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1.
Waste Manag ; 66: 155-160, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28495227

RESUMO

An overall interaction is manifested between wastewater and solid waste management schemes. At the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering (LISA) of the University of Padova, Italy, the scientific and technical implications of putting into practice a decentralized waste and wastewater treatment based on the separation of grey water, brown water (BW - faecal matter) and yellow water (YW - urine) are currently undergoing investigation in the Aquanova Project. An additional aim of this concept is the source segregation of kitchen waste (KW) for subsequent anaerobic co-digestion with BW. To determine an optimal mixing ratio and temperature for use in the treatment of KW, BW, and eventually YW, by means of anaerobic digestion, a series of lab-scale batch tests were performed. Organic mixtures of KW and BW performed much better (max. 520mlCH4/gVS) in terms of methane yields than the individual substrates alone (max. 220mlCH4/gVS). A small concentration of urine proved to have a positive effect on anaerobic digestion performance, possibly due to the presence of micronutrients in YW. When considering high YW concentrations in the anaerobically digested mixtures, no ammonia inhibition was observed until a 30% and 10% YW content was added under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Itália , Água
2.
Arerugi ; 66(2): 112-117, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331103

RESUMO

We used noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) with a helmet-type mask in two young children with acute severe bronchial asthma. The intervention was well-tolerated, because the helmet-type mask caused no pain or discomfort, as compared to the face mask. Tracheal intubation can be avoided by the start of the NPPV. Thus, the respiratory symptoms improved by the use of NPPV in children with acute severe asthma with respiratory muscle fatigue and failure of medical treatment.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(1): 232-241, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline heterozygous mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) can cause loss of function (LOF), as in patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases, or gain of function (GOF), as in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. LOF and GOF mutations are equally rare and can affect the same domains of STAT1, especially the coiled-coil domain (CCD) and DNA-binding domain (DBD). Moreover, 6% of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with a GOF STAT1 mutation have mycobacterial disease, obscuring the functional significance of the identified STAT1 mutations. Current computational approaches, such as combined annotation-dependent depletion, do not distinguish LOF and GOF variants. OBJECTIVE: We estimated variations in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. METHODS: We mutagenized 342 individual wild-type amino acids in the CCD/DBD (45.6% of full-length STAT1) to alanine and tested the mutants for STAT1 transcriptional activity. RESULTS: Of these 342 mutants, 201 were neutral, 30 were LOF, and 111 were GOF mutations in a luciferase assay. This assay system correctly estimated all previously reported LOF mutations (100%) and slightly fewer GOF mutations (78.1%) in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. We found that GOF alanine mutants occurred at the interface of the antiparallel STAT1 dimer, suggesting that they destabilize this dimer. This assay also precisely predicted the effect of 2 hypomorphic and dominant negative mutations, E157K and G250E, in the CCD of STAT1 that we found in 2 unrelated patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. CONCLUSION: The systematic alanine-scanning assay is a useful tool to estimate the GOF or LOF status and the effect of heterozygous missense mutations in STAT1 identified in patients with severe infectious diseases, including mycobacterial and fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Alanina/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Bioensaio , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutagênese , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos
4.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(5): 512-6, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25912133

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To confirm and characterize mosaicism of the cyclic neutropenia (CyN)-related mutation in the ELANE gene identified in the asymptomatic mother of patients with CyN. METHODS: We identified sibling cases with CyN due to a novel heterozygous splicing site mutation, IVS4 +5SD G>T, in the ELANE gene, resulting in an internal in-frame deletion of 30 nucleotides (corresponding to a ten amino acid deletion, V161-F170). The mutated allele was also detected in their asymptomatic mother but at low frequency. We measured the frequency of the mutant allele from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) by subcloning, and confirmed the allelic frequency of mosaicism in various cell types by massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) analysis. RESULTS: In the subcloning analysis, the mutant allele was identified in 21.36 % of PBLs from the asymptomatic mother, compared with 54.72 % of PBLs from the CyN patient. In the MPS analysis, the mutant allele was observed in approximately 30 % of mononuclear cells, CD3(+) T cells, CD14(+) monocytes and the buccal mucosa. Conversely, it was detected in low frequency in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PLMLs) (3-4 %) and CD16(+) granulocytes (2-3 %). CONCLUSIONS: Mosaicism of the ELANE mutation has only previously been identified in one confirmed and one unconfirmed case of SCN. This is the first report of mosaicism of the ELANE mutation in a case of CyN. The MPS results suggest that this de novo mutation occurred during the two-cell stage of embryogenesis. PLMLs expressing the ELANE mutation were found to be actively undergoing apoptosis.


Assuntos
Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Monócitos/fisiologia , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Mães , Mucosa Nasal/fisiologia , Neutropenia/genética , Linhagem , Irmãos
5.
Chemosphere ; 116: 46-53, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24560282

RESUMO

In developing countries, wastes are usually not separated before being disposed of in solid-waste landfills, most of which are open dumps without adequate measures to prevent environmental pollution. To understand the leaching behavior of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from waste consumer products in landfills, we have been conducting a long-term landfill lysimeter experiment since 2006 under conditions designed to mimic three types of landfill conditions in developing countries: aerobic, semi-aerobic, and anaerobic. Pilot-scale lysimeters (60-cm i.d.) were filled with a 400-cm layer of mixed wastes consisting of 35 wt% food, 20 wt% paper, 20 wt% paper pulp, 13 wt% plastic, 10 wt% wood chips, 1 wt% glass, and 1 wt% metals, proportions that are typical of unsorted municipal solid waste in Asian developing countries. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, tribromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes in leachate samples collected from the lysimeters during the first 3.5 years of the experiment, to evaluate BFR elution behavior in early-stage landfills. Under all three conditions, BFR elution started at the beginning of the experiment. The BFR concentrations in the leachates from the aerobic lysimeter tended to be lower than those from the anaerobic lysimeter, suggesting that the presence of air inside landfills considerably reduces BFR elution to the surrounding environment. During the 3.5-year experiment, BFR outflow from the lysimeters was only 0.001-0.58% of the total BFRs in the loaded waste; that is, most of the BFRs in the waste remained in the lysimeters.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Países em Desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Fenóis/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
6.
J Leukoc Biol ; 95(4): 667-76, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24343863

RESUMO

CMCD is a rare congenital disorder characterized by persistent or recurrent skin, nail, and mucosal membrane infections caused by Candida albicans. Heterozygous GOF STAT1 mutations have been shown to confer AD CMCD as a result of impaired dephosphorylation of STAT1. We aimed to identify and characterize STAT1 mutations in CMCD patients and to develop a simple diagnostic assay of CMCD. Genetic analysis of STAT1 was performed in patients and their relatives. The mutations identified were characterized by immunoblot and reporter assay using transient gene expression experiments. Patients' leukocytes are investigated by flow cytometry and immunoblot. Six GOF mutations were identified, three of which are reported for the first time, that affect the CCD and DBD of STAT1 in two sporadic and four multiplex cases in 10 CMCD patients from Japan. Two of the 10 patients presented with clinical symptoms atypical to CMCD, including other fungal and viral infections, and three patients developed bronchiectasis. Immunoblot analyses of patients' leukocytes showed abnormally high levels of pSTAT1 following IFN-γ stimulation. Based on this finding, we performed a flow cytometry-based functional analysis of STAT1 GOF alleles using IFN-γ stimulation and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, staurosporine. The higher levels of pSTAT1 observed in primary CD14(+) cells from patients compared with control cells persisted and were amplified by the presence of staurosporine. We developed a flow cytometry-based STAT1 functional screening method that would greatly facilitate the diagnosis of CMCD patients with GOF STAT1 mutations.


Assuntos
Alelos , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Fosforilação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo
7.
Haematologica ; 98(10): 1641-9, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23585529

RESUMO

Heterozygosity for dominant-negative STAT1 mutations underlies autosomal dominant Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. Mutations conferring Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases have been identified in the regions of the STAT1 gene encoding the tail segment, DNA-binding domain and SH2 domain. We describe here a new heterozygous mutation, Y701C, in a Japanese two-generation multiplex kindred with autosomal dominant Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. This mutation affects precisely the canonical STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation site. The Y701C STAT1 protein is produced normally, but its phosphorylation is abolished, resulting in a loss-of-function for STAT1-dependent cellular responses to interferon-γ or interferon-α. In the patients' cells, the allele is dominant-negative for γ-activated factor-mediated responses to interferon-γ, but not for interferon-stimulated gene factor-3-mediated responses to interferon-α/ß, accounting for the clinical phenotype of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases without severe viral diseases. Interestingly, both patients displayed multifocal osteomyelitis, which is often seen in patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases with autosomal dominant partial IFN-γR1 deficiency. Multifocal osteomyelitis should thus prompt investigations of both STAT1 and IFN-γR1. This experiment of nature also confirms the essential role of tyrosine 701 in human STAT1 activity in natura.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/genética , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Tirosina/genética
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(50): 16008-9, 2006 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17165733

RESUMO

An allosteric host, in which the molecular information of the chiral guest was precisely introduced, exhibits unconventional enantioselectivity toward the target enantiomer even under the conditions of a -20% enantiomeric excess (ee) mixture within a certain concentration window. This is effected by incorporation of the structural information of the enantiomer into the host and the utilization of multiple equilibrium.

10.
Org Biomol Chem ; 4(10): 1902-9, 2006 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16688336

RESUMO

The gelation properties of a zinc porphyrin bearing peripheral urea groups (1 x Zn) were evaluated in the absence and the presence of several diamines. In aromatic solvents such as benzene, toluene and p-xylene, 1 x Zn only provided the precipitate. In contrast, 1 x Zn with 0.5 and 1.0 equiv. of piperazine formed gels, and the gel with 0.5 equiv. of piperazine showed a unique physical property called 'thixotropy'. On the other hand, upon addition of similar diamines such as DABCO, ethylenediamine and N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, 1 x Zn did not gelate these solvents. When the critical gelation concentration was plotted against the ratio of piperazine versus 1 x Zn, it afforded a minimum breakpoint at 0.5 equiv. and the critical concentration increased with further increase in the fraction of piperazine, indicating that the stable gel is formed from the 1 x Zn + piperazine 2:1 complex and the subsequent transformation to the 1:1 complex rather destabilizes the gel. Very interestingly, it was clearly shown by SEM and TEM observations that such structural changes of the unit complex induced by the ratio of piperazine versus 1 x Zn can lead to gradual morphological transitions: that is, spherical structure at 0 equiv., 1-D fibrous structure at 0.5 equiv. and 2-D sheet-like structure at 1.0 equiv. In addition, UV-VIS spectra revealed that 1 x Zn itself adopts a J-aggregation mode, whereas 1 x Zn + piperazine 2:1 and 1:1 complexes adopt an H-like aggregation mode. On the other hand, upon addition of 0.5 equiv. of other diamines, 1 x Zn + diamine complexes result in different morphologies other than the 1-D fibrous structure. To explore a reasonable rationale for these results, we conducted computational studies. As a result, we found that the complex symmetry of the unit complex plays an important role in determining the final ordered structure.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Diaminas , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Estrutura Molecular , Piperazina , Piperazinas , Solventes , Análise Espectral
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (46): 5742-4, 2005 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16307131

RESUMO

Template assisted olefin metathesis of an allosteric host to give the corresponding bicyclic compound was achieved and can allosterically bind the template guest diamines, and with different affinity and cooperativity.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Alcenos/síntese química , Regulação Alostérica , Estrutura Molecular , Análise Espectral
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (30): 3805-7, 2005 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16041423

RESUMO

A bicyclic host 1, which has a diethynyl tetrafluorophenyl axis and is expected to behave as an anion-binding 'turnstile', has been designed.

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