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1.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although systemic therapy is recommended for patients with multiple intermediate stage unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) classified as beyond the up-to-7 criteria (UT-7 out/multiple) as a transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) unsuitable condition, few reports have examined the therapeutic efficacy of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab combination therapy (Atez/Bev) in such cases. This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic response of Atez/Bev in u-HCC patients classified as UT-7 out/multiple. MATERIAL/METHODS: From September 2020 to September 2021, 95 u-HCC Japanese patients classified as UT-7 out/multiple/Child-Pugh A were enrolled from 21 institutions (median age 76 years, males 73, Child-Pugh 5:6 = 68:27, TNM stage II:III = 17:78). Therapeutic response was retrospectively evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), ver. 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST). RESULTS: Atez/Bev was given as first-line treatment to 52 (54.7%). Objective response rate (ORR)/disease control rate (DCR) at six weeks of RECIST and mRECIST were 17.7%/84.7% and 42.5%/86.2%, respectively. Median PFS was 8.0 months (median observation period: 6.0 months). Child-Pugh A/modified Albumin-bilirubin grade (mALBI) 1 and 2a at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 weeks, were 100%/69.4%, 89.8%/57.3%, 94.8%/65.3%, and 91.4%/60.0%, respectively. Among adverse events (any-grade, >10%) during the present observation period, general fatigue was most frequent (23.2%), followed by urine protein (21.1%), appetite loss (20.0%), and hypertension (13.7%). CONCLUSION: Atez/Bev treatment showed favorable therapeutic response with less influence on hepatic function, suggesting it as a useful therapeutic option for patients with such condition.

2.
JGH Open ; 5(10): 1172-1178, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622004

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) is useful for assessing portal hypertension. It is unclear whether SSM values are appropriate because vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) does not generate B-mode images. This study aimed to confirm whether the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measured in the spleen can predict the accuracy of SSM. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 349 patients who underwent SSM using VCTE from January 2012 to December 2020. Consecutive patients were classified into the pilot set (SSM and hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] were measured) and the validation set (SSM was measured without HVPG). In the pilot set, scatter plots with a nonparametric contour line were created. Logistic regression analysis was performed to predict outliers outside the 50% contour line. Results: The values of CAP could distinguish the outliers in scatter plots between the HPVG and SSM in both univariate and multivariate analyses (cutoff, 118 dB/m). The correlation of SSM with HVPG (r = 0.718; P < 0.001) was significantly better in the low CAP (≤118 dB/m) group than in the high CAP (>118 dB/m) group (r = 0.330; P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of SSM in predicting high-risk varices was better in the low CAP group than in all patients or in the high CAP group in the pilot set (0.881, 0.854, and 0.843, respectively) and in the validation set (0.893, 0.821, and 0.814, respectively). Conclusion: For patients with CAP <118 dB/m, SSM is a feasible predictor of HVPG.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19705, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611265

RESUMO

The small intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM) can potentially impact the etiology of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Herein, we investigate the MAM profile to determine its association with liver pathology in patients with PBC. Thirty-four patients with PBC and 21 healthy controls who underwent colonoscopy at our hospital were enrolled in our study. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of MAM samples obtained from the mucosa of the terminal ileum and examined the relationship between the abundance of ileal MAM and chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis using liver specimens from patients with PBC. There was a significant reduction in microbial diversity within individuals with PBC (P = 0.039). Dysbiosis of ileal MAM was observed in patients with PBC, with a characteristic overgrowth of Sphingomonadaceae and Pseudomonas. Multivariate analysis showed that the overgrowth of Sphingomonadaceae and Pseudomonas is an independent association factor for PBC (P = 0.0429, P = 0.026). Moreover, the abundance of Sphingomonadaceae was associated with chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis in PBC (P = 0.00981). The overgrowth of Sphingomonadaceae and Pseudomonas in ileal MAM was found in patients with PBC. Sphingomonadaceae may be associated with the pathological development of PBC.

4.
Intern Med ; 60(20): 3195-3203, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657905

RESUMO

Objective This study evaluated cases of pruritus, which is known to be associated with sleep disorder, in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Methods Questionnaires were given to 339 enrolled CLD outpatients in winter (November 2019 to March 2020) and again in summer (April to October 2020) (median interval: 104 days). Relative changes in symptoms shown by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and Kawashima's pruritus score between winter and summer were evaluated in Study 1 (n=199), while Study 2 examined the clinical features of patients with sleep disorder based on the results of the second questionnaire (n=235, median age 70 years old; 141 men, liver cirrhosis 37%). Results Study 1. There was a significant relationship in VAS between daytime and nighttime for each season, as well as between winter and summer for each time period (p<0.001). A comparison of Kawashima's pruritus scores for the daytime and nighttime showed no significant seasonal differences (p=0.436 and 0.828, respectively). When Kawashima's score increased, so did the average VAS for both daytime (0:1:2:3:4=0.4±0.2:1.4±0.9:3.0±1.8:5.9±2.1:6.2±2.3) and nighttime (0:1:2:3:4=0.3±0.1:1.4±1.5:3.5±2.3:6.7±2.6:6.9±1.8) (p<0.001 for both). Study 2. Twenty subjects (8.5%) complained of sleep disorder. An elevated FIB-4 index (≥3.07) showed a good predictive value for sleep disorder (p<0.01). The cut-off for the daytime and nighttime VAS values for existing sleep disorder were 1.6 [area under the curve (AUC) 0.901] and 3.4 (AUC 0.931). The respective sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for sleep disorder based on Kawashima's score (≥2) were 0.85, 0.28, 0.10, and 0.95 for the daytime and 1.00, 0.29, 0.12, and 1.00 for the nighttime. Conclusion Intervention against pruritus is recommended in CLD patients with a high Kawashima's score (≥2) in any season, especially with an elevated FIB-4 index.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Humanos , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Prurido/diagnóstico , Prurido/epidemiologia , Prurido/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Hepatol Res ; 51(12): 1219-1228, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534398

RESUMO

AIM: Regorafenib is a second-line treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma after sorafenib-refractory treatment. This study examined the effects of regorafenib administration on hepatic functional reserve and the treatment course after regorafenib discontinuation. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter study involved 51 patients treated with regorafenib after sorafenib-refractory treatment for u-HCC at seven institutions before March 2021. RESULTS: Fourteen, 13, and 24 patients were classified based on modified albumin-bilirubin (mALBI) grade 1, 2a, and 2b, respectively. The median survival time and progression-free survival were 16.7 and 3.3 months, respectively. Only mALBI grade 2b or 3 was significantly associated with survival rate (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.49; p = 0.047). A comparison of median ALBI scores at the initiation of regorafenib (-2.35) with those at 4 weeks (-1.93) revealed a significant relative change (p = 0.0001). After 4 weeks, grade 1 or 2a persisted in 15 patients (Group 1); grade 1 or 2a deteriorated to 2b in 12 patients (Group 2); grade 2b or 3 before regorafenib administration was present in 22 patients (Group 3); and MST was 33.3, 12.8, and 11.3 months in the three groups, respectively (p = 0.05). Patients treated with lenvatinib (LEN) (n = 27, MST = 23.4 months) after regorafenib had a significantly longer survival time from regorafenib initiation than those not treated with LEN (n = 24, 11.8 months; p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic functional reserve significantly declined after regorafenib administration. During regorafenib treatment, favorable hepatic functional reserve before administration and maintenance of favorable hepatic reserve after administration lead to prolonged prognosis.

6.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570948

RESUMO

AIM: To validate an appropriate spleen size measurement technique for the prediction of high-risk esophagogastric varices. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 369 patients who underwent ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) of the spleen and esophagogastroduodenoscopy between January 2018 and December 2020. Maximum spleen length, width, and craniocaudal length were measured in a longitudinal view. The two-dimensional (2D) spleen index (maximum length × maximum width in the longitudinal view) was calculated. A three-dimensional (3D) spleen index was then defined as follows: 2D spleen index × maximum length in the transverse view. The similarity in spleen volume measured by CT and ultrasonography (spleen index) was assessed by the correlation coefficient. The diagnostic accuracies of the spleen index, platelet/spleen length, and platelet/spleen index were calculated to determine the overall diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Compared to the other spleen indices, our 3D spleen index was significantly better correlated with spleen volume on CT (r = 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89-0.92, p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses revealed no significant difference between the 3D and 2D indices (p = 0.228) but did show a significant difference between the 3D and one-dimensional indices (p = 0.020). Although the area under the curve for the platelet count combined with the spleen index or length was higher than that for our 3D index, there was no significant difference between platelet count and spleen index or length (p = 0.078). CONCLUSIONS: Platelet/spleen length has a reasonable ability to predict high-risk esophagogastric varices, even though measurement of two or three factors can be correlated with spleen volume.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16663, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404856

RESUMO

It was recently reported that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not responsive to immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of lenvatinib in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH-related unresectable-HCC (u-HCC). Five hundred thirty u-HCC patients with Child-Pugh A were enrolled, and divided into the NAFLD/NASH (n = 103) and Viral/Alcohol (n = 427) groups. Clinical features were compared in a retrospective manner. Progression-free survival (PFS) was better in the NAFLD/NASH than the Viral/Alcohol group (median 9.3 vs. 7.5 months, P = 0.012), while there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) (20.5 vs. 16.9 months, P = 0.057). In Cox-hazard analysis of prognostic factors for PFS, elevated ALT (≥ 30 U/L) (HR 1.247, P = 0.029), modified ALBI grade 2b (HR 1.236, P = 0.047), elevated AFP (≥ 400 ng/mL) (HR 1.294, P = 0.014), and NAFLD/NASH etiology (HR 0.763, P = 0.036) were significant prognostic factors. NAFLD/NASH etiology was not a significant prognostic factor in Cox-hazard analysis for OS (HR0.758, P = 0.092), whereas AFP (≥ 400 ng/mL) (HR 1.402, P = 0.009), BCLC C stage (HR 1.297, P = 0.035), later line use (HR 0.737, P = 0.014), and modified ALBI grade 2b (HR 1.875, P < 0.001) were significant. Lenvatinib can improve the prognosis of patients affected by u-HCC irrespective of HCC etiology or its line of treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14474, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262065

RESUMO

We investigated the impact on survival of modified albumin-bilirubin (mALBI) grade versus Child-Pugh classification in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who received lenvatinib. A total of 524 patients with HCC who received lenvatinib were included. Univariate analysis showed that mALBI grade 2b/3 and Child-Pugh class B/C were significantly associated with survival [hazard ratio (HR), 2.471; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.944-3.141 and HR, 2.178; 95%CI, 1.591-2.982]. In patients with a Child-Pugh score of 5, multivariate analysis showed that mALBI grade 2b/3 was independently associated with survival (HR, 1.814; 95%CI, 1.083-3.037). Conversely, among patients with mALBI grade 1/2a, there was no difference in survival between those with a Child-Pugh class of 5 or 6 (p = 0.735). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the ALBI score predicted survival better than the Child-Pugh score. The optimal cut-off value of the ALBI score for predicting survival was nearly the same as the value separating mALBI grades 2a and 2b. In conclusion, the mALBI grade was a better predictor of survival than the Child-Pugh classification in patients with unresectable HCC who received lenvatinib therapy.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Albumina Sérica Humana/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Curva ROC , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lenvatinib is a standard of care option in first-line therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we aim to identify, in patients with HCC treated with lenvatinib, a possible association between occurrence and grading of adverse events (AEs) and outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 606 Japanese and Italian patients treated with lenvatinib in first-line setting and investigated the possible correlation between the onset of AEs, toxicity grade (G) and outcome measures such as overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The appearance of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 independently predicted prolonged OS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.93, P = .0188], whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 independently predicted decreased OS (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.25-2.32, P = .0007) by multivariate analysis. Appearance of hand-foot skin reaction independently predicted prolonged PFS (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, P = .0149), whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicted decreased PFS (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.77, P = .0277). CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings are that the occurrence of arterial hypertension G ≥ 2 is a predictor of longer survival, whereas decreased appetite G ≥ 2 predicts for a poor prognosis. A careful management of AEs under lenvatinib treatment for HCC is required, to improve patients' quality of life, minimize the need for treatment discontinuation and achieve optimal outcome.

10.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(7): 1300-1309, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278177

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma has been considered to disseminate through the tumor blood drainage area. To improve curation rates, treatment should cover this area as it may contain satellite lesions. This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether radiofrequency ablation (RFA) completely covering the blood drainage area can improve the overall and disease-free survival. We enrolled 526 patients who underwent computed tomography during hepatic arteriography following RFA from April 2001 to May 2019. Patients were categorized into a covered group in which the blood drainage area was completely covered by RFA and a noncovered group in which coverage was incomplete. The primary endpoint was the overall survival rate; secondary outcomes included disease-free survival rate, distant intrahepatic and local recurrence rate, and changes in the Child-Pugh score. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Cumulative overall survival rates were significantly higher in the covered group than in the noncovered group (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.84; P = 0.002). On multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis, age <65 years, Child-Pugh class A, and coverage of the entire drainage area were independent protective factors. Child-Pugh worsened in 11 (4.2%) patients in the covered group compared to 18 (6.7%) patients in the noncovered group. Conclusion: RFA covering the complete drainage area improved overall survival without decreasing liver function.

11.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1464, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (Atez/bev) treatment has been developed for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC), changes in hepatic function during therapy have yet to be reported. AIM: This retrospective clinical study aimed to elucidate early responses to Atez/Bev. METHODS: From September 2020 to April 2021, 171 u-HCC patients undergoing Atez/Bev treatment were enrolled (BCLC stage A:B:C:D = 5:68:96:2). Of those, 75 had no prior history of systemic treatment. Relative changes in hepatic function and therapeutic response were assessed using albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), ver. 1.1, respectively. RESULTS: In initial imaging examination findings, objective response rates for early tumor shrinkage and disease control after 6 weeks (ORR-6W/DCR-6W) were 10.6%/79.6%. Similar response results were observed in patients with and without a past history of systemic treatment (ORR-6W/DCR-6W = 9.7%/77.8% and 12.2%/82.9%), as well as patients in whom Atez/Bev was used as post-progression treatment following lenvatinib (ORR-6W/DCR-6W = 7.7%/79.5%), for which no known effective post-progression treatment has been established. In 111 patients who underwent a 6-week observation period, ALBI score was significantly worsened at 3 weeks after introducing Atez/Bev (-2.525 ± 0.419 vs -2.323 ± 0.445, p < .001), but then recovered at 6-weeks (-2.403 ± 0.452) as compared to 3-weeks (p = .001). During the observation period, the most common adverse events were appetite loss (all grades) (12.3%), general fatigue/hypertension (all grades) (11.1%, respectively), and urine protein (all grades) (10.5%). CONCLUSION: Atez/Bev might have therapeutic potential not only as first but also later-line treatment of existing molecular target agents. In addition, this drug combination may have less influence on hepatic function during the early period, as the present patients showed a good initial therapeutic response.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 699, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An unexpected recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sometimes occurs in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) after treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). However, the characteristics of patients with HCC recurrence may differ depending on time after DAA treatment. We aimed to identify risk factors related to HCC recurrence according to time after DAA treatment. METHODS: Of 1663 patients with HCV treated with a DAA, 199 patients had a previous history of HCC. We defined HCC recurrence within 1 year after DAA treatment as 'early recurrence', and recurrence more than 1 year after as 'late recurrence'. The different risk factors between the early and late phases of HCC recurrence after the end of DAA therapy were investigated. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients experienced HCC recurrence during the study period. Incidences of recurrence were 29.8, 41.0, and 53.4% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, after the end of DAA therapy. Multivariate analysis identified post-treatment α-fetoprotein (AFP) as an independent factor contributing to HCC recurrence in the early phase (hazard ratio, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.026-1.087, p < 0.001) and post-treatment estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-0.99, p = 0.032) as a predictor of HCC recurrence in the late phase. CONCLUSION: Patients with higher post-treatment AFP in the early phase and those with lower post-treatment eGFR in the late phase had a high risk of HCC recurrence. The risk factors associated with HCC recurrence after DAA treatment were different between the early and late phases.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo , Idoso , Antivirais/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Hepatol Res ; 51(7): 775-785, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018285

RESUMO

AIM: Portal hypertension induces pancreatic congestion and impaired insulin secretion in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, its mechanism is unclear, with no established noninvasive imaging method for the evaluation of its pathogeneses. The present study focused on pancreas stiffness, as assessed by shear wave elastography (SWE), and examined its association with portal hypertension and insulin secretion. METHODS: Shear wave elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were utilized to evaluate pancreas stiffness and congestion, respectively. A glucagon challenge test was used for insulin secretion assessment. Furthermore, rat models of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced LC and portal hypertension were used to identify the direct effects of pancreatic congestion. Immunohistochemistry staining of the pancreas was carried out on human autopsy samples. RESULTS: Pancreas stiffness measured by SWE was higher in patients with LC than in controls and showed significant correlation with pancreatic congestion. The glucagon challenge test indicated a lower value for the change in C-peptide immunoreactivity in the LC group, which was inversely correlated with pancreas stiffness and congestion. Additionally, portal hypertension and insulin secretion dysfunction were confirmed in CCl4 rat models. Autopsy of human samples revealed congestive and fibrotic changes in the pancreas and the relationship between insulin secretion and their factors in patients with LC. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LC, pancreas stiffness measured by SWE could be a potential noninvasive test for evaluating pancreatic congestion and fibrosis due to portal hypertension. Moreover, it was associated with impaired insulin secretion, and could aid in guiding the treatment for hepatogenous diabetes.

14.
Liver Cancer ; 10(2): 115-125, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977088

RESUMO

Background/Aim: An effective postprogression treatment of lenvatinib (LEN) against unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) has not been established. We aimed to elucidate the clinical role of continuing LEN beyond progression of disease (PD). Methods: From March 2018 to October 2020, 99 u-HCC patients, in whom PD was confirmed (male:female = 78:21, median age 72 years, Child-Pugh A = 99, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A:B:C = 2:43:54, LEN as first-line = 55), were enrolled (stopped LEN at PD [A group], n = 26; continued LEN beyond PD [B group], n = 73). Radiological response was evaluated with RECIST 1.1. Clinical features and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) were retrospectively investigated using inverse probability weighting (IPW) calculated by propensity score. Results: Median time to progression, best response, and modified albumin-bilirubin grade (mALBI) at both baseline and PD did not show significant difference between the groups. Postprogression treatment in the A group was best supportive care in 17, sorafenib in 4, regorafenib in 3, ramucirumab in 1, and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in 1. After adjusting with IPW, the B group showed better prognosis in regard to OS after PD and OS after introducing LEN than the A group (10.8/19.6 vs. 5.8/11.2 months, p < 0.001, respectively). In IPW-adjusted Cox hazard multivariate analysis, significant prognostic factors for OS after PD were mALBI 2b/3 at PD (HR 1.983, p = 0.021), decline of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) from baseline at PD (HR 3.180, p < 0.001), elevated alpha-fetoprotein (≥100 ng/mL) at introducing LEN (HR 2.511, p = 0.004), appearance of new extrahepatic metastasis (HR 2.396, p = 0.006), positive for hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) before PD (any grade) (HR 0.292, p < 0.001), and continuing LEN beyond PD (HR 0.297, p < 0.001). Conclusion: When ECOG PS and hepatic reserve function permit, continuing LEN treatment beyond PD, especially in u-HCC patients showed HFSR during LEN treatment, might be a good therapeutic option, at least until a more effective drug as a postprogression treatment after LEN failure is developed.

15.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 9(2): 133-138, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026220

RESUMO

Background: Lenvatinib is used for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) as first-line, as well as second- and third-line therapy in Japan. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of newly developed ramucirumab when given after lenvatinib for post-progression treatment. Methods: Of 385 patients with u-HCC and treated with lenvatinib at 16 different institutions in Japan between May 2018 and January 2020, 28 who received ramucirumab as the next treatment were enrolled and therapeutic responses were evaluated in a retrospective manner. Results: The median age of the 28 patients given ramucirumab was 70 years and the median albumin-bilirubin score was -2.19. Of the 28 patients, 23 were male, 21 were classified as Child-Pugh A and 7 as Child-Pugh B, and 25 were Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage C. Ramucirumab was given as second-line therapy in 14, third-line in 9, and fourth-line in 5. Therapeutic response was obtained in only 26 patients; the objective response rate was 3.8% (1/26) and the disease-control rate was 42.3% (11/26), with a median period to progression of 2.0 months. The reasons for discontinuation of ramucirumab were progression of disease in 16 and Grade 3 adverse events (gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites) in 2. Conclusions: The anticipated therapeutic efficacy of ramucirumab for post-progression treatment following lenvatinib was not seen in our early experience.

16.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(9): 981-987, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) depends on the extent of fibrosis in the kidneys; however, a renal biopsy is necessary to evaluate the severity of renal fibrosis. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE), which measures heartbeat-induced tissue displacement, can assess the elasticity of organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the correlation between renal elasticity and the extent of fibrosis in renal biopsy samples. METHODS: We investigated 29 consecutive patients who underwent a renal biopsy at Ehime University Hospital from February 2018 to August 2019. Renal fibrosis was categorized into three grades, mild (< 25%), moderate (25-50%), and severe (> 50%), based on the total affected area within the biopsy sample. The association between renal elasticity assessed by RTE and the grade of renal fibrosis was evaluated, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to distinguish the severity of renal fibrosis. RESULTS: The mean age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were 58.8 years and 55.2 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was 1.24 g/gCr. The mean renal elasticity of mild, moderate, and severe renal fibrosis was 3.40, 3.98, and 4.77, respectively. Renal elasticity of native kidneys was significantly positively correlated with the grade of renal fibrosis (ρ = 0.529, P = 0.003). At the cutoff point of 3.81, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.778, 68.4%, and 81.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Real-time tissue elastography is a promising, non-invasive method for assessing renal fibrosis in patients with CKD.

17.
Cancer Med ; 10(11): 3584-3592, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Low branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) to tyrosine ratio (BTR) is known as an indicator of amino acid imbalance. We elucidated usefulness of newly developed albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score as alternative methods of BTR in patients with naïve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) retrospectively. MATERIALS/METHODS: In 842 patients with HCC and without BCAA supplementation (71 years, male 614, Child-Pugh A:B:C = 689:116:37), relationships among BTR and clinical features were evaluated. Of those, 438 patients, with Milan criteria HCC, treated curatively were divided into the high-BTR (>4.4) (n = 293) and low-BTR (≤4.4) (n = 145) groups. The prognostic value of BTR was evaluated using inverse probability weighting (IPW) with propensity score. RESULTS: The low-BTR group showed worse prognosis than the other (3-, 5-, 10-year overall survival rates: 88.9% vs. 86.3%/70.5% vs. 78.1%/38.1% vs. 52.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox-hazard analysis adjusted for IPW showed elderly (≥65 years) HR 2.314, p = 0.001), female gender (HR 0.422, p < 0.001), ECOG PS ≥2 (HR 3.032, p = 0.002), low platelet count (HR 1.757, p = 0.010), and low BTR (≤4.4) (HR 1.852, p = 0.005) to be significant prognostic factors. Both serum albumin level (r = 0.370, p < 0.001) and ALBI score (r = -0.389, p < 0.001) showed a significant relationship with BTR. Child-Pugh class B, modified ALBI grade (mALBI) 2a, and mALBI 2b predictive values for BTR were 3.589, 4.509, and 4.155 (AUC range: 0.735-0.770), respectively, while the predictive value of ALBI score for low-BTR (≤4.4) was -2.588 (AUC 0.790). CONCLUSION: ALBI score -2.588 was a predictor for low-BTR (≤4.4), which was prognostic factors for early HCC patients, and at least patients with mALBI 2b might have an amino acid imbalance.

18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 170, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression include visceral fat accumulation and loss of muscle mass; however, which of the two phenomena is more critical is unclear. Therefore, we intended to examine the relationship between body composition and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression as indicated by fibrosis and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 149 patients (55 men; age, 20-76 years) treated for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease between December 2010 and January 2020. Body composition measurements, histological examinations of liver samples, and comprehensive blood chemistry tests were performed. The relationship between body composition and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease histology findings was analyzed using the logistic regression model. RESULTS: Fibrosis was significantly and inversely correlated with muscle mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass and significantly and positively correlated with fat mass, fat mass/height squared, visceral fat area, and waist-hip ratio (P < 0.05). After adjustment for sex, blood chemistry measurements, and body composition indices, fibrosis remained associated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass, fat mass, fat mass/height squared, and visceral fat area (P < 0.05). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score ≥ 5 significantly correlated with fat mass and fat mass/height squared in a univariate but not multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, an indicator of unfavorable long-term outcomes, is associated with more indices of fat mass than of those of muscle mass. Hence, fat mass should be controlled to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Fibrose , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hepatol Res ; 51(6): 652-661, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877727

RESUMO

AIM: The FibroScan-aspartate aminotransferase (FAST) score comprises an easy and feasible method for identifying advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Recently, shear-wave elastography and attenuation coefficient measurement on B-mode ultrasound (US) have become widely utilized. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the FAST score as calculated using US-elastography compared with that using vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE). METHODS: Patients with chronic liver disease who underwent VCTE, point-shear-wave elastography with attenuation coefficient measurement, and liver biopsy on the same day between January 2015 and September 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of 189 patients, 94 underwent VCTE using both M and XL probes. The C-statistics were similar for VCTE (0.846) and US-elastography (0.814; p = 0.251), and for M (0.857) and XL probes (0.833; p = 0.412). Scatter and Bland-Altman plots showed good reproducibility for the FAST score. For VCTE, a cut-off of ≤0.35 had a sensitivity of 92.3%, negative predictive value of 85.5%, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.14, and a cut-off of ≥0.67 had a specificity of 90.6%, positive predictive value of 88.1%, and positive likelihood ratio of 6.03, for ruling out and in advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, respectively. For US-elastography, a cut-off of ≤0.35 had a sensitivity of 90.4%, negative predictive value of 83.3%, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.16, and a cutoff of ≥0.67 had a specificity of 91.8%, positive predictive value of 85.1%, and positive likelihood ratio of 4.67, for ruling out and in advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The FAST score is highly reproducible, even when different echo equipment or probes are used.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7926, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846370

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in hepatocyte degeneration, especially in patients with chronic liver injury. Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a key molecule in ER stress. PERK may contribute to apoptotic cell death in HCC, however the details of the mechanism are not clear. In this study, we identified PERK-associated molecules using transcriptome analysis. We modulated PERK expression using a plasmid, tunicamycin and siRNA against PERK, and then confirmed the target gene expression with real-time PCR and Northern blotting. We further analyzed the apoptotic function. Transcriptome analysis revealed that expression of the RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease (RMRP), which is a long noncoding RNA, was strongly correlated with the function of PERK. The expression of RMRP was correlated with the expression of PERK in experiments with the siRNA and PERK plasmid in both HCC cell lines and human HCC tissue. Furthermore, RMRP downregulation induced apoptotic cell death. RMRP is downregulated by PERK, which induces apoptosis in HCC. RMRP could be a new therapeutic target to regulate HCC in patients with chronic liver diseases associated with ER stress.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
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