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Neurobiol Dis ; 130: 104516, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229688


Spinocerebellar ataxia 42 (SCA42) is a neurodegenerative disorder recently shown to be caused by c.5144G > A (p.Arg1715His) mutation in CACNA1G, which encodes the T-type voltage-gated calcium channel CaV3.1. Here, we describe a large Japanese family with SCA42. Postmortem pathological examination revealed severe cerebellar degeneration with prominent Purkinje cell loss without ubiquitin accumulation in an SCA42 patient. To determine whether this mutation causes ataxic symptoms and neurodegeneration, we generated knock-in mice harboring c.5168G > A (p.Arg1723His) mutation in Cacna1g, corresponding to the mutation identified in the SCA42 family. Both heterozygous and homozygous mutants developed an ataxic phenotype from the age of 11-20 weeks and showed Purkinje cell loss at 50 weeks old. Degenerative change of Purkinje cells and atrophic thinning of the molecular layer were conspicuous in homozygous knock-in mice. Electrophysiological analysis of Purkinje cells using acute cerebellar slices from young mice showed that the point mutation altered the voltage dependence of CaV3.1 channel activation and reduced the rebound action potentials after hyperpolarization, although it did not significantly affect the basic properties of synaptic transmission onto Purkinje cells. Finally, we revealed that the resonance of membrane potential of neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus was decreased in knock-in mice, which indicates that p.Arg1723His CaV3.1 mutation affects climbing fiber signaling to Purkinje cells. Altogether, our study shows not only that a point mutation in CACNA1G causes an ataxic phenotype and Purkinje cell degeneration in a mouse model, but also that the electrophysiological abnormalities at an early stage of SCA42 precede Purkinje cell loss.

J Clin Neurophysiol ; 31(5): 441-3, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25271683


PURPOSE: In current electrodiagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, the cutoff values of distal compound muscle action potential (DCMAP) duration are defined using electromyogram low-cut filter setting of 20 Hz. We aimed to assess effects of low-cut filter on DCMAP duration (10 vs. 20 Hz). METHODS: We prospectively measured DCMAP duration in 130 normal controls and 42 patients, fulfilling diagnostic criteria for typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy by European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society. RESULTS: Distal compound muscle action potential duration was significantly shortened with 20-Hz than 10-Hz filtering. When the cutoff values were defined as the upper limit of normal (ULN, mean + 2.5SD), the sensitivity/specificity was 67%/95% in 10-Hz recordings, and 69%/95% in 20-Hz recordings. This diagnostic accuracy was similar to that defined by receiver operating characteristic analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Distal compound muscle action potential duration significantly affected by the low-cut electromyogram filter setting, but with at least 10 and 20 Hz, the diagnostic accuracy is similar.

Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/diagnóstico , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico , Doenças Desmielinizantes/fisiopatologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
Muscle Nerve ; 39(1): 63-70, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19086078


Needle electromyography (EMG) of the tongue is traditionally used as a key to the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although relaxation of the tongue is often difficult to achieve. Recently, frequent abnormalities in the EMGs of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius muscles in ALS have been reported. To elucidate the diagnostic utility of these muscles we performed a multicenter prospective study to examine EMGs of the tongue (genioglossus), SCM, and trapezius in 104 ALS or suspected ALS patients. We also examined EMGs of the SCM and trapezius in 32 cervical spondylosis (CS) patients. We mainly evaluated fibrillation potentials/positive sharp waves (Fib/PSWs) and fasciculation potentials. Complete relaxation was achieved in 85% of ALS patients in the trapezius, but in only 6% of patients in the tongue. Fib/PSWs were observed in 8%, 13%, and 45% of ALS patients in the tongue, SCM, and trapezius, respectively, whereas fasciculation potentials were observed in 1%, 7%, and 39%, respectively. Abnormal spontaneous activity of any type was found in 9%, 17%, and 63% of patients, respectively. The high frequency of abnormal spontaneous activity in the trapezius was similar among the different diagnostic categories, and even 72% of clinically suspected ALS (progressive muscular atrophy) patients showed them in their trapezius. We did not observe Fib/PSWs or fasciculation potentials in any of our CS patients, thus these findings have excellent specificity. Tongue EMG added little utility over the clinical sign of tongue atrophy. Abnormal spontaneous activity in the trapezius would be more useful for the early diagnosis of ALS.

Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Ombro/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletromiografia/métodos , Fasciculação/diagnóstico , Fasciculação/etiologia , Fasciculação/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Músculos do Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Língua/fisiopatologia
Muscle Nerve ; 37(4): 426-30, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18236469


Previous studies suggest that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) are more severely involved than abductor digiti minimi (ADM). To elucidate the pattern, frequency, extent, and specificity of such dissociated muscle atrophy in ALS, compound muscle action potentials recorded from APB, FDI, and ADM were analyzed in 77 ALS patients, 171 normal controls, and 196 disease controls. Compared with normal controls, ALS patients had a reduced APB/ADM amplitude ratio (P < 0.001) and FDI/ADM ratio (P < 0.001), whereas patients with other anterior horn diseases showed similar APB/ADM and FDI/ADM ratios to normal values. Decreased APB/ADM ratio was found in 41% of ALS patients, 5% of normal controls, and 4% of disease controls. Prominent muscle atrophy in APB and FDI, with relatively preserved ADM, appears to be specific to ALS. Dissociated hand muscle atrophy presumably reflects part of the pathophysiology and supports the diagnosis of ALS.

Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Mãos , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Condução Nervosa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade