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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(5): 657-661, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378667

RESUMO

The development of specialized training programs for medical personnel, particularly nurses, clinical laboratory technicians, and pharmacists, is considered critical for the promotion of genomic medicine throughout Japan. Specifically, medical personnel skilled at analyzing and understanding high-throughput genomic data are in high demand. In this symposium, we will introduce the basic knowledge and skills necessary for processing genomic data.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4429, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157140

RESUMO

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important drug targets with diverse therapeutic applications. However, there are still more than a hundred orphan GPCRs, whose protein functions and biochemical features remain unidentified. Gpr176 encodes a class-A orphan GPCR that has a role in circadian clock regulation in mouse hypothalamus and is also implicated in human breast cancer transcriptional response. Here we show that Gpr176 is N-glycosylated. Peptide-N-glycosidase treatment of mouse hypothalamus extracts revealed that endogenous Gpr176 undergoes N-glycosylation. Using a heterologous expression system, we show that N-glycosylation occurs at four conserved asparagine residues in the N-terminal region of Gpr176. Deficient N-glycosylation due to mutation of these residues reduced the protein expression of Gpr176. At the molecular function level, Gpr176 has constitutive, agonist-independent activity that leads to reduced cAMP synthesis. Although deficient N-glycosylation did not compromise this intrinsic activity, the resultant reduction in protein expression was accompanied by attenuation of cAMP-repressive activity in the cells. We also demonstrate that human GPR176 is N-glycosylated. Importantly, missense variations in the conserved N-glycosylation sites of human GPR176 (rs1473415441; rs761894953) affected N-glycosylation and thereby attenuated protein expression and cAMP-repressive activity in the cells. We show that N-glycosylation is a prerequisite for the efficient protein expression of functional Gpr176/GPR176.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9349132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185225

RESUMO

Poor quality of biological samples will result in an inaccurate analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Therefore, methods to accurately evaluate sample integrity are needed. Among methods for evaluating RNA quality, the RNA integrity number equivalent (RINe) is widely used, whereas the DV200, which evaluates the percentage of fragments of >200 nucleotides, is also used as a quality assessment standard. In this study, we compared the RINe and DV200 RNA quality indexes to determine the most suitable RNA index for the NGS analysis. Seventy-one RNA samples were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples (n = 30), fresh-frozen samples (n = 25), or cell lines (n = 16). After assessing RNA quality using the RINe and DV200, we prepared two kinds of stranded mRNA sequencing libraries. Finally, we calculated the correlation between each RNA quality index and the amount of library product (1st PCR product per input RNA). The DV200 measure showed stronger correlation with the amount of library product than the RINe (R 2 = 0.8208 for the DV200 versus 0.6927 for the RINe). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the DV200 was the better marker for predicting efficient library production than the RINe using a threshold of >10 ng/ng for the amount of the 1st PCR product per input RNA (cutoff value for the RINe and DV200, 2.3 and 66.1%; area under the curve, 0.99 and 0.91; sensitivity, 82% and 92%; and specificity, 93% and 100%, respectively). Our results indicate that NGS libraries prepared using RNA samples with the DV200 value > 66.1% exhibit greater sensitivity and specificity than those prepared with the RINe values > 2.3. These findings suggest that the DV200 is superior to the RINe, especially for low-quality RNA, because it is a more consistent assessment of the amount of the 1st NGS library product per input.

4.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(5): 796-805, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056421

RESUMO

Aggregational states of amyloid ß-protein (Aß) are critical for its neurotoxicity, although they are not well-characterized, particularly after binding to the cell membranes. This is one reason why the mechanisms of Aß neurotoxicity are controversial and elusive. In this study, the effects of toxic Aß-(1-42) fibrils formed in the membrane on cellular processes were investigated using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Consistent with previous observations, fibrillar Aßs formed on the membranes induced activation of caspase-3, the effector caspase for apoptosis. Knockdown analyses of the initiator caspases, caspase-8 and caspase-9, indicated that the apoptosis was induced via activation of caspase-8, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. We also found that inflammation signaling pathways including Toll-like receptors and inflammasomes NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 are involved in the initiation of apoptosis by the Aß fibrils. These inflammation-related molecules are promising targets for the prevention of apoptotic cell death induced by Aß.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1197, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988393

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common gynaecologic benign tumours, but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. Six previous GWAS identified 33 genetic factors in total. Here, we performed a two-staged GWAS using 13,746 cases and 70,316 controls from the Japanese population, followed by a replication analysis using 3,483 cases and 4,795 controls. The analysis identified 9 significant loci, including a novel locus on 12q23.2 (rs17033114, P = 6.12 × 10-25 with an OR of 1.177 (1.141-1.213), LINC00485). Subgroup analysis indicated that 5 loci (3q26.2, 5p15.33, 10q24.33, 11p15.5, 13q14.11) exhibited a statistically significant effect among multiple leiomyomas, and 2 loci (3q26.2, 10q24.33) exhibited a significant effect among submucous leiomyomas. Pleiotropic analysis indicated that all 9 loci were associated with at least one proliferative disease, suggesting the role of these loci in the common neoplastic pathway. Furthermore, the risk T allele of rs2251795 (3q26.2) was associated with longer telomere length in both normal and tumour tissues. Our findings elucidated the significance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma.

6.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(3): 403-417, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of novel antitumor agents and accompanying biomarkers has improved survival across several tumor types. Previously, we published provisional clinical opinion for the diagnosis and use of immunotherapy in patients with deficient DNA mismatch repair tumors. Recently, efficacy of tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors against neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) fusion gene-positive advanced solid tumors have been established as the second tumor-agnostic treatment, making it necessary to develop the guideline prioritized for these patients. METHODS: Clinical questions regarding medical care were formulated for patients with NTRK-positive advanced solid tumors. Relevant publications were searched by PubMed and Cochrane Database. Critical publications and conference reports were added manually. Systematic reviews were performed for each clinical question for the purpose of developing clinical recommendations. The committee members identified by Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) and Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) voted to determine the level of each recommendation considering the strength of evidence, expected risks and benefits to patients, and other related factors. Thereafter, a peer review by experts nominated from JSCO, JSMO, and Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, and the public comments among all Societies' members was done. RESULTS: The current guideline describes 3 clinical questions and 15 recommendations for whom, when, and how NTRK fusion should be tested, and what is recommended for patients with NTRK fusion-positive advanced solid tumors. CONCLUSION: In the NTRK guideline, the committee proposed 15 recommendations for performing NTRK testing properly to select patients who are likely to benefit from tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors.

7.
J Reprod Dev ; 66(2): 135-141, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902805

RESUMO

Negative energy balance in domestic animals suppresses their reproductive function. These animals commonly use long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) from adipocytes as an energy source under states of malnutrition. The G-protein coupled receptor, GPR120, is a specific receptor for LCFAs, but its role in reproductive function remains unknown in domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to examine whether GPR120 is involved in the reproductive system of cattle. GPR120 mRNA expression was evaluated in brain, pituitary, and ovarian tissue samples by RT-PCR. GPR120 gene expression was detected with high intensity only in the anterior pituitary sample, and GPR120-immunoreactive cells were found in the anterior pituitary gland. Double immunohistochemistry of GPR120 in the anterior pituitary hormone-producing cells, such as gonadotropes, thyrotropes, lactotropes, somatotropes, and corticotropes, was performed to clarify the distribution of GPR120 in the anterior pituitary gland of ovariectomized heifers. Luteinizing hormone ß subunit (LHß)- and follicle-stimulating hormone ß subunit (FSHß)-immunoreactive cells demonstrated GPR120 immunoreactivity at 80.7% and 85.9%, respectively. Thyrotropes, lactotropes, somatotropes, and corticotropes coexpressed GPR120 at 21.1%, 5.4%, 13.6%, and 14.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggests that GPR120 in the anterior pituitary gland might mediate LCFA signaling to regulate gonadotrope functions, such as hormone secretion or production, in cattle.

8.
Hum Cell ; 33(1): 272-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583526

RESUMO

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare and aggressive form of malignant mesothelioma. Sufficient biological tools for studying the functional characteristics of this cancer have not been developed. Therefore, in this study, a novel human cancer cell line, KOG-1, was established from ascites fluids isolated from a 39-year-old Japanese woman with pemetrexed-resistant MPeM. Cells were dendritic or linear immediately after thawing, showed a jigsaw puzzle-like and spindle arrangement during growth, and formed monolayers without contact inhibition in two-dimensional (2D) culture. The population doubling time was 13.7 h. Karyotypic and molecular genetic analyses showed that chromosome numbers ranged from 62 to 142, with a peak of 73 with complicated copy number alterations. No germline BAP1 pathogenic variant was detected. Cells expressed various tumor markers of mesothelioma, such as calretinin, podoplanin, and Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1). Drug sensitivity and resistance testing with a set of 36 drugs using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) culture models demonstrated that KOG-1 cells showed high and low sensitivity to pemetrexed under 2D and 3D culture conditions, respectively, whereas control ovarian cancer cell lines showed low sensitivity to pemetrexed under both culture conditions. This newly established cell line will be a valuable biological resource to expand the feasibility of functional studies as well as drug testing for potential therapeutic purposes in MPeM.

9.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(2): 217-239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel therapeutic agents have improved survival outcomes in patients with advanced solid tumors. In parallel, the development of predictive biomarkers to identify patients who are likely to benefit from a certain treatment has also contributed to the improvement of survival. Recently, clinical trials have reported the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) advanced solid tumors. In Japan, a PD-1 inhibitor for dMMR advanced solid tumors, regardless of the primary tumor site, has been approved. However, there are some issues related to administering immune checkpoint inhibitors in the clinical practice setting, making it necessary to develop the guidelines. METHODS: Clinical questions (CQs) regarding medical care were formulated for patients with dMMR advanced solid tumors, and evidence to the CQs was collected by manual search to prepare recommendations. Then, the committee members voted to determine the level of each recommendation considering the strength of evidence, expected risks and benefits to patients, and other factors. RESULTS: The current guideline, which we consider a provisional clinical opinion at this point, describes the 11 requirements to be considered in terms of patients for whom dMMR testing is recommended, the timing and methods of dMMR testing, and clinical care systems required to perform dMMR testing properly and to administer immune checkpoint inhibitors safely. CONCLUSION: This provisional clinical opinion proposes the requirements for performing dMMR testing properly to select patients who are likely to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors and administering them safely.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 522(1): 68-73, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740001

RESUMO

We examined whether the acetylenic fatty acids 6-octadecynoic acid (6-ODA) and 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA) perform as ligands for free fatty acid receptors of medium- and long-chain fatty acids FFAR1 and FFAR4, previously called GPR40 and GPR120, respectively. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 was increased through FFAR1 but not through FFAR4 expressed in HEK 293 cells, suggesting that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as an FFAR1 ligand, but not as an FFAR4 ligand. Activation of ERK in FFAR1-expressing HEK293 cells by 6-ODA and 9-ODA peaked at 10 min after stimulation followed by a slow decrease, similar to ERK activation by rosiglitazone, which peaked at 10 min after stimulation and lasted longer. Glucose-dependent production of insulin from MIN6 insulinoma cells was induced by 6-ODA and 9-ODA in an FFAR1-dependent manner. In this process, 6-ODA and 9-ODA stimulated the production of insulin not in the first phase that occurred within 10 min after stimulation but in the second phase. F-actin-remodeling that reflects insulin granule recruiting to the plasma membrane in the second phase of insulin secretion by 6-ODA and 9-ODA suggested that they have an FFAR1-dependent function in insulin secretion from MIN6 cells.

11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(2): 126837, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859160

RESUMO

Casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit (CK2α) is classified into two subtypes CK2α1 and CK2α2. CK2α1 is a drug discovery target, whereas CK2α2 is an off-target of CK2α1 inhibitors. High amino acid sequence homology between these subtypes hampers efforts to produce ATP competitive inhibitors that are highly selective to CK2α1. Hematein was identified previously as a non-ATP-competitive inhibitor for CK2α1, whereas this compound acts as an ATP competitive CK2α2 inhibitor. Crystal structures of CK2α1 and CK2α2 in complex with hematein revealed distinct binding features that provide structural insights for producing CK2α1-selective inhibitors.

12.
Reprod Toxicol ; 88: 39-47, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288075

RESUMO

Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproduction have not been fully explained comprehensively. In this study, we tried to validate the common effect of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Nonylphenol (NP) on the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and found that they modify the expression of germ cell specific genes. To elucidate functional significance on biological process, we performed Gene Ontology (GO)-based microarray analysis comparing with published GeneChip data of primordial germ cell development in vivo. Cluster analysis of gene expression profile revealed that EDC treatment and primordial germ cell (PGC) development shared characteristic cluster consists of GO terms related to "germ cell development" and "reproduction". In the GO term "reproduction", meiosis related genes showed high expression level by EDC exposure. These results suggest that BPA and NP affect not only some of the germ cell specific genes, but functionally interferes germ cell development and reproduction.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Germinativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 855: 267-275, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078517

RESUMO

FFA4 (Free Fatty Acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) is a G protein-coupled receptor that acts as a sensor of long-chain fatty acids, modulates metabolism, and whose dysfunction participates in endocrine disturbances. FFA4 is known to be phosphorylated and internalized in response to agonists and protein kinase C activation. In this paper report the modulation of this fatty acid receptor by activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Cell-activation with growth factors (insulin, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, and platelet-derived growth factor) increases FFA4 phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. This effect was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, suggesting the involvement of these kinases in it. FFA4 phosphorylation did not alter agonist-induced FFA4 calcium signaling, but was associated with decreased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, epidermal growth factor, and to a lesser extent, platelet-derived growth factor, induce receptor internalization. This action of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and epidermal growth factor was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Additionally, cell treatment with these growth factors induced FFA4-ß-arrestin coimmunoprecipitation. Our results evidenced cross-talk between receptor tyrosine kinases and FFA4 and suggest roles of protein kinase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase in such a functional interaction.


Assuntos
Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , beta-Arrestinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(6): 1430-1437, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002464

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide/gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) plays a key role in high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. GIP is strongly secreted from enteroendocrine K cells by oil ingestion. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120 and GPR40 are two major receptors for long chain fatty acids, and are expressed in enteroendocrine K cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the two receptors on oil-induced GIP secretion using GPR120- and GPR40-double knockout (DKO) mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Global knockout mice of GPR120 and GPR40 were crossbred to generate DKO mice. Oral glucose tolerance test and oral corn oil tolerance test were carried out. For analysis of the number of K cells and gene expression in K cells, DKO mice were crossbred with GIP-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice in which visualization and isolation of K cells can be achieved. RESULTS: Double knockout mice showed normal glucose-induced GIP secretion, but no GIP secretion by oil. We then investigated the number of K cells and gene characteristics in K cells isolated from GIP-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice. Deficiency of both receptors did not affect the number of K cells in the small intestine or expression of GIP messenger ribonucleic acid in K cells. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the expression of the genes associated with lipid absorption or GIP secretion in K cells between wild-type and DKO mice. CONCLUSIONS: Oil-induced GIP secretion is triggered by the two major fatty acid receptors, GPR120 and GPR40, without changing K-cell number or K-cell characteristics.

15.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(5): 611-623, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850842

RESUMO

The present study was performed to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during endometrial carcinogenesis. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and targeted sequencing of tumor-related genes were performed using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip and the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2, respectively, for 31 samples of normal control endometrial tissue from patients without endometrial cancer and 81 samples of endometrial cancer tissue. Principal component analysis revealed that tumor samples had a DNA methylation profile distinct from that of control samples. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed significant differences of DNA methylation at 1034 CpG sites between early-onset endometrioid endometrial cancer (EE) tissue (patients aged ≤40 years) and late-onset endometrioid endometrial cancer (LE) tissue, which were accumulated among 'transcriptional factors'. Mutations of the CTNNB1 gene or DNA methylation alterations of genes participating in Wnt signaling were frequent in EEs, whereas genetic and epigenetic alterations of fibroblast growth factor signaling genes were observed in LEs. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering grouped EE samples in Cluster EA (n = 22) and samples in Cluster EB (n = 12). Clinicopathologically less aggressive tumors tended to be accumulated in Cluster EB, and DNA methylation levels of 18 genes including HOXA9, HOXD10 and SOX11 were associated with differences in such aggressiveness between the two clusters. We identified 11 marker CpG sites that discriminated EB samples from EA samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity. These data indicate that genetically and epigenetically different pathways may participate in the development of EEs and LEs, and that DNA methylation profiling may help predict tumors that are less aggressive and amenable to fertility preservation treatment.

16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 45(4): 766-786, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675969

RESUMO

Six years after the first edition of The Guideline for Gynecological Practice, which was jointly edited by The Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and The Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the third revised edition was published in 2017. The 2017 Guidelines includes 10 additional clinical questions (CQ), which brings the total to 95 CQ (12 on infectious disease, 28 on oncology and benign tumors, 27 on endocrinology and infertility and 28 on healthcare for women). Currently a consensus has been reached on the Guidelines and therefore the objective of this report is to present the general policies regarding diagnostic and treatment methods used in standard gynecological outpatient care that are considered appropriate. At the end of each answer, the corresponding recommendation level (A, B, C) is indicated.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Ginecologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Obstetrícia/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas
17.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 9(5): 479-484, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402230

RESUMO

Synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer (SEOC) is a rare entity among gynecological cancers, which exhibits endometrioid histology in its early stages and generally has a good prognosis. However, diagnosis is difficult and recent reports have demonstrated that most clinically diagnosed cases of SEOC have clonally related cancers, indicating metastatic cancer. The association of SEOC with Lynch syndrome is also not clearly understood. We herein present the case of a 41-year-old SEOC patient with MSH2 mutation. The endometrial cancer was an endometrioid adenocarcinoma and the ovarian cancer was mainly endometrioid, but also included a clear cell carcinoma with a borderline clear cell adenofibromatous component, indicating primary ovarian cancer. Both tumors exhibited microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of expression of MSH2 and MSH6. The patient had a family history of colorectal and gastric cancers. Genetic analysis revealed a germline mutation in exon 6 of MSH2 (c.1042C>T, p.Gln348*) and the patient was diagnosed with Lynch syndrome. This MSH2 mutation has only been registered in one case in the InSiGHT variant databases and has not been reported in a gynecological tumor or SEOC to date. This case is a rare example of a patient with genetically diagnosed Lynch syndrome who also developed SEOC. This synchronous cancer is not common, but it may be caused by Lynch syndrome. Testing for MSI and immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair deficiency is necessary in cases with suspected SEOC.

18.
Oncotarget ; 9(51): 29789-29800, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038720

RESUMO

Purpose: To find genetic variants that predicted toxicity and/or efficacy of paclitaxel plus carboplatin combination therapy (TC therapy). Patients and methods: In a retrospective case-control study, we analyzed 320 patients who had received TC therapy for gynecological cancers (ovarian, fallopian tube, peritoneal, uterine, and cervical cancers) and collected their germline DNA. We performed a comprehensive pharmacogenomic analysis using a targeted resequencing panel of 100 pharmacogenes. For 1,013 variants passing QC, case-control association studies and survival analyses were conducted. Results: GSTP1 rs1695 showed the smallest p value for hematotoxicity association, and the 105Ile wild type allele had a significantly higher risk of severe hematotoxicity (neutropenia G4, thrombocytopenia ≥ G3 and anemia ≥ G3) than the 105Val allele (p=0.00034, odds ratio=5.71 (95% confidence interval:1.77-18.44)). Next, we assessed 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in 56 advanced ovarian cancer patients who received tri-weekly TC as a first-line chemotherapy. Patients with the 105Ile/105Ile genotype showed significantly better PFS (p=0.00070) and OS (p=0.0012) than those with the 105Ile/105Val or 105Val/105Val genotype. Conclusion: Our study indicates that the GSTP1 rs1695 105Ile/105Ile genotype is associated with both severe hematotoxicity and high efficacy of TC therapy, identifying a possible prognostic indicator for patients with TC therapy.

19.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(6): 820-833, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713080

RESUMO

Chronic morphine exposure upregulates adenylate cyclase signaling and reduces analgesic efficacy, a condition known as opioid tolerance. Nonopioid neurotransmitters can enhance morphine tolerance, but the mechanism for this is poorly understood. We show that morphine tolerance was delayed in mice lacking vasopressin 1b receptors (V1bRs) or after administration of V1bR antagonist into the rostral ventromedial medulla, where transcripts for V1bRs and µ-opioid receptors are co-localized. Vasopressin increased morphine-binding affinity in cells expressing both V1bR and µ-opioid receptors. Complex formation among V1bR, ß-arrestin-2, and µ-opioid receptor resulted in vasopressin-mediated upregulation of ERK phosphorylation and adenylate cyclase sensitization. A leucine-rich segment in the V1bR C-terminus was necessary for the association with ß-arrestin-2. Deletion of this leucine-rich segment increased morphine analgesia and reduced vasopressin-mediated adenylate cyclase sensitization. These findings indicate that inhibition of µ-opioid-receptor-associated V1bR provides an approach for enhancing morphine analgesia without increasing analgesic tolerance.


Assuntos
Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Morfina/farmacologia , Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Receptores de Vasopressinas/metabolismo , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Injeções , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Bulbo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Morfina/farmacocinética , Dependência de Morfina/psicologia , Entorpecentes/farmacocinética , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Receptores de Vasopressinas/genética , beta-Arrestina 2/genética
20.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 29(2): e21, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reports on the repeated administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for intrauterine recurrence after fertility-preserving therapy for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and early grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma (G1) are lacking. We aimed to clarify the outcomes of repeated MPA therapy in cases of intrauterine recurrence after fertility-preserving therapy with MPA against AEH/early G1. METHODS: Patients with AEH or stage IA well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma without myometrial invasion who underwent first-line MPA therapy for primary lesions or intrauterine recurrence were divided into initial treatment and repeated treatment groups (162 and 82 patients, respectively). Oral MPA administration (400-600 mg/day) was continued until pathological tumor disappearance. Data regarding clinicopathological factors, adverse events, and outcomes following the initial and repeated hormonal treatments were extracted from medical records and analyzed. RESULTS: Complete response rates in the initial and repeated treatment groups were 98.5% and 96.4%, respectively, among patients with AEH, and were 90.7% and 98.1%, respectively, among patients with G1. In the initial treatment group, 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 53.7% and 33.2% among patients with AEH and G1, respectively. In the repeated treatment group, RFS rates were 14.0% and 11.2% among patients with AEH and G1, respectively. Among patients with AEH, the pregnancy rate tended to be lower in the repeated treatment group than in the initial treatment group (11.1% vs. 29.2%; p=0.107), while no significant group difference was observed among patients with G1 (20.8% vs. 22.7%). CONCLUSION: Repeated treatment is sufficiently effective for intrauterine recurrence after hormonal therapy for AEH/early G1.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Hiperplasia Endometrial/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Preservação da Fertilidade , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Curetagem , Hiperplasia Endometrial/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez
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