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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The image-based diagnosis of pancreatic diseases can be difficult and requires pathological evaluation. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) enables real-time observation of the microscopic tissue pattern of lesion and may be a useful assistance for the diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and utility of pCLE for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. METHODS: Thirty patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with pCLE for the evaluation of indeterminate pancreatic diseases from June 2015 to October 2018 were included in this study. The pCLE findings were interpreted according to the Miami Classification. RESULTS: Among a total of 30 patients, 12, 10, 4, and 4 patients received the definitive diagnoses of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), main duct-intrapapillary mucinous neoplasm (MD-IPMN), autoimmune pancreatitis, and chronic pancreatitis, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of pCLE for PDAC and pancreatitis (96.7% and 93.3%, respectively) was higher than that of cytology (76.7% and 63.3%, respectively) (P = 0.0227 and 0.0048, respectively). The sensitivity of pCLE for PDAC was significantly higher (91.7%) than that of cytology (41.7%) (P = 0.0094). Moreover, the specificity of pCLE for pancreatitis was significantly higher than that of cytology (90.9% versus 50%; P = 0.0029). However, the diagnostic accuracies of pCLE and cytology for MD-IPMN did not differ significantly (96.7% and 86.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: pCLE may be effective for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases as adjunct modality. It requires technical learning and further evaluation of its usefulness.

2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 81, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular invasion is an important criterion for resectability and deciding the therapeutic strategy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but imaging diagnosis is currently difficult. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) elastography (EG) images have band-like artifacts on the border between tumor and vessel due to different movement if the tumor is not connected to the vessel, i.e., no invasion. Based on this phenomenon, we assessed the usefulness of EUS-EG in the diagnosis of vascular invasion in PDAC. METHODS: The subjects were 44 out of 313 patients with PDAC who underwent EUS between January 2015 and November 2018, followed by surgery, no chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and pathological evaluation. Diagnostic accuracies of vascular invasion using dynamic computed tomography (CT), EUS B-mode and EUS-EG were compared with histopathological diagnosis. RESULTS: In 44 subjects (48 sites) who underwent both dynamic CT and EUS-B mode, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.733, 0.697 and 0.708 on dynamic CT (48 sites); 0.733, 0.606 and 0.646 in EUS B-mode (48 sites); and 0.917, 0.900 and 0.906 in EUS-EG (32 sites). In 27 subjects (29 sites) with a tumor contacting a vessel with no vascular obstruction or stenosis on dynamic CT, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.556, 0.750 and 0.690 on dynamic CT; 0.667, 0.700 and 0.690 in EUS B-mode; and 0.889, 0.850 and 0.862 in EUS-EG. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that EUS combined with EG improves diagnostic performance of vascular invasion in PDAC, especially in cases of which vascular invasion cannot be clearly assessed by dynamic CT.

4.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopy guidelines recommend adhering to policies such as resect-and-discard only if optical biopsy is accurate. However, accuracy in predicting histology can vary greatly. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for characterization of colorectal lesions may help with this issue. In this study, a CAD software developed at the University of Adelaide (Australia) including serrated polyp differentiation was validated with Japanese images on narrow-band imaging (NBI) and blue-laser imaging (BLI). METHODS: A CAD software developed using machine learning, densely connected convolutional neural networks was modeled with NBI colorectal lesion images (Olympus 190 series - Australia) and validated for NBI (Olympus 290 series) and BLI (Fujifilm 700 series) with Japanese datasets. All images were correlated with histology according to the modified Sano's classification. The CAD was trained with Australian NBI images and tested with separate sets of images from Australia (NBI) and Japan (NBI and BLI). RESULTS: An Australian dataset of 1,235 polyp images was used as training, testing, and internal validation sets. A Japanese dataset of 20 polyp images on NBI and 49 polyp images on BLI was used as external validation sets. The CAD software had a mean area under the curve (AUC) of 94.3% for the internal set and 84.5% and 90.3% for the external sets (NBI and BLI, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The CAD achieved AUC comparable with experts and similar results with NBI and BLI. Accurate CAD prediction was achievable even when the predicted endoscopy imaging technology was not part of the training set.

5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(10): 1056-1066, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double-balloon endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (DB-ERC) is widely performed for biliary diseases after reconstruction in gastrointestinal surgery, but there are few reports on DB-ERC after hepatectomy or living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). AIM: To examine the success rates and safety of DB-ERC after hepatectomy or LDLT. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively in 26 patients (45 procedures) who underwent hepatectomy or LDLT (liver operation: LO group) and 40 control patients (59 procedures) who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (control group). The technical success (endoscope reaching the choledochojejunostomy site), diagnostic success (performance of cholangiography), therapeutic success (completed interventions) and overall success rates, insertion and procedure (completion of DB-ERC) time, and adverse events were compared between these groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between LO and control groups in the technical [93.3% (42/45) vs 96.6% (57/59), P = 0.439], diagnostic [83.3% (35/42) vs 83.6% (46/55), P = 0.968], therapeutic [97.0% (32/33) vs 97.7% (43/44), P = 0.836], and overall [75.6% (34/45) vs 79.7% (47/59), P = 0.617] success rates. The median insertion time (22 vs 14 min, P < 0.001) and procedure time (43.5 vs 30 min, P = 0.033) were significantly longer in the LO group. The incidence of adverse events showed no significant difference [11.1% (5/45) vs 6.8% (4/59), P = 0.670]. CONCLUSION: DB-ERC after liver operation is safe and useful but longer time is required, so should be performed with particular care.

6.
7.
Dig Endosc ; 32(1): 65-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Accurate diagnosis of invasion depth is important for reliable treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but it is limited to the muscularis mucosae to slight submucosal invasion (MM/SM1). The diagnostic accuracy of invasion depth is unsatisfactory and remains to be improved. We aimed to investigate the association between the color of the superficial ESCC and invasion depth using linked color imaging (LCI) under light-emitting diode (LED) light sources. METHODS: Lesions diagnosed as superficial ESCC were observed using white light imaging and then by LCI. The color values were calculated using Commission Internationale de l'Eclariage - L*a*b* color space, and the color difference was calculated according to invasion depth. The vascular diameters and vascular angles of the intrapapillary capillary loops were pathologically analyzed. Their correlation with mucosal color was also investigated by LCI. RESULTS: In all, 52 lesions from 48 patients were analyzed. On the basis of invasion depth, the color difference between the normal mucosa and the lesion was larger in the MM/SM1 or deeper group than in the epithelium and the lamina propria mucosa (EP/LPM) group using LCI (P = 0.025). The vascular diameter was positively correlated with the b* color value (correlation coefficient = 0.302, P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: Observation using LCI under LED light sources may improve the endoscopic diagnosis of the invasion depth of superficial ESCC. Further research is needed to validate its usefulness. (UMIN000024615).

8.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(1): 65-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Magnifying endoscopy is useful for diagnosis of early gastrointestinal neoplasms by visualizing microvascular (MV) and microsurface (MS) structures of the mucosa when combined with image-enhanced endoscopy. However, precise control of the endoscope is needed because the depth of focus is narrow and the target may move. These problems may be overcome by the all-in-focus (AIF) technique, which was developed in the engineering field. The aim of the study was to evaluate magnifying endoscopic image with AIF algorithm. METHODS: Twenty gastric neoplasms were examined. Images were acquired at 80× magnification and converted to endoscopic images with an AIF algorithm (EI-AIF). The focus area and MV and MS patterns in the original image and the EI-AIF were compared on a 5-point Likert scale, where 5 indicates that the EI-AIF was superior. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the inter-evaluator reliability. An image quality measurement value was calculated for each image as an indicator of the degree of focus. RESULTS: The scores for focus area, MV, and MS were 4.78 ± 0.45 (ICC = 0.63), 4.12 ± 0.76 (ICC = 0.70), and 4.72 ± 0.52 (ICC = 0.45), respectively, with the EI-AIF significantly superior for all three items (P < 0.05 by Student's t-test). ICCs for the focus area and MV were > 0.60, indicating strong inter-evaluator reliability. Image quality measurement was higher for the EI-AIF compared with the original image in every case. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic observation with AIF algorithm gives a better image quality that allows easier evaluation of MV and MS patterns. This technique may resolve the difficulties with magnifying endoscopic observation.

9.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(4): 587-595, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849376

RESUMO

In recent years, transnasal endoscopy had been more widely accepted for its safety and convenience, and although it can lead to a weaker pharyngeal reflex, compared with the effects of transoral endoscopy, examinees often suffer intolerable pain and discomfort during passage of the endoscope through the nasal cavity. The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between the uncomfortable factors during transnasal endoscopy and nasal patency. The subjects comprised 23 consecutive patients who underwent transnasal endoscopy from October 2007 to April 2009 at our Gastroenterology and Otorhinolaryngology Departments. Immediately prior to endoscopy, the left and right nasal resistance was measured with an active anterior rhinomanometer; a value of 100 Pa was determined as nasal resistance. The transnasal endoscope was inserted in the subjectively preferred side by the examinee. Thereafter, the subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire on physical tolerance during the procedure, to quantify the sensations of nasal pain, nausea, and choking on a 10-point visual analogue scale. The mean scores were 3.0 ± 2.7 for nasal pain, 1.7 ± 2.0 for choking, and 1.6 ± 1.9 for nausea. The most intolerable factor among the complaints was pain (45%), which was followed by nausea (18%) and choking (9%). Unilateral nasal resistance was significantly related with nasal pain only (P = 0.0135). In conclusion, the most difficult problem during transnasal endoscopy was pain, which was related to nasal patency. We successfully demonstrated the clinical significance of nasal patency in determining the side of insertion for transnasal endoscopy.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Cavidade Nasal/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/etiologia , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Microbiota have been associated with several diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to evaluate the microbiota in early/invasive CRC utilizing stool and cytological brushes to determine differences in relative abundance (RA). METHODS: Colonoscopy patients referred for endoscopic submucosal dissection or previous to CRC surgery were prospectively enrolled. Stool was collected pre-bowel preparation; and brush samples were taken during colonoscopy (three regions). DNA extraction, 16S rRNA next generation sequencing, and biostatistics (qiime and stamp software packages) followed. Primary outcome was the difference in RA of the Fusobacterium genus between the groups. Secondary outcomes included analyses of other microbiota. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were included, of which 14 had invasive cancer (≥ 1000 mm into the submucosa). The three major genera for invasive cancer were Bacterioides, Oribacterium, and Fusobacterium, whereas for early cancer were Oribacterium, Bacterioides, and Prevotella (decreasing order of RA). There was a significantly higher RA of Fusobacterium in the invasive cancer group (9.65% vs 0.95%, respectively, P < 0.001). The RA of all genera was similar throughout the colon. In addition to Fusobacterium, the genera Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Neisseria, Porphyromonas, and Sclegelella showed statistically higher RA in the invasive cancer group. Conversely, the genera Oribacterium, Desulfovibrio, Clostridiales, and Lactobacillus showed lower RA in the invasive cancer group. CONCLUSIONS: The RA of Fusobacterium is higher with invasive CRC than in early CRC patients. In addition, five other bacteria genera were found to be increased, and four decreased in invasive CRC patients. The microbiota per patient was similar throughout the colon.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605262

RESUMO

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a modality with high spatial resolution that enables comprehensive observation of the entire pancreas and plays an important role in the diagnosis of pancreatic lesions. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging methods such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have increased the incidental detection of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). EUS has been recognized as an essential diagnostic method for the detection and evaluation of PCLs. EUS has two important roles: as a detailed (high-resolution) imaging diagnostic method and as an approach for collecting cyst fluid content by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration for pathological diagnosis or biomarker evaluation. Furthermore, in recent years, the usefulness of contrast-enhanced EUS for the differential diagnosis of PCLs or evaluation of grade of malignancy, and a novel imaging technique called needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy to observe intraductal structures through a needle, has been reported. An understanding of the morphological characteristics of PCLs depicted by ultrasound imaging and of the benefits and limitations of EUS diagnosis in daily practice is needed.

12.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 46(4): 521-522, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564002
13.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Surveillance post-endoscopic resection (ER) currently warrants biopsy samples from the resection site scar in most cases, although clinical practice is variable. A classification with standard criteria for scars has not yet been established. We aimed to create and validate a novel classification for post-ER scars by using specific criteria based on advanced imaging. METHODS: Key endoscopic features for scars with and without recurrence were (1) dark brown color, elongated/branched pit pattern, and dense capillary pattern and (2) whitish, pale appearance, round/slightly large pits, and irregular sparse vessels. Scars were first assessed with high-definition white-light endoscopy (HD-WLE) followed by interrogation with narrow-band imaging (NBI). Scars with at least 2 concordant characteristics were diagnosed with "high confidence" for NBI for scar (NBI-SCAR) classification. The final endoscopic predictions were correlated with histopathology. The primary outcome was the difference in sensitivity between NBI-SCAR and HD-WLE predictions. Secondary outcomes included the validation of our findings in 6 different endoscopy settings (Australia, United States, Japan, Brazil, Singapore, and Malaysia). The validation took place in 2 sessions separated by 2 to 3 weeks, each with 10 one-minute videos of post-ER scars on underwater NBI with dual focus. Inter-rater and intrarater reliability were calculated with Fleiss' free-marginal kappa and Bennett et al. S score, respectively. RESULTS: One hundred scars from 82 patients were included. Ninety-five scars were accurately predicted with high confidence by NBI-SCAR in the exploratory phase. NBI-SCAR sensitivity was significantly higher compared with HD-WLE (100% vs 73.7%, P < .05). In the validation phase, similar results were found for endoscopists who routinely perform colonoscopies and use NBI (sensitivity of 96.4%). The inter-rater and intrarater reliability throughout all centers were, respectively, substantial (κ = .61) and moderate (average S = .52) for this subset. CONCLUSIONS: NBI-SCAR has a high sensitivity and negative predictive value for excluding recurrence for endoscopists experienced in colonoscopy and NBI. In this setting, this approach may help to accurately evaluate or resect scars and potentially mitigate the burden of unnecessary biopsy samples.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522338

RESUMO

Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) are incidental findings that are being increasingly identified because of recent advancements in abdominal imaging technologies. PCLs include different entities, with each of them having a peculiar biological behavior, and they range from benign to premalignant or malignant neoplasms. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important to determine the best treatment strategy. As transabdominal ultrasonography (US) is noninvasive, inexpensive, and widely available, it is considered to be the most appropriate imaging modality for the initial evaluation of abdominal diseases, including PCLs, and for follow-up assessment. We present a review of the possibilities and limits of US in the diagnosis of PCLs, the technical development of US, and the ultrasonographic characteristics of PCLs.

15.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5367-5381, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439548

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) constitute a major component of the tumor microenvironment. Recent observations in genetically engineered mouse models and clinical studies have suggested that there may exist at least two functionally different populations of CAFs, that is, cancer-promoting CAFs (pCAF) and cancer-restraining CAFs (rCAF). Although various pCAF markers have been identified, the identity of rCAFs remains unknown because of the lack of rCAF-specific marker(s). In this study, we found that Meflin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that is a marker of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and maintains their undifferentiated state, is expressed by pancreatic stellate cells that are a source of CAFs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In situ hybridization analysis of 71 human PDAC tissues revealed that the infiltration of Meflin-positive CAFs correlated with favorable patient outcome. Consistent herewith, Meflin deficiency led to significant tumor progression with poorly differentiated histology in a PDAC mouse model. Similarly, genetic ablation of Meflin-positive CAFs resulted in poor differentiation of tumors in a syngeneic transplantation model. Conversely, delivery of a Meflin-expressing lentivirus into the tumor stroma or overexpression of Meflin in CAFs suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors. Lineage tracing revealed that Meflin-positive cells gave rise to α-smooth muscle actin-positive CAFs that are positive or negative for Meflin, suggesting a mechanism for generating CAF heterogeneity. Meflin deficiency or low expression resulted in straightened stromal collagen fibers, which represent a signature for aggressive tumors, in mouse or human PDAC tissues, respectively. Together, the data suggest that Meflin is a marker of rCAFs that suppress PDAC progression. SIGNIFICANCE: Meflin marks and functionally contributes to a subset of cancer-associated fibroblasts that exert antitumoral effects.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/20/5367/F1.large.jpg.

16.
Surgery ; 166(6): 997-1003, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of peritoneal washing cytology status both as a sign of irresectability and as a prognostic factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this nationwide, cancer registry-based study was to clarify the clinical implications of operative resection in patients who had positive cytology status. METHODS: Clinical data from 1,970 patients who underwent tumor resection were collected from the Pancreatic Cancer Registry in Japan. Clinicopathologic factors and overall survival curves were analyzed, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 1,970 patients analyzed, positive cytology status was found in 106 patients and negative cytology status was found in 1,864 patients. The positive cytology status group had a greater frequency of pancreatic body and tail cancer and greater preoperative serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels than the negative cytology status group (P < .001 each). The ratio of peritoneal recurrence tended to be greater in the positive cytology status group (14% vs 43%; P < .001). Overall median survival times were less in the positive cytology status group (17.5 months vs 29.4 months; P < .001). The 5-year survival rates were 13.7% and 31.1% in the positive cytology status and negative cytology status groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis of positive cytology status patients revealed that adjuvant chemotherapy was an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: Positive cytology status was an adverse prognostic factor in patients who underwent resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma but did not preclude attempted curative resection. Curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy may contribute to long-term prognosis in patients with positive cytology status.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Lavagem Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Peritônio/patologia , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 11(1): 91-98, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289684

RESUMO

Resistance to anticancer drugs is a critical issue in cancer treatment. Alterations in gene expression and DNA methylation profiles that accompany the acquisition of drug resistance are associated with resistance mechanisms. To analyze chemotherapy-associated alterations in gene expression and DNA methylation in gastric cancer cells obtained from ascites, ascitic fluids were collected from a patient with gastric cancer before chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapeOX), and after the disease had progressed. The fluids were cultured for 10 days, passaged into new flasks, and cultured for an additional 2 weeks. Normal cells, including white blood cells and mesothelial cells, were removed. The expression and DNA methylation profiles of 18,185 genes were analyzed using microarray, and compared between cells in ascitic fluids collected before and after the chemotherapy with CapeOX. In addition, fluorouracil- and oxaliplatin-resistant AGS cells were established and analyzed. Pathways having genes with expression profiles altered by CapeOX included those associated with 'signaling by G-protein-coupled receptor' and the 'immune system'. Genes that were commonly expressed at higher levels in CapeOX-resistant ascitic cells, fluorouracil-resistant AGS cells. and oxaliplatin-resistant AGS cells compared with those in untreated cells included telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) and serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1 (STYK1), whereas genes commonly expressed at lower levels in the three drug-resistant cell types compared with the untreated cells included defensin ß4A (DEFB4A). A comparatively large number of genes exhibited altered methylation levels in drug-resistant AGS cells compared with the CapeOX-resistant cells. In addition, among the genes expressed at higher levels in decitabine-treated AGS cells, the majority were expressed at higher levels in fluorouracil-resistant AGS cells, and exhibited lower methylation levels. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated that comparing the expression profiles of gastric cancer cells obtained from ascitic fluids before and after chemotherapy with the expression profiles of drug-resistant cultured cells is a useful method for analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance.

19.
Intervirology ; 62(1): 23-29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype infection is variable, and a few reports exist regarding the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) therapy for mixed genotype. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of mixed genotype and its impact on the virologic response to DAA therapy. METHODS: A total of 365 patients with chronic HCV infection who completed antiviral therapy were recruited. Nested polymerase chain reaction with universal and specific primers of genotypes 1b and 2 and direct sequencing were used for HCV genotyping. RESULTS: Direct sequencing with universal primers defined genotypes 1b (n = 230), 2a (n = 95), and 2b (n = 40). Direct sequencing of genotype 2 was performed in patients with genotype 1b, and direct sequencing of genotype 1b in patients with genotype 2. Four patients with genotype 1b underwent amplification for genotype 2, and direct sequencing identified genotypes 1b (n = 1), 2a (n = 1), and 2b (n = 2). None with genotype 2 underwent amplification for genotype 1b. Three cases were confirmed to have mixed genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Mixed genotype was rare, and hence the impact of mixed genotype on treatment outcome with DAA therapy is expected to be minimal.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 46(4): 441-447, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218473

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic fibrosis or fibrosing reactions have been reported in intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) patients. We assessed whether a higher elastic modulus (EM) measured using shear wave elastography (SW-EG) correlated with the existence of branch-duct (BD) IPMN. METHODS: In total, 183 normal pancreas (NP) and 123 BD-IPMN cases were enrolled. First, we assessed the difference in pancreatic EM (PEM) at different sites (head or tail side of the cyst). Second, a comparison was done between the median PEM of the NP and the BD-IPMN cases. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the BD-IPMN diagnostic capabilities. Finally, in patients whose cyst was not visualized, the test-positive rate was determined. RESULTS: No significant difference was seen between the cyst head side PEM (4.61 kPa) and the tail side PEM (5.35 kPa) (P = 0.471). Among these cases matched by age, 73 were selected each from NP and BD-IPMN cases (median age 65 years). The median PEM of the BD-IPMN cases (5.18 kPa) was significantly higher than that of the NP cases (3.17 kPa) (P < 0.001). When the cut-off value was set at 4.75 kPa, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 75.3%, 64.4%, 72.3%, 67.9%, and 69.9%, respectively. The cut-off value of 4.75 kPa helped for the indirect selection of BD-IPMN patients (10/17, 58.8%) whose cyst was not detected on B-mode ultrasonography. CONCLUSION: SW-EG measurement of the underlying pancreatic parenchyma may correlate with the presence of BD-IPMN.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Módulo de Elasticidade , Feminino , Fibrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/patologia , Ductos Pancreáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
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