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1.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(10): 1127-1136, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrosis stage predicts prognosis in patients with chronic liver disease independent of aetiology, although its precise role in risk stratification in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) remains undefined. AIM: To assess the utility of baseline fibrosis stage in predicting long-term outcomes in the context of biochemical risk stratification METHODS: In a large and globally representative cohort of patients with PBC, liver biopsies performed from 1980 to 2014 were evaluated. The predictive ability of histologic fibrosis stage in addition to treatment response at 1 year (Toronto/Paris-II criteria), as well as non-invasive markers of fibrosis (AST/ALT ratio [AAR], AST to platelet ratio index [APRI], FIB-4), for transplant-free survival was assessed with Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: There were 1828 patients with baseline liver biopsy. Advanced histologic fibrosis (stage 3/4) was an independent predictor of survival in addition to non-invasive measures of fibrosis with the hazard ratios ranging from 1.59 to 2.73 (P < .001). Patients with advanced histologic fibrosis stage had worse survival despite biochemical treatment response, with a 10-year survival of 76.0%-86.6% compared to 94.5%-95.1% depending on the treatment response criteria used. Poor correlations were observed between non-invasive measures of fibrosis and histologic fibrosis stage. CONCLUSION: Assessment of fibrosis stage grants prognostic value beyond biochemical treatment response at 1 year. This highlights the need to incorporate fibrosis stage in individual risk stratification in patients with PBC, partly to identify those that may derive benefit from novel therapies.

2.
Semin Liver Dis ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537031

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of small to medium size intrahepatic bile ducts. The etiology of PBC remains unknown and pathogenesis features immune-mediated biliary injury, alongside the consequences of chronic cholestasis. PBC is strongly associated with the loss of immune tolerance against mitochondrial antigens and the subsequent presence of an articulated immunologic response that involves both humoral and cellular responses. Both environmental factors and genetic variants increase PBC susceptibility. Biliary epithelial cells have often been considered a passive target of the immune attack in PBC; however, cholangiocyte dedifferentiation, senescence, stress, and deoxyribonucleic acid damage have been recognized to play an active role in the pathogenesis of PBC. This review highlights and discusses the most relevant pathogenetic mechanisms in PBC, focusing on the key factors that lead to the onset of cholestasis and immune activation.

3.
J Autoimmun ; : 102328, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548157

RESUMO

Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is an uncommon, chronic, cholangiopathy of autoimmune origin and unknown etiology characterized by positive anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA), female preponderance and progression to cirrhosis if left untreated. The diagnosis is based on AMA- or PBC-specific anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)-positivity in the presence of a cholestatic biochemical profile, histologic confirmation being mandatory only in seronegative cases. First-line treatment is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is effective in preventing disease progression in about two thirds of the patients. The only approved second-line treatment is obeticholic acid. This article summarizes the most relevant conclusions of a meeting held in Lugano, Switzerland, from September 23rd-25th 2018, gathering basic and clinical scientists with various background from around the world to discuss the latest advances in PBC research. The meeting was dedicated to Ian Mackay, pioneer in the field of autoimmune liver diseases. The role of liver histology needs to be reconsidered: liver pathology consistent with PBC in AMA-positive individuals without biochemical cholestasis is increasingly reported, raising the question as to whether biochemical cholestasis is a reliable disease marker for both clinical practice and trials. The urgent need for new biomarkers, including more accurate markers of cholestasis, was also widely discussed during the meeting. Moreover, new insights in interactions of bile acids with biliary epithelia in PBC provide solid evidence of a role for impaired epithelial protection against potentially toxic hydrophobic bile acids, raising the fundamental question as to whether this bile acid-induced epithelial damage is the cause or the consequence of the autoimmune attack to the biliary epithelium. Strategies are needed to identify difficult-to-treat patients at an early disease stage, when new therapeutic approaches targeting immunologic pathways, in addition to bile acid-based therapies, may be effective. In conclusion, using interdisciplinary approaches, groundbreaking advances can be expected before long in respect to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of PBC, with the ultimate aim of improving its treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients usually receive a diagnosis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) at an early stage, based on biochemical analyses. We investigated the proportion of patients who progress to moderate or advanced PBC and factors associated with progression and patient survival. METHODS: We obtained data from 1615 patients (mean age, 55.4 y) with early stage PBC (based on their normal levels of albumin and bilirubin), collected at the time of initial evaluation or treatment, from the Global PBC Study Group database (comprising patients at 19 liver centers in North American and European countries). We collected data from health care evaluations on progression to moderate PBC (abnormal level of bilirubin or albumin) or advanced-stage PBC (abnormal level of both). The median follow-up time was 7.9 years. The composite end point was decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, or death. RESULTS: Of the 1615 patients identified with early stage PBC, 904 developed moderate PBC and 201 developed advanced disease over the study period. The proportions of patients who transitioned to moderate PBC at 1, 3, and 5 years were 12.9%, 30.2%, and 45.8%. The proportions of these patients who then transitioned to advanced PBC at 1, 3, and 5 years later were 3.4%, 12.5%, and 16.0%, respectively. During the follow-up period, 236 patients had a clinical event. The proportions of patients with moderate PBC and event-free survival were 97.9%, 95.1%, and 91.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively, and the proportions of patients with advanced PBC and event-free survival were 90.6%, 71.2%, and 58.3% at 1, 3, and 5 years later, respectively. Variables associated with transition from early to moderate PBC included baseline levels of bilirubin, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase; aspartate to alanine aminotransferase ratio; platelet count; and treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Transitions from early to moderate PBC and from moderate to advanced PBC were associated with higher probabilities of a clinical event (time-dependent hazard ratios, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.0-4.5; and 4.6; 95% CI, 3.5-6.2). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of patients with early stage PBC progress to a more severe stage within 5 years. Progression is associated with an increased risk of a clinical event, so surveillance is important for patients with early stage PBC.

5.
Gut ; 68(8): 1356-1378, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154395

RESUMO

These guidelines on the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) were commissioned by the British Society of Gastroenterology liver section. The guideline writing committee included medical representatives from hepatology and gastroenterology groups as well as patient representatives from PSC Support. The guidelines aim to support general physicians, gastroenterologists and surgeons in managing adults with PSC or those presenting with similar cholangiopathies which may mimic PSC, such as IgG4 sclerosing cholangitis. It also acts as a reference for patients with PSC to help them understand their own management. Quality of evidence is presented using the AGREE II format. Guidance is meant to be used as a reference rather than for rigid protocol-based care as we understand that management of patients often requires individual patient-centred considerations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Colangite Esclerosante , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/etiologia , Colangite Esclerosante/complicações , Colangite Esclerosante/diagnóstico , Colangite Esclerosante/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Prognóstico , Reino Unido
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gut-homing lymphocytes that express the integrin α4ß7 and CCR9 might contribute to development of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Vedolizumab, which blocks the integrin α4ß7, is used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but there are few data on its efficacy in patients with PSC. We investigated the effects of vedolizumab in a large international cohort of patients with PSC and IBD. METHODS: We collected data from European and North American centers participating in the International PSC Study Group from patients with PSC and IBD who received at least 3 doses of vedolizumab (n = 102; median vedolizumab treatment duration, 412 days). Demographic and clinical data were collected from baseline and during the follow-up period (until liver transplantation, death, or 56 days after the final vedolizumab infusion). We analyzed overall changes in biochemical features of liver and proportions of patients with reductions in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of 20% or more, from baseline through last follow-up evaluation. Other endpoints included response of IBD to treatment (improved, unchanged, or worsened, judged by the treating clinician, as well as endoscopic score) and liver-related outcomes. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, the median serum level of ALP increased from 1.54-fold the upper limit of normal at baseline to 1.64-fold the upper limit of normal at the last follow-up examination (P = .018); serum levels of transaminases and bilirubin also increased by a small amount between baseline and the last follow-up examination. Serum levels of ALP decreased by 20% or more in 21 patients (20.6%); only the presence of cirrhosis (odds ratio, 4.48; P = .019) was independently associated with this outcome. Of patients with available endoscopic data, 56.8% had a response of IBD to treatment. Liver-related events occurred in 21 patients (20.6%), including bacterial cholangitis, cirrhosis decompensation, or transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of patients with PSC and IBD in an international study group, we found no evidence for a biochemical response to vedolizumab, although serum level of ALP decreased by 20% or more in a subset of patients. Vedolizumab appears to be well tolerated and the overall response of IBD was the same as expected for patients without PSC.

7.
J Hepatol ; 71(2): 357-365, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The clinical efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) remains subject to debate as definitive randomized controlled trials are lacking. We aimed to determine whether UDCA prolongs liver transplant (LT)-free survival in patients with PBC. METHODS: This international cohort study included patients from the Global PBC Study Group database, originating from 8 countries in Europe and North America. Both UDCA-treated and untreated patients were included. LT and death were assessed as a combined endpoint through Cox regression analyses, with inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW). RESULTS: In the 3,902 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 54.3 (11.9) years, 3,552 patients (94.0%) were female, 3,529 patients (90.4%) were treated with UDCA and 373 patients (9.6%) were not treated. The median (interquartile range) follow-up was 7.8 (4.1-12.1) years. In total, 721 UDCA-treated patients and 145 untreated patients died or underwent LT. After IPTW, the 10-year cumulative LT-free survival was 79.7% (95% CI 78.1-81.2) among UDCA-treated patients and 60.7% (95% CI 58.2-63.4) among untreated patients (p <0.001). UDCA was associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of LT or death (hazard ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.40-0.52; p <0.001). The hazard ratio remained statistically significant in all stages of disease. Patients classified as inadequate biochemical responders after 1 year of UDCA had a lower risk of LT or death than patients who were not treated (adjusted hazard ratio 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.69; p <0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of UDCA improves LT-free survival among patients with PBC, regardless of the disease stage and the observed biochemical response. These findings support UDCA as the current universal standard of care in PBC. LAY SUMMARY: In this international multicenter study of 3,902 patients with primary biliary cholangitis, we found that treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with prolonged liver transplant-free survival. This association was significant, irrespective of sex, age, or disease stage. The survival benefit remained statistically significant in patients with an incomplete biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid therapy.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has a variable, often progressive, course. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) is used in the diagnosis of PSC. Magnetic resonance risk scoring systems, called Anali without and with gadolinium, are used to predict disease progression, determined by radiologic factors. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of Anali scores in patients with PSC and validate our findings in a separate cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with large-duct PSC (internal cohort, 119 patients in France; external cohort, 119 patients in Canada, Italy, and the United Kingdom). All the first-available MRC results were reviewed by 2 radiologists and the Anali scores were calculated as follows: Anali without gadolinium = (1× dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts) + (2× dysmorphy) + (1× portal hypertension); Anali with gadolinium = (1× dysmorphy) + (1× parenchymal enhancement heterogeneity). The primary end point was survival without liver transplantation or cirrhosis decompensation. The prognostic value of Anali scores was assessed by Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: During a total of 549 patient-years for the internal cohort and 497 patient-years for the external cohort, we recorded 2 and 8 liver transplantations, 4 and 3 liver-related deaths, and 26 and 25 cirrhosis decompensations, respectively. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with survival without liver transplantation or cirrhosis decompensation in the internal cohort were as follows: serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and Anali scores. Anali scores without and with gadolinium identified patients' survival without liver transplantation or cirrhosis decompensation with a c-statistic of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64-0.87), respectively. Independent prognostic factors identified by multivariate analysis were Anali scores and bilirubinemia. The prognostic value of Anali scores was confirmed in the external cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In internal and external cohorts, we found that Anali scores, determined from MRC, were associated with outcomes of patients with PSC. These scores might be used as prognostic factors.

9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(6): 445-453, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of obeticholic acid for patients with primary biliary cholangitis using 3-year interim data from the 5-year open-label extension of the pivotal phase 3 POISE trial. METHODS: In the double-blind phase of POISE, 217 patients with primary biliary cholangitis with inadequate response to or intolerance to ursodeoxycholic acid were randomised to receive placebo, obeticholic acid 5 to 10 mg, or obeticholic acid 10 mg once daily for 12 months. During the open-label extension phase, patients received variable, adjusted doses of obeticholic acid. Markers of cholestasis and liver injury, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total and direct bilirubin were evaluated, and safety was assessed for up to 48 months of treatment with obeticholic acid. All analyses in the open-label extension were done in the safety population, defined as any patient randomised in the double-blind phase who received at least one dose of obeticholic acid during the open-label extension. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01473524) and with EudraCT (2011-004728-36). FINDINGS: 193 patients were treated during the open-label extension. In this 3-year interim analysis, ALP concentrations were significantly reduced compared with baseline at 12 months (mean change -105·2 U/L [SD 87·6]), 24 months (-101·0 U/L [98·5]), 36 months (-108·6 U/L [95·7]), and 48 months (-95·6 U/L [121·1]; p<0·0001 for all yearly time points). Total bilirubin concentrations were stabilised, with significant reductions versus baseline at 12 months (mean change -0·9 µmol/L [SD 4·1]; p=0·0042) and 48 months (-0·8 µmol/L [3·8]; p=0·016). Stabilisation was also noted for direct bilirubin, with a significant change from baseline at 12 months (mean change -0·5 µmol/L [SD 3·0]; p=0·021). However, changes in total and direct bilirubin were not significant at other time points. Obeticholic acid was generally well tolerated, with pruritus (149 [77%] patients) and fatigue (63 [33%]) being the most common adverse events. No serious adverse events were considered related to obeticholic acid. INTERPRETATION: Interim analyses suggest long-term efficacy and safety of obeticholic acid in patients with primary biliary cholangitis who are intolerant to or inadequately responsive to ursodeoxycholic acid. FUNDING: Intercept Pharmaceuticals.

10.
Liver Int ; 39(5): 967-975, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pruritus is a common symptom in patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) for which ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) inhibition is emerging as a potential therapy. We explored the serum metabonome and gut microbiota profile in PBC patients with pruritus and investigated the effect of GSK2330672, an IBAT inhibitor. METHODS: We studied fasting serum bile acids (BAs), autotaxin and faecal microbiota in 22 PBC patients with pruritus at baseline and after 2 weeks of GSK2330672 treatment. Control group included 31 asymptomatic PBC patients and 18 healthy volunteers. BA profiling was done by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Faecal microbiomes were analysed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: In PBC patients with pruritus, serum levels of total and glyco-conjugated primary BAs and autotaxin were significantly elevated. Autotaxin activity correlated significantly with tauro- and glyco-conjugated cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), both at baseline and after GSK2330672. GSK2330672 significantly reduced autotaxin and all tauro- and glyco- conjugated BAs and increased faecal levels of CA (P = 0.048) and CDCA (P = 0.027). Gut microbiota of PBC patients with pruritus was similar to control groups. GSK2330672 increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes (P = 0.033) and Clostridia (P = 0.04) and decreased Bacteroidetes (P = 0.033) and Bacteroidia (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Pruritus in PBC does not show a distinct gut bacterial profile but is associated with elevated serum bile acid and autotaxin levels which decrease after IBAT inhibition. In cholestatic pruritus, a complex interplay between BAs and autotaxin is likely and may be modified by IBAT inhibition.

11.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(3): 248-254, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739664

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of children are surviving into adulthood with a diagnosis of liver disease or having undergone liver transplantation. This population presents some challenges for the adult hepatologist, and a formal transition service clearly improves outcomes for patients in this group. Evidence of ongoing neurological development in young people up to the age of 25 years exists, and understanding these physiological processes is important in overcoming some of the challenges that caring for this population presents. A well designed transition service is key to maximising potential for these patients, and should enable young people to take control of their illness and achieve their life goals.

12.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(10): 2076-2084.e2, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) predominantly affects middle-aged women; there are few data on disease phenotypes and outcomes of PBC in men and younger patients. We investigated whether differences in sex and/or age at the start of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment are associated with response to therapy, based on biochemical markers, or differences in transplant-free survival. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal retrospective study of 4355 adults in the Global PBC Study cohort, collected from 17 centers across Europe and North America. Patients received a diagnosis of PBC from 1961 through 2014. We evaluated the effects of sex and age on response to UDCA treatment (based on GLOBE score) and transplant-free survival using logistic regression and Cox regression analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Male patients were older at the start of treatment (58.3±12.1 years vs 54.3±11.6 years for women; P<.0001) and had higher levels of bilirubin and lower circulating platelet counts (P<.0001). Younger patients (45 years or younger) had increased serum levels of transaminases than older patients (older than 45 years). Patients older than 45 years at time of treatment initiation had increased odds of a biochemical response to UDCA therapy, based on GLOBE score, compared to younger patients. The greatest odds of response to UDCA were observed in patients older than 65 years (odds ratio compared to younger patients 45 years or younger, 5.48; 95% CI, 3.92-7.67; P<.0001). Risk of liver transplant or death (compared to a general population matched for age, sex, and birth year) decreased significantly with advancing age: hazard ratio for patients 35 years or younger, 14.59 (95% CI, 9.66-22.02) vs hazard ratio for patients older than 65 years, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.23-1.57) (P<.0001). On multivariable analysis, sex was not independently associated with response or transplant-free survival. CONCLUSION: In longitudinal analysis of 4355 adults in the Global PBC Study, we associated patient age, but not sex, with response to UDCA treatment and transplant-free survival. Younger age at time of treatment initiation is associated with increased risk of treatment failure, liver transplant, and death.

13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(7): 1379-1387.e3, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little is known about the prevalence or treatment of pruritus associated with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We analyzed data from patients with PBC recruited from all clinical centers in the United Kingdom (UK) to characterize the prevalence, severity, progression, and treatment of pruritus. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of patients in the UK-PBC cohort to assess trajectories of pruritus. Data on pruritus frequency, severity, and therapy were collected via paper questionnaires completed by 2194 patients at their initial assessment in 2011 and then again in 2014 and 2017. Self-reported treatment data were validated against the prescription record of PBC cohort in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care database. We defined persistent pruritus as itch that occurs frequently or all the time and severe pruritus as PBC-40 pruritus domain scores of 12 or more, throughout their disease course. Latent class mixed models were used to study pruritus trajectories and identify factors associated with high pruritus. RESULTS: At initial assessment, 1613 (73.5%) patients had experienced pruritus at some point since their development of PBC-persistent pruritus was reported by 34.5% of the patients and severe pruritus by 11.7%. Only 37.4% of patients with persistent pruritus and 50% with severe pruritus reported ever receiving cholestyramine. Frequencies of rifampicin use were 11% in patients with persistent pruritus and 23% in patients with severe pruritus. Comparison of 2011 and 2014 surveys (comprising 1423 patients) showed consistent self-reported data on pruritus. Proportions of patients in the UK-PBC cohort treated with cholestyramine or naltrexone (37.4% and 4.4%) did not differ significantly from proportions treated in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink cohort (30.4% and 4.4%) (P = .07 for cholestyramine and P = .32 for naltrexone). Latent class mixed models (n = 1753) identified 3 different groups of pruritus. Multivariable analysis identified younger age at diagnosis and higher level of alkaline phosphatase at 12 months after diagnosis as factors significantly associated with persistent high pruritus. CONCLUSIONS: In a large national cohort study of patients with PBC, we found a high prevalence of pruritus and inadequate guideline-recommended therapy. Patient-reported data used to determine pruritus prevalence and treatment are reliable. Younger age and levels of higher alkaline phosphatase were associated with persistent pruritus. We need to increase awareness and management of pruritus in PBC in the UK.

15.
Hepatology ; 69(5): 2120-2135, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566748

RESUMO

We sought to identify factors that are predictive of liver transplantation or death in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and to develop and validate a contemporaneous risk score for use in a real-world clinical setting. Analyzing data from 1,001 patients recruited to the UK-PSC research cohort, we evaluated clinical variables for their association with 2-year and 10-year outcome through Cox-proportional hazards and C-statistic analyses. We generated risk scores for short-term and long-term outcome prediction, validating their use in two independent cohorts totaling 451 patients. Thirty-six percent of the derivation cohort were transplanted or died over a cumulative follow-up of 7,904 years. Serum alkaline phosphatase of at least 2.4 × upper limit of normal at 1 year after diagnosis was predictive of 10-year outcome (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.05; C = 0.63; median transplant-free survival 63 versus 108 months; P < 0.0001), as was the presence of extrahepatic biliary disease (HR = 1.45; P = 0.01). We developed two risk scoring systems based on age, values of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, platelets, presence of extrahepatic biliary disease, and variceal hemorrhage, which predicted 2-year and 10-year outcomes with good discrimination (C statistic = 0.81 and 0.80, respectively). Both UK-PSC risk scores were well-validated in our external cohort and outperformed the Mayo Clinic and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) scores (C statistic = 0.75 and 0.63, respectively). Although heterozygosity for the previously validated human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR*03:01 risk allele predicted increased risk of adverse outcome (HR = 1.33; P = 0.001), its addition did not improve the predictive accuracy of the UK-PSC risk scores. Conclusion: Our analyses, based on a detailed clinical evaluation of a large representative cohort of participants with PSC, furthers our understanding of clinical risk markers and reports the development and validation of a real-world scoring system to identify those patients most likely to die or require liver transplantation.

16.
J Hepatol ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465775

RESUMO

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a corticosteroid responsive, autoimmune liver disease arising consequent to immunogenetic and environmental risk factors. The clinical course reflects relapsing and remitting, hepatocyte targeted, immunologic damage, countered by reparative responses to cell injury. Appropriate and timely immunosuppressive therapy drives disease into remission, albeit accompanied by inevitable side effects. Many challenges faced in the clinic reflect practice that must capture a heterogeneous disease presentation, course, and treatment response, as well as treatment tolerability. In this grand round we appraise the evidence supporting currently applied treatment approaches, address the impact of autoimmune liver disease 'crossover or overlap' presentations, explore important clinical correlates to immune-serological classifiers, and discuss the factors influencing choice of alternative therapy in difficult-to-treat situations.

17.
J Hepatol ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is an inflammatory, cholestatic and progressively fibrotic liver disease devoid of effective medical intervention. NGM282, an engineered, non-tumorigenic FGF19 analogue, potently regulates CYP7A1-mediated bile acid homeostasis. We assessed the activity and safety of NGM282 in patients with PSC. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, patients who had PSC confirmed by cholangiography or biopsy and an elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) >1.5xULN were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive NGM282 1 mg, 3 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in ALP from baseline to week 12. Secondary and exploratory outcomes included changes in serum biomarkers of bile acid metabolism and fibrosis. Efficacy analysis was by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: 62 patients were randomized to receive NGM282 1 mg (n=21), NGM282 3 mg (n=21) or placebo (n=20). At 12 weeks, there were no significant differences in the mean change from baseline in ALP between the NGM282 and placebo groups, and therefore, the primary endpoint was not met. However, NGM282 significantly reduced levels of 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (a marker of hepatic CYP7A1 activity, LS mean differences -6.2 ng/mL [95% CI -10.7 to -1.7; P=0.008] and -9.4 ng/mL [-14.0 to -4.9; P<0.001] in the NGM282 1 mg and 3 mg groups, respectively, compared with placebo) and bile acids. Importantly, fibrosis biomarkers that predict transplant-free survival, including Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score and Pro-C3, were significantly improved following NGM282 treatment. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity, with gastrointestinal symptoms more frequent in the NGM282 treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with PSC, NGM282 potently inhibited bile acid synthesis and decreased fibrosis markers, without significantly affecting ALP levels. LAY SUMMARY: We present for the first time, the clinical and laboratory effects of a first-in-class, engineered analogue of the endocrine hormone FGF19 in patients with PSC. By incorporating non-invasive markers of fibrosis, beyond standard liver injury markers, we show that NGM282 impacted on fibrosis turnover and hepatic inflammation without changing alkaline phosphatase. Our findings demonstrate the complexities of using highly potent rational agents in PSC, and furthermore challenge the dogma about what the appropriate endpoints should be for trials in PSC.

18.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol ; 34-35: 17-25, 2018 Jun - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343706

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis is a prototypical autoimmune disease characterized by an overwhelming female predominance, a distinct clinical phenotype, and disease specific anti-mitochondrial antibodies targeted against a well-defined auto-antigen. In a genetically susceptible host, multi-lineage loss of tolerance to the E2 component of the 2-oxo-dehydrogenase pathway and dysregulated immune pathways directed at biliary epithelial cells leads to cholestasis, progressive biliary fibrosis, and cirrhosis in a subset of patients. Several key insights have shed light on the complex pathogenesis of disease. First, characteristic anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) target lipoic acid containing immunodominant epitopes, particularly pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), on the inner mitochondrial membrane of BECs. Next, breakdown of the protective apical bicarbonate rich umbrella may sensitize BECs to aberrant apoptotic pathways leaving the antigenic PDC-E2 epitope immunologically tact within an apoptotic bleb. A multi-lineage immune response ensues characterized by an imbalance between effector and regulatory activity resulting in progressive and self-perpetuating biliary injury. Genome wide studies shed light on important pathways involved in disease, key among them being IL-12. Epigenetic mechanisms and microRNAs may play help shed light on the missing heritability and female preponderance of disease. Taken together, these findings have dramatically advanced our understanding of disease and may lead to important therapeutic advances.

19.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) frequently recurs after liver transplantation. We evaluated risk factors associated with recurrence of PBC and its effects on patient and graft survival in a multicenter, international cohort (the Global PBC Study Group). METHODS: We collected demographic and clinical data from 785 patients (89% female) with PBC who underwent liver transplantation (mean age, 54 ± 9 years) from February 1983 through June 2016, among 13 centers in North America and Europe. Results from biochemical tests performed within 12 months of liver transplantation were analyzed to determine whether markers of cholestasis could identify patients with recurrence of PBC (based on histologic analysis). Patients were followed for a median 6.9 years (interquartile range, 6.1-7.9 years). RESULTS: PBC recurred in 22% of patients after 5 years and 36% after 10 years. Age at diagnosis <50 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.36-2.36; P < .001), age at liver transplantation <60 years (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.90; P = .04), use of tacrolimus (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.72-3.10; P < .001), and biochemical markers of severe cholestasis (bilirubin ≥100 µmol or alkaline phosphatase >3-fold the upper limit of normal) at 6 months after liver transplantation (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.16-2.76; P = .008) were associated with higher risk of PBC recurrence, whereas use of cyclosporine reduced risk of PBC recurrence (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.46-0.82; P = .001). In multivariable Cox regression with time-dependent covariate, recurrence of PBC significantly associated with graft loss (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.16-3.51; P = .01) and death (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.11-2.65; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Younger age at the time of diagnosis with PBC or at liver transplantation, tacrolimus use, and biochemical markers of cholestasis after liver transplantation are associated with PBC recurrence. PBC recurrence reduces odds of graft and patient survival. Strategies are needed to prevent PBC recurrence or reduce its negative effects.

20.
Clin Liver Dis ; 22(3): 501-515, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259849

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis is an archetypal autoimmune disease that causes cholestasis, fibrosis, and liver failure. Ursodeoxycholic acid and obeticholic acid are approved for its treatment. Not all patients respond, some are intolerant, many have ongoing symptoms, and new therapies are required. Herein we describe drugs in development and potential future biological targets. We consider compounds acting on the farnesoid X receptor/fibroblast growth factor 19 pathway, fibrates and other agonists of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family, transmembrane-G-protein-receptor-5 agonists, and several immunological agents. We also consider the roles of bile acid reuptake inhibitors, nalfurafine, and fibrates in pruritus management.

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