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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Diabetes ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506343

RESUMO

Epigenetic changes may contribute substantially to risks of diseases of ageing. Previous studies reported seven methylation variable positions (MVPs) robustly associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, their causal roles in T2DM are unclear. In an incident T2DM case-cohort study nested within the population-based EPIC-Norfolk cohort, we used whole blood DNA collected at baseline, up to 11 years before T2DM onset to investigate the role of methylation in the aetiology of T2DM. We identified 15 novel MVPs with robust associations with incident T2DM, and robustly confirmed three MVPs identified previously (near to TXNIP, ABCG1 and SREBF1). All 18 MVPs showed directionally consistent associations with incident and prevalent T2DM in independent studies. Further conditional analyses suggested that the identified epigenetic signals appear related to T2DM via glucose and obesity-related pathways acting before the collection of baseline samples. We integrated genome-wide genetic data to identify methylation-associated quantitative trait loci robustly associated with 16 of the 18 MVPs, and found one MVP, cg00574958 at CPT1A, with a possible direct causal role on T2DM. None of the implicated genes was previously highlighted by genetic association studies, suggesting that DNA methylation studies may reveal novel biological mechanisms involved in tissue responses to glycemia.

3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497855

RESUMO

Prenatal maternal smoking is a risk factor for lower birth weight. We performed epigenome-wide association analyses of placental DNA methylation (DNAm) at 720077 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine-sites (CpGs) and prenatal maternal smoking among 441 mother-infant pairs (2010-2014) and evaluated if DNAm mediates the association between smoking and birth weight using mediation analysis. Mean (SD) birth weight was 3443 grams (423) and 38 mothers (8.6%) reported smoking at a mean of 9.4 weeks of gestation. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with a 175-gram lower birth weight (95% CI: -305.5, -44.8) and with differential DNAm of 71 CpGs in placenta robust to latent-factor adjustment reflecting cell-types (Bonferroni-P<6.94x10-8). Of the 71 CpGs, seven mediated the association between prenatal smoking and birth weight (MDS2, PBX1, CYP1A2, VPRBP, WBP1L, CD28 and CDK6 genes) and prenatal smoking by DNAm interactions on birthweight were observed for five CpGs. The strongest mediator, cg22638236, was annotated the PBX1 gene body involved in skeletal patterning and programming with a mediated effect of 301-gram lower birth weight (95% CI: -543, -86) among smokers but no mediated effect for non-smokers (ß= -38-gram; 95% CI: -88, 9). Prenatal maternal smoking might interact with placental DNAm at specific loci mediating the association with lower infant birth weight.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497850

RESUMO

Childhood blood pressure (BP) is a strong predictor for later cardiovascular risk. However, few studies have assessed dynamic BP trajectories throughout the early life period. We investigated the relationship between early life factors and systolic BP (SBP) from infancy to adolescence using linear spline mixed-effect models among 1370 children from Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited in 1999‒2002. After adjusting for confounders and child height, we observed higher SBP in children exposed to gestational diabetes [vs. normoglycemia‒at 3 years: ß 3.16mmHg (95% confidence interval 0.28,6.04); 6 years: 1.83mmHg (0.06,3.60)], hypertensive disorders of pregnancy [vs. normal maternal BP‒at 6 years: 1.39mmHg (0.10,2.67); 9 years: 1.84mmHg (0.34,3.34); 12 years: 1.70mmHg (0.48,2.92)], higher neonatal SBP [per 10mmHg increase‒at 3 years: 1.26mmHg (0.42,2.09); 6 years: 1.00mmHg (0.49,1.51); 9 years: 0.75mmHg (0.17,1.33)] and formula milk in the first 6 months [vs. breastmilk only‒at 12 years: 2.10mmHg (0.46,3.74); 15 years: 3.52mmHg (1.40,5.64); 18 years: 4.94mmHg (1.88,7.99)]. Our findings provide evidence of programming of offspring SBP trajectories by gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and formula milk intake, and of neonatal BP being a potentially useful marker of childhood BP. These factors could be relevant in identifying children who are at risk of developing elevated BP.

5.
Epigenomics ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509016

RESUMO

Aim: We investigated associations of prenatal socioeconomic status (SES) with DNA methylation at birth, and to explore persistence of associations into early (∼3 years) and mid-childhood (∼7 years) among 609 mother-child pairs in a Boston-area prebirth cohort. Materials & methods: First, we created a prenatal SES index comprising individual- and neighborhood-level metrics and examined associations of low (lowest 10%) versus high (upper 90%) SES with genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood via the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Next, we evaluated persistence of associations detected in cord blood with DNA methylation of the same CpG sites measured in peripheral leukocytes in early- and mid-childhood. Results & conclusion: Low prenatal SES was associated with methylation at CpG sites near ACSF3, TNRC6C-AS1, MTMR4 and LRRN4. The relationship with LRRN4 persisted into early childhood.

6.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1661-1670, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of BMI with subsequent statural growth among children born in the era of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: Among 18,271 children from Belarus (n = 16,781, born 1996 to 1997) and the United States (n = 1,490, born 1999 to 2002), multivariable linear and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations of BMI z score from infancy to adolescence with subsequent standardized length and height velocity, standing height and its components (trunk and leg lengths), and pubertal timing. RESULTS: The prevalence of early adolescent obesity was 6.2% in Belarus and 12.8% in the United States. In both Belarusian and US children, higher BMI z scores in infancy and childhood were associated with faster length and height velocity in early life, while higher BMI z scores during middle childhood were associated with slower length and height velocity during adolescence. Associations with greater standing height and trunk length and earlier pubertal development in adolescence were stronger for BMI z scores at middle childhood than BMI z scores at birth or infancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings in both Belarus and the United States support the role of higher BMI in accelerating linear growth in early life (taller stature and longer trunk length) but earlier pubertal development and slower linear growth during adolescence.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop clinical practice guidelines for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals at metabolic risk for developing these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers should incorporate regular screening and identification of individuals at metabolic risk (at higher risk for ASCVD and T2DM) with measurement of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting lipid profile, and blood glucose. Individuals identified at metabolic risk should undergo 10-year global risk assessment for ASCVD or coronary heart disease to determine targets of therapy for reduction of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Hypertension should be treated to targets outlined in this guideline. Individuals with prediabetes should be tested at least annually for progression to diabetes and referred to intensive diet and physical activity behavioral counseling programs. For the primary prevention of ASCVD and T2DM, the Writing Committee recommends lifestyle management be the first priority. Behavioral programs should include a heart-healthy dietary pattern and sodium restriction, as well as an active lifestyle with daily walking, limited sedentary time, and a structured program of physical activity, if appropriate. Individuals with excess weight should aim for loss of ≥5% of initial body weight in the first year. Behavior changes should be supported by a comprehensive program led by trained interventionists and reinforced by primary care providers. Pharmacological and medical therapy can be used in addition to lifestyle modification when recommended goals are not achieved.

8.
Ann Hum Biol ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264447

RESUMO

Background: Biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic risk track from adolescence into adulthood, therefore characterising the direction and magnitude of these changes is an important first step to identifying health trajectories that presage future disease risk. Aim: To characterise changes in metabolic biomarkers across early adolescence in a multi-ethnic cohort. Subjects and methods: Among 891 participants in Project Viva we estimated changes in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adipokines, lipids, and SBP between ages 6-10 years and 11-16 years. Next, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of sex, baseline overweight/obesity, baseline pubertal status and race/ethnicity with change in the biomarkers during follow-up. Results: Boys exhibited a larger decrement in adiponectin (-0.66 [95% CI = -1.14, -0.18)] ng/mL) and a greater increase in SBP (3.20 [2.10, 4.30] mmHg) than girls. Overweight/obese participants experienced larger increases in HOMA-IR, leptin, and triglycerides; and a steeper decrement in HDL. Pubertal youth showed larger decrements in total and LDL cholesterol than their pre-pubertal counterparts. In comparison to White participants, Black youth experienced a larger magnitude of increase in HOMA-IR, and Hispanic youth exhibited larger decrements in adiponectin and HDL. Conclusions: Change in metabolic biomarkers across early adolescence differed by sex, weight status, pubertal status and race/ethnicity. Some of the metabolic changes may reflect normal physiological changes of puberty, while others may presage future disease risk. Future studies are warranted to link metabolic changes during adolescence to long-term health.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3095, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300640

RESUMO

The nasal cellular epigenome may serve as biomarker of airway disease and environmental response. Here we collect nasal swabs from the anterior nares of 547 children (mean-age 12.9 y), and measure DNA methylation (DNAm) with the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We perform nasal Epigenome-Wide Association analyses (EWAS) of current asthma, allergen sensitization, allergic rhinitis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lung function. We find multiple differentially methylated CpGs (FDR < 0.05) and Regions (DMRs; ≥ 5-CpGs and FDR < 0.05) for asthma (285-CpGs), FeNO (8,372-CpGs; 191-DMRs), total IgE (3-CpGs; 3-DMRs), environment IgE (17-CpGs; 4-DMRs), allergic asthma (1,235-CpGs; 7-DMRs) and bronchodilator response (130-CpGs). Discovered DMRs annotated to genes implicated in allergic asthma, Th2 activation and eosinophilia (EPX, IL4, IL13) and genes previously associated with asthma and IgE in EWAS of blood (ACOT7, SLC25A25). Asthma, IgE and FeNO were associated with nasal epigenetic age acceleration. The nasal epigenome is a sensitive biomarker of asthma, allergy and airway inflammation.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1824-1832, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected endocrine disruptors widely detected across populations. We examine the extent to which PFASs are associated with diabetes incidence and microvascular disease. Secondarily, we tested whether a lifestyle intervention modifies associations and decreases concentrations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 957 participants from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). At baseline, participants were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention of diet, physical activity, and behavior modification or a placebo medication. We quantified plasma concentrations of six PFASs at baseline and 2 years after randomization. Participants were monitored for ∼15 years, repeatedly tested for diabetes, and evaluated for microvascular disease at the end of the follow-up. RESULTS: A doubling in baseline branched perfluorooctanoic acid concentration was associated with a 14% increase in diabetes risk for the placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.04, 1.25) but not in the lifestyle intervention group (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92, 1.11, P interaction = 0.11). Mean change in plasma baseline branched perfluorooctanoic acid concentration was greater for the placebo (0.96 ng/mL; 95% CI 0.71, 1.22) compared with the lifestyle intervention group (0.31 ng/mL; 95% CI 0.14, 0.48) 2 years after randomization. Each doubling in N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid was associated with 17% greater odds of prevalent microvascular disease (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31), and a similar association was observed for perfluorodimethylhexane sulfonic acid (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04, 1.35), regardless of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Some plasma PFASs were associated with diabetes and microvascular disease. Our results suggest that exercise and diet may attenuate the diabetogenic association of PFASs.

11.
Environ Int ; 129: 343-353, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150976

RESUMO

Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may interfere with lipid regulation. However, most previous studies were cross-sectional with the risk of reverse causation, suggesting a need for long-term prospective studies. We examined the relationship of baseline plasma PFAS concentrations with repeated measures of blood lipids. We included 888 prediabetic adults from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and DPP Outcomes Study, who had measurements of 6 plasma PFAS concentrations at baseline (1996-1999) and repeated measures of blood lipids over 15 years of follow-up, and were initially randomized to placebo or a lifestyle intervention. We used linear regression to examine cross-sectional associations of PFAS concentrations and lipid levels at baseline, and evaluated prospective risks of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia using Cox proportional hazard models, and tested for effect modification by study arm. Participants (65.9% female, 57.0% White, 65.9% aged 40-59 years) had comparable PFAS concentrations [e.g., median (IQR) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 4.9 ng/mL (3.2)] with the general U.S. population in 1999-2000. We observed higher total cholesterol at baseline per doubling of PFOA (ß: 6.1 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.1, 9.04), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS, ß: 2.2 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.3), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, ß: 2.9 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.7, 5.0). Prospectively, baseline concentrations of several PFASs, including PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS and PFNA, predicted higher risks of incident hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, but only in the placebo group and not the lifestyle intervention group. For example, participants in the placebo group with PFOA concentration > median (4.9 ng/mL) were almost twice as likely (HR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.88) to develop hypertriglyceridemia compared to those ≤median. Findings suggest adverse effects of some PFASs on lipid profiles in prediabetic adults. However, the detrimental effect was attenuated with a lifestyle intervention.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Epigenetics ; 14(12): 1177-1182, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250700

RESUMO

Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K) has been commonly used to investigate DNA methylation in human tissues. Recently, it has been replaced by Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC BeadChip (EPIC) covering over 850,000 CpGs distributed genome-wide. Many consortia have now datasets coming from both arrays and aspire to analyze the two together. The placenta shows a high number of intermediate methylation levels and is often investigated for obstetric/birth outcomes, and potentially for long-term programming in offspring. We performed a systematic comparison between the two arrays using 108 duplicate placental samples from Gen3G birth cohort. We find that placenta shows a high per-sample correlation between the arrays, and higher median correlations at individual CpGs than those reported for blood. We identify 26,340 probes with absolute difference in per cent methylation >10%. We conclude that EPIC and 450K placental data can be combined, and we provide two lists of CpGs that should be excluded to avoid misleading results.

14.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127822

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Vitamin D may be important for prenatal programming of insulin and glucose regulation, but maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is common. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of early vitamin D status with markers of fetal insulin secretion (cord blood insulin and c-peptide). We hypothesized that maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during pregnancy and cord blood 25(OH)D would both be positively associated with cord blood insulin and c-peptide. METHODS: We studied mother-newborn pairs from two cohorts: Project Viva (862 pairs included) and Genetics of Glucose Regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G, 660 pairs included). We analyzed associations of the cord blood hormones with maternal 25(OH)D using generalized additive models with nonlinear spline terms and with cord blood 25(OH)D using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: 25(OH)D levels were <75 nmol/L in over 70% of mothers and 85% of newborns. Maternal and cord blood 25(OH)D levels were correlated: r=0.58 in Project Viva and 0.37 in Gen3G. Maternal 25(OH)D had an inverted U-shaped relationship with cord blood insulin and c-peptide in both cohorts. Cord blood 25(OH)D had a linear relationship with the cord blood hormones. In fully adjusted models, each 10-nmol/L increase in cord blood 25(OH)D was associated with higher cord blood insulin and c-peptide concentrations: 3.7% (95% CI: (0.09, 7.5) and 3.2% (95% CI: 0.8, 5.6), respectively in Project Viva; 2.2% (95% CI: -0.1, 4.6) and 3.6% (95% CI: 1.0, 6.3), respectively in Gen3G. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D may play a role in regulating fetal insulin secretion, potentially impacting glucose regulation and growth.

16.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
17.
Can J Diabetes ; 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare: 1) 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in identifying gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other hyperglycemic statuses in pregnant women; 2) pregnancy outcomes according to glycemic status; and 3) participants' opinions regarding both methods. METHODS: A prospective study in women with a 50 g glucose load test ≥7.2 mmol/L at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation and singleton pregnancy. Women underwent OGTT (blinded) at day 1, followed by 7 days of SMBG (4 daily measurements: fasting and 2 h postprandially) without modifying diet or lifestyle. GDM (OGTT+) was diagnosed using the criteria of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups, while pregnancy hyperglycemia (SMBG+) was defined as ≥4/7 glucose values ≥5.3 after fasting or ≥6.7 mmol/L 2 h postprandially for any meal of the day. Equivalent management was provided to women with GDM and/or pregnancy-related hyperglycemia. RESULTS: We divided 103 participants (age: 29.5±5.0 years; prepregnancy body mass index: 25.3±5.4 kg/m2) into 4 groups according to test results: OGTT+/SMBG+ (n=12, 11.7%); OGTT+/SMBG- (n=14, 13.6%); OGTT-/SMBG+ (n=9, 8.7%); and OGTT-/SMBG- (n=68, 66.0%). Clinical characteristics and maternal outcomes were statistically similar between groups. Neonatal complication rates were greater in groups with hyperglycemia than in the OGTT-/SMBG- group, notably neonatal hypoglycemia (9/12, 7/14, 5/9 vs. 6/68; p<0.001). Participants reported no convenience difference between methods but would prefer OGTT for a future pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the women with OGTT+ were normoglycemic in daily life. Conversely, 11.7% of women with OGTT- had pregnancy hyperglycemia. OGTT+ and/or SMBG+ were equally associated with greater neonatal complications. This study suggests that alongside OGTT, SMBG could improve the care of pregnant women.

18.
Epigenetics ; 14(4): 405-420, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885044

RESUMO

DNA methylation is known to be responsive to prenatal exposures, which may be a part of the mechanism linking early developmental exposures to future chronic diseases. Many studies use blood to measure DNA methylation, yet we know that DNA methylation is tissue specific. Placenta is central to fetal growth and development, but it is rarely feasible to collect this tissue in large epidemiological studies; on the other hand, cord blood samples are more accessible. In this study, based on paired samples of both placenta and cord blood tissues from 169 individuals, we investigated the methylation concordance between placenta and cord blood. We then employed a machine-learning-based model to predict locus-specific DNA methylation levels in placenta using DNA methylation levels in cord blood. We found that methylation correlation between placenta and cord blood is lower than other tissue pairs, consistent with existing observations that placenta methylation has a distinct pattern. Nonetheless, there are still a number of CpG sites showing robust association between the two tissues. We built prediction models for placenta methylation based on cord blood data and documented a subset of 1,012 CpG sites with high correlation between measured and predicted placenta methylation levels. The resulting list of CpG sites and prediction models could help to reveal the loci where internal or external influences may affect DNA methylation in both placenta and cord blood, and provide a reference data to predict the effects on placenta in future study even when the tissue is not available in an epidemiological study.

19.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 56, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mood disorders and their treatment during pregnancy may have effects on the offspring epigenome. We aim to evaluate associations of maternal prenatal antidepressant use, anxiety, and depression with cord blood DNA methylation across the genome at birth and test for persistence of associations in early and mid-childhood blood DNA. METHODS: A discovery phase was conducted in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study with external replication in an independent cohort, the Generation R Study. In Project Viva, pregnant women were recruited between 1999 and 2002 in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. In the Generation R Study, pregnant women were recruited between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In Project Viva, 479 infants had data on maternal antidepressant use, anxiety, depression, and cord blood DNA methylation, 120 children had DNA methylation measured in early childhood (~ 3 years), and 460 in mid-childhood (~ 7 years). In the Generation R Study, 999 infants had data on maternal antidepressants and cord blood DNA methylation. The prenatal antidepressant prescription was obtained from medical records. At-mid pregnancy, symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed with the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in Project Viva and with the Brief Symptom Inventory in the Generation R Study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in both cohorts. RESULTS: In Project Viva, 2.9% (14/479) pregnant women were prescribed antidepressants, 9.0% (40/445) experienced high pregnancy-related anxiety, and 8.2% (33/402) reported symptoms consistent with depression. Newborns exposed to antidepressants in pregnancy had 7.2% lower DNA methylation (95% CI, - 10.4, - 4.1; P = 1.03 × 10-8) at cg22159528 located in the gene body of ZNF575, and this association replicated in the Generation R Study (ß = - 2.5%; 95% CI - 4.2, - 0.7; P = 0.006). In Project Viva, the association persisted in early (ß = - 6.2%; 95% CI - 10.7, - 1.6) but not mid-childhood. We observed cohort-specific associations for maternal anxiety and depression in Project Viva that did not replicate. CONCLUSIONS: The ZNF575 gene is involved in transcriptional regulation but specific functions are largely unknown. Given the widespread use of antidepressants in pregnancy, as well as the effects of exposure to anxiety and depression, implications of potential fetal epigenetic programming by these risk factors and their impacts on development merit further investigation.

20.
Epigenetics ; 14(5): 445-466, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876376

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms integrate both genetic variability and environmental exposures. However, comprehensive epigenome-wide analysis has not been performed across major childhood allergic phenotypes. We examined the association of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in mid-childhood peripheral blood (Illumina HumanMethyl450K) with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, environmental/inhalant and food allergen sensitization in 739 children in two birth cohorts (Project Viva-Boston, and the Generation R Study-Rotterdam). We performed covariate-adjusted epigenome-wide association meta-analysis and employed pathway and regional analyses of results. Seven-hundred and five methylation sites (505 genes) were significantly cross-sectionally associated with mid-childhood atopic sensitization, 1411 (905 genes) for environmental and 45 (36 genes) for food allergen sensitization (FDR<0.05). We observed differential methylation across multiple genes for all three phenotypes, including genes implicated previously in innate immunity (DICER1), eosinophilic esophagitis and sinusitis (SIGLEC8), the atopic march (AP5B1) and asthma (EPX, IL4, IL5RA, PRG2, SIGLEC8, CLU). In addition, most of the associated methylation marks for all three phenotypes occur in putative transcription factor binding motifs. Pathway analysis identified multiple methylation sites associated with atopic sensitization and environmental allergen sensitization located in/near genes involved in asthma, mTOR signaling, and inositol phosphate metabolism. We identified multiple differentially methylated regions associated with atopic sensitization (8 regions) and environmental allergen sensitization (26 regions). A number of nominally significant methylation sites in the cord blood analysis were epigenome-wide significant in the mid-childhood analysis, and we observed significant methylation - time interactions among a subset of sites examined. Our findings provide insights into epigenetic regulatory pathways as markers of childhood allergic sensitization.

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