus and is also implicated in human breast cancer transcriptional response. Here we show that Gpr176 is N-glycosylated. Peptide-N-glycosidase treatment of mouse hypothalamus extracts revealed that endogenous Gpr176 undergoes N-glycosylation. Using a heterologous expression system, we show that N-glycosylation occurs at four conserved asparagine residues in the N-terminal region of Gpr176. Deficient N-glycosylation due to mutation of these residues reduced the protein expression of Gpr176. At the molecular function level, Gpr176 has constitutive, agonist-independent activity that leads to reduced cAMP synthesis. Although deficient N-glycosylation did not compromise this intrinsic activity, the resultant reduction in protein expression was accompanied by attenuation of cAMP-repressive activity in the cells. We also demonstrate that human GPR176 is N-glycosylated. Importantly, missense variations in the conserved N-glycosylation sites of human GPR176 (rs1473415441; rs761894953) affected N-glycosylation and thereby attenuated protein expression and cAMP-repressive activity in the cells. We show that N-glycosylation is a prerequisite for the efficient protein expression of functional Gpr176/GPR176.


Assuntos
AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Homologia de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9349132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185225

RESUMO

Poor quality of biological samples will result in an inaccurate analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Therefore, methods to accurately evaluate sample integrity are needed. Among methods for evaluating RNA quality, the RNA integrity number equivalent (RINe) is widely used, whereas the DV200, which evaluates the percentage of fragments of >200 nucleotides, is also used as a quality assessment standard. In this study, we compared the RINe and DV200 RNA quality indexes to determine the most suitable RNA index for the NGS analysis. Seventy-one RNA samples were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples (n = 30), fresh-frozen samples (n = 25), or cell lines (n = 16). After assessing RNA quality using the RINe and DV200, we prepared two kinds of stranded mRNA sequencing libraries. Finally, we calculated the correlation between each RNA quality index and the amount of library product (1st PCR product per input RNA). The DV200 measure showed stronger correlation with the amount of library product than the RINe (R 2 = 0.8208 for the DV200 versus 0.6927 for the RINe). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the DV200 was the better marker for predicting efficient library production than the RINe using a threshold of >10 ng/ng for the amount of the 1st PCR product per input RNA (cutoff value for the RINe and DV200, 2.3 and 66.1%; area under the curve, 0.99 and 0.91; sensitivity, 82% and 92%; and specificity, 93% and 100%, respectively). Our results indicate that NGS libraries prepared using RNA samples with the DV200 value > 66.1% exhibit greater sensitivity and specificity than those prepared with the RINe values > 2.3. These findings suggest that the DV200 is superior to the RINe, especially for low-quality RNA, because it is a more consistent assessment of the amount of the 1st NGS library product per input.

15.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(5): 796-805, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056421

RESUMO

Aggregational states of amyloid ß-protein (Aß) are critical for its neurotoxicity, although they are not well-characterized, particularly after binding to the cell membranes. This is one reason why the mechanisms of Aß neurotoxicity are controversial and elusive. In this study, the effects of toxic Aß-(1-42) fibrils formed in the membrane on cellular processes were investigated using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Consistent with previous observations, fibrillar Aßs formed on the membranes induced activation of caspase-3, the effector caspase for apoptosis. Knockdown analyses of the initiator caspases, caspase-8 and caspase-9, indicated that the apoptosis was induced via activation of caspase-8, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. We also found that inflammation signaling pathways including Toll-like receptors and inflammasomes NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 are involved in the initiation of apoptosis by the Aß fibrils. These inflammation-related molecules are promising targets for the prevention of apoptotic cell death induced by Aß.

16.
J Reprod Dev ; 66(2): 135-141, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902805

RESUMO

Negative energy balance in domestic animals suppresses their reproductive function. These animals commonly use long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) from adipocytes as an energy source under states of malnutrition. The G-protein coupled receptor, GPR120, is a specific receptor for LCFAs, but its role in reproductive function remains unknown in domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to examine whether GPR120 is involved in the reproductive system of cattle. GPR120 mRNA expression was evaluated in brain, pituitary, and ovarian tissue samples by RT-PCR. GPR120 gene expression was detected with high intensity only in the anterior pituitary sample, and GPR120-immunoreactive cells were found in the anterior pituitary gland. Double immunohistochemistry of GPR120 in the anterior pituitary hormone-producing cells, such as gonadotropes, thyrotropes, lactotropes, somatotropes, and corticotropes, was performed to clarify the distribution of GPR120 in the anterior pituitary gland of ovariectomized heifers. Luteinizing hormone ß subunit (LHß)- and follicle-stimulating hormone ß subunit (FSHß)-immunoreactive cells demonstrated GPR120 immunoreactivity at 80.7% and 85.9%, respectively. Thyrotropes, lactotropes, somatotropes, and corticotropes coexpressed GPR120 at 21.1%, 5.4%, 13.6%, and 14.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggests that GPR120 in the anterior pituitary gland might mediate LCFA signaling to regulate gonadotrope functions, such as hormone secretion or production, in cattle.

17.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(3): 403-417, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of novel antitumor agents and accompanying biomarkers has improved survival across several tumor types. Previously, we published provisional clinical opinion for the diagnosis and use of immunotherapy in patients with deficient DNA mismatch repair tumors. Recently, efficacy of tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors against neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) fusion gene-positive advanced solid tumors have been established as the second tumor-agnostic treatment, making it necessary to develop the guideline prioritized for these patients. METHODS: Clinical questions regarding medical care were formulated for patients with NTRK-positive advanced solid tumors. Relevant publications were searched by PubMed and Cochrane Database. Critical publications and conference reports were added manually. Systematic reviews were performed for each clinical question for the purpose of developing clinical recommendations. The committee members identified by Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) and Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) voted to determine the level of each recommendation considering the strength of evidence, expected risks and benefits to patients, and other related factors. Thereafter, a peer review by experts nominated from JSCO, JSMO, and Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, and the public comments among all Societies' members was done. RESULTS: The current guideline describes 3 clinical questions and 15 recommendations for whom, when, and how NTRK fusion should be tested, and what is recommended for patients with NTRK fusion-positive advanced solid tumors. CONCLUSION: In the NTRK guideline, the committee proposed 15 recommendations for performing NTRK testing properly to select patients who are likely to benefit from tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Criança , Fusão Gênica , Hematologia , Humanos , Japão , Oncologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptor trkA/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkA/genética , Sociedades Médicas
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1197, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988393

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common gynaecologic benign tumours, but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. Six previous GWAS identified 33 genetic factors in total. Here, we performed a two-staged GWAS using 13,746 cases and 70,316 controls from the Japanese population, followed by a replication analysis using 3,483 cases and 4,795 controls. The analysis identified 9 significant loci, including a novel locus on 12q23.2 (rs17033114, P = 6.12 × 10-25 with an OR of 1.177 (1.141-1.213), LINC00485). Subgroup analysis indicated that 5 loci (3q26.2, 5p15.33, 10q24.33, 11p15.5, 13q14.11) exhibited a statistically significant effect among multiple leiomyomas, and 2 loci (3q26.2, 10q24.33) exhibited a significant effect among submucous leiomyomas. Pleiotropic analysis indicated that all 9 loci were associated with at least one proliferative disease, suggesting the role of these loci in the common neoplastic pathway. Furthermore, the risk T allele of rs2251795 (3q26.2) was associated with longer telomere length in both normal and tumour tissues. Our findings elucidated the significance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Leiomioma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(2): 126837, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859160

RESUMO

Casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit (CK2α) is classified into two subtypes CK2α1 and CK2α2. CK2α1 is a drug discovery target, whereas CK2α2 is an off-target of CK2α1 inhibitors. High amino acid sequence homology between these subtypes hampers efforts to produce ATP competitive inhibitors that are highly selective to CK2α1. Hematein was identified previously as a non-ATP-competitive inhibitor for CK2α1, whereas this compound acts as an ATP competitive CK2α2 inhibitor. Crystal structures of CK2α1 and CK2α2 in complex with hematein revealed distinct binding features that provide structural insights for producing CK2α1-selective inhibitors.

20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 522(1): 68-73, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740001

RESUMO

We examined whether the acetylenic fatty acids 6-octadecynoic acid (6-ODA) and 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA) perform as ligands for free fatty acid receptors of medium- and long-chain fatty acids FFAR1 and FFAR4, previously called GPR40 and GPR120, respectively. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 was increased through FFAR1 but not through FFAR4 expressed in HEK 293 cells, suggesting that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as an FFAR1 ligand, but not as an FFAR4 ligand. Activation of ERK in FFAR1-expressing HEK293 cells by 6-ODA and 9-ODA peaked at 10 min after stimulation followed by a slow decrease, similar to ERK activation by rosiglitazone, which peaked at 10 min after stimulation and lasted longer. Glucose-dependent production of insulin from MIN6 insulinoma cells was induced by 6-ODA and 9-ODA in an FFAR1-dependent manner. In this process, 6-ODA and 9-ODA stimulated the production of insulin not in the first phase that occurred within 10 min after stimulation but in the second phase. F-actin-remodeling that reflects insulin granule recruiting to the plasma membrane in the second phase of insulin secretion by 6-ODA and 9-ODA suggested that they have an FFAR1-dependent function in insulin secretion from MIN6 cells.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulinoma/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Alcinos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos
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