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1.
J Med Genet ; 56(10): 701-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 15q11.2 deletion is frequently identified in the neurodevelopmental clinic. Case-control studies have associated the 15q11.2 deletion with neurodevelopmental disorders, and clinical case series have attempted to delineate a microdeletion syndrome with considerable phenotypic variability. The literature on this deletion is extensive and confusing, which is a challenge for genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size of the 15q11.2 deletion and quantify its contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses on new and previously published case-control studies and used statistical models trained in unselected populations with cognitive assessments. We used new (n=241) and previously published (n=150) data from a clinically referred group of deletion carriers. 15q11.2 duplications (new n=179 and previously published n=35) were used as a neutral control variant. RESULTS: The deletion decreases IQ by 4.3 points. The estimated ORs and respective frequencies in deletion carriers for intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia and epilepsy are 1.7 (3.4%), 1.5 (2%) and 3.1 (2.1%), respectively. There is no increased risk for heart malformations and autism. In the clinically referred group, the frequency and nature of symptoms in deletions are not different from those observed in carriers of the 15q11.2 duplication suggesting that most of the reported symptoms are due to ascertainment bias. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that the deletion should be classified as 'pathogenic of mild effect size'. Since it explains only a small proportion of the phenotypic variance in carriers, it is not worth discussing in the developmental clinic or in a prenatal setting.

2.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(S1): 41-47, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149903

RESUMO

Formerly idiopathic, focal epilepsies (IFE) are self-limiting, "age-related" diseases that mainly occur during critical developmental periods. Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, or Rolandic epilepsy (RE), is the most frequent form of IFE. Together with the Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the epileptic Encephalopathy related to Status Epilepticus during slow Sleep syndrome (ESES), RE is part of a single and continuous spectrum of childhood epilepsies and epileptic encephalopathies with acquired cognitive, behavioral and speech and/or language impairment, known as the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum (EAS). The pathophysiology has long been attributed to an elusive and complex interplay between brain development and maturation processes on the one hand, and susceptibility genes on the other hand. Studies based on the variable combination of molecular cytogenetics, Sanger and next-generation sequencing tools, and functional assays have led to the identification and validation of genetic mutations in the GRIN2A gene that can directly cause various types of EAS disorders. The recent identification of GRIN2A defects in EAS represents a first and major break-through in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the genetic architecture of IFE.

3.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2216-2223, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a detailed electroclinical description and expand the phenotype of PIGT-CDG, to perform genotype-phenotype correlation, and to investigate the onset and severity of the epilepsy associated with the different genetic subtypes of this rare disorder. Furthermore, to use computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis in PIGT-CDG and to the compare findings with other glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor deficiencies. METHODS: We evaluated 13 children from eight unrelated families with homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in PIGT. RESULTS: All patients had hypotonia, severe developmental delay, and epilepsy. Epilepsy onset ranged from first day of life to two years of age. Severity of the seizure disorder varied from treatable seizures to severe neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathies. The facial gestalt of patients resembled that of previously published PIGT patients as they were closest to the center of the PIGT cluster in the clinical face phenotype space and were distinguishable from other gene-specific phenotypes. CONCLUSION: We expand our knowledge of PIGT. Our cases reaffirm that the use of genetic testing is essential for diagnosis in this group of disorders. Finally, we show that computer-assisted facial gestalt analysis accurately assigned PIGT cases to the multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome phenotypic series advocating the additional use of next-generation phenotyping technology.

4.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(8): 699-708, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic generalised epilepsy is the most common type of inherited epilepsy. Despite a high concordance rate of 80% in monozygotic twins, the genetic background is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the burden of rare genetic variants in genetic generalised epilepsy. METHODS: For this exome-based case-control study, we used three different genetic generalised epilepsy case cohorts and three independent control cohorts, all of European descent. Cases included in the study were clinically evaluated for genetic generalised epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing was done for the discovery case cohort, a validation case cohort, and two independent control cohorts. The replication case cohort underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of the 19 known genes encoding subunits of GABAA receptors and was compared to the respective GABAA receptor variants of a third independent control cohort. Functional investigations were done with automated two-microelectrode voltage clamping in Xenopus laevis oocytes. FINDINGS: Statistical comparison of 152 familial index cases with genetic generalised epilepsy in the discovery cohort to 549 ethnically matched controls suggested an enrichment of rare missense (Nonsyn) variants in the ensemble of 19 genes encoding GABAA receptors in cases (odds ratio [OR] 2·40 [95% CI 1·41-4·10]; pNonsyn=0·0014, adjusted pNonsyn=0·019). Enrichment for these genes was validated in a whole-exome sequencing cohort of 357 sporadic and familial genetic generalised epilepsy cases and 1485 independent controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·05-2·03]; pNonsyn=0·0081, adjusted pNonsyn=0·016). Comparison of genes encoding GABAA receptors in the independent replication cohort of 583 familial and sporadic genetic generalised epilepsy index cases, based on candidate-gene panel sequencing, with a third independent control cohort of 635 controls confirmed the overall enrichment of rare missense variants for 15 GABAA receptor genes in cases compared with controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·02-2·08]; pNonsyn=0·013, adjusted pNonsyn=0·027). Functional studies for two selected genes (GABRB2 and GABRA5) showed significant loss-of-function effects with reduced current amplitudes in four of seven tested variants compared with wild-type receptors. INTERPRETATION: Functionally relevant variants in genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits constitute a significant risk factor for genetic generalised epilepsy. Examination of the role of specific gene groups and pathways can disentangle the complex genetic architecture of genetic generalised epilepsy. FUNDING: EuroEPINOMICS (European Science Foundation through national funding organisations), Epicure and EpiPGX (Sixth Framework Programme and Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission), Research Unit FOR2715 (German Research Foundation and Luxembourg National Research Fund).

7.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 179(14)2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416069

RESUMO

Ketogenic diet (KD) is used worldwide in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Since the introduction of KD in the early 1900s, new approaches such as medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet and low glycaemic index treatment have been suggested as alternative treatments. Several studies have documented significant seizure reduction from all four diets. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the effect of dietary treatment and to discuss advantages in initiating dietary treatment as an early treatment instead of as a last option.

8.
Mol Syndromol ; 7(4): 210-219, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27781031

RESUMO

In recent years, several genes have been causally associated with epilepsy. However, making a genetic diagnosis in a patient can still be difficult, since extensive phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity has been observed in many monogenic epilepsies. This study aimed to analyze the genetic basis of a wide spectrum of epilepsies with age of onset spanning from the neonatal period to adulthood. A gene panel targeting 46 epilepsy genes was used on a cohort of 216 patients consecutively referred for panel testing. The patients had a range of different epilepsies from benign neonatal seizures to epileptic encephalopathies (EEs). Potentially causative variants were evaluated by literature and database searches, submitted to bioinformatic prediction algorithms, and validated by Sanger sequencing. If possible, parents were included for segregation analysis. We identified a presumed disease-causing variant in 49 (23%) of the 216 patients. The variants were found in 19 different genes including SCN1A, STXBP1, CDKL5, SCN2A, SCN8A, GABRA1, KCNA2, and STX1B. Patients with neonatal-onset epilepsies had the highest rate of positive findings (57%). The overall yield for patients with EEs was 32%, compared to 17% among patients with generalized epilepsies and 16% in patients with focal or multifocal epilepsies. By the use of a gene panel consisting of 46 epilepsy genes, we were able to find a disease-causing genetic variation in 23% of the analyzed patients. The highest yield was found among patients with neonatal-onset epilepsies and EEs.

9.
Neurology ; 87(11): 1140-51, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27521439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate phenotypic heterogeneity, we describe the clinical features of a cohort of patients with GABRA1 gene mutations. METHODS: Patients with GABRA1 mutations were ascertained through an international collaboration. Clinical, EEG, and genetic data were collected. Functional analysis of 4 selected mutations was performed using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. RESULTS: The study included 16 novel probands and 3 additional family members with a disease-causing mutation in the GABRA1 gene. The phenotypic spectrum varied from unspecified epilepsy (1), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (2), photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy (1), and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (1) to severe epileptic encephalopathies (11). In the epileptic encephalopathy group, the patients had seizures beginning between the first day of life and 15 months, with a mean of 7 months. Predominant seizure types in all patients were tonic-clonic in 9 participants (56%) and myoclonic seizures in 5 (31%). EEG showed a generalized photoparoxysmal response in 6 patients (37%). Four selected mutations studied functionally revealed a loss of function, without a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. CONCLUSIONS: GABRA1 mutations make a significant contribution to the genetic etiology of both benign and severe epilepsy syndromes. Myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures with pathologic response to photic stimulation are common and shared features in both mild and severe phenotypes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oócitos , Fenótipo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
10.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(4): 457-64, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sanger sequencing, still the standard technique for genetic testing in most diagnostic laboratories and until recently widely used in research, is gradually being complemented by next-generation sequencing (NGS). No single mutation detection technique is however perfect in identifying all mutations. Therefore, we wondered to what extent inconsistencies between Sanger sequencing and NGS affect the molecular diagnosis of patients. Since mutations in SCN1A, the major gene implicated in epilepsy, are found in the majority of Dravet syndrome (DS) patients, we focused on missed SCN1A mutations. METHODS: We sent out a survey to 16 genetic centers performing SCN1A testing. RESULTS: We collected data on 28 mutations initially missed using Sanger sequencing. All patients were falsely reported as SCN1A mutation-negative, both due to technical limitations and human errors. CONCLUSION: We illustrate the pitfalls of Sanger sequencing and most importantly provide evidence that SCN1A mutations are an even more frequent cause of DS than already anticipated.

11.
Neurology ; 86(23): 2171-8, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in GRIN1 encoding the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 and to investigate their underlying functional pathophysiology. METHODS: We collected molecular and clinical data from several diagnostic and research cohorts. Functional consequences of GRIN1 mutations were investigated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous de novo GRIN1 mutations in 14 individuals and reviewed the phenotypes of all 9 previously reported patients. These 23 individuals presented with a distinct phenotype of profound developmental delay, severe intellectual disability with absent speech, muscular hypotonia, hyperkinetic movement disorder, oculogyric crises, cortical blindness, generalized cerebral atrophy, and epilepsy. Mutations cluster within transmembrane segments and result in loss of channel function of varying severity with a dominant-negative effect. In addition, we describe 2 homozygous GRIN1 mutations (1 missense, 1 truncation), each segregating with severe neurodevelopmental phenotypes in consanguineous families. CONCLUSIONS: De novo GRIN1 mutations are associated with severe intellectual disability with cortical visual impairment as well as oculomotor and movement disorders being discriminating phenotypic features. Loss of NMDA receptor function appears to be the underlying disease mechanism. The identification of both heterozygous and homozygous mutations blurs the borders of dominant and recessive inheritance of GRIN1-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Consanguinidade , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/metabolismo , Oócitos , Fenótipo , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
13.
Epilepsia ; 57 Suppl 1: 26-34, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26749014

RESUMO

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk reduction remains a critical aim in epilepsy care. To date, only aggressive medical and surgical efforts to control seizures have been demonstrated to be of benefit. Incomplete understanding of SUDEP mechanisms limits the development of more specific interventions. Periictal cardiorespiratory dysfunction is implicated in SUDEP; postictal electroencephalography (EEG) suppression, coma, and immobility may also play a role. Nocturnal supervision is protective against SUDEP, presumably by permitting intervention in the case of a life-threatening event. Resuscitative efforts were implemented promptly in near-SUDEP cases but delayed in SUDEP deaths in the Mortality in Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Study (MORTEMUS) study. Nursing interventions--including repositioning, oral suctioning, and oxygen administration--reduce seizure duration, respiratory dysfunction, and EEG suppression in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), but have not been studied in outpatients. Cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillator devices may be of benefit in a few select individuals. A role for implantable neurostimulators has not yet been established. Seizure detection devices, including those that monitor generalized tonic-clonic seizure-associated movements or cardiorespiratory parameters, may provide a means to permit timely periictal intervention. However, these and other devices, such as antisuffocation pillows, have not been adequately investigated with respect to SUDEP prevention.


Assuntos
Asfixia/prevenção & controle , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Morte Súbita/prevenção & controle , Epilepsia/terapia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oxigenoterapia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Marca-Passo Artificial , Ressuscitação , Sucção
14.
Seizure ; 35: 106-10, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PCDH19 mutations cause epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) or Dravet-like syndromes. Especially in the first years of life, epilepsy is known to be highly pharmacoresistant. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antiepileptic therapy in patients with PCDH19 mutations. METHODS: We report a retrospective multicenter study of antiepileptic therapy in 58 female patients with PCDH19 mutations and epilepsy aged 2-27 years (mean age 10.6 years). RESULTS: The most effective drugs after 3 months were clobazam and bromide, with a responder rate of 68% and 67%, respectively, where response was defined as seizure reduction of at least 50%. Defining long-term response as the proportion of responders after 12 months of treatment with a given drug in relation to the number of patients treated for at least 3 months, the most effective drugs after 12 months were again bromide and clobazam, with a long-term response of 50% and 43%, respectively. Seventy-four percent of the patients became seizure-free for at least 3 months, 47% for at least one year. SIGNIFICANCE: The most effective drugs in patients with PCDH19 mutations were bromide and clobazam. Although epilepsy in PCDH19 mutations is often pharmacoresistant, three quarters of the patients became seizure-free for at least for 3 months and half of them for at least one year. However, assessing the effectiveness of the drugs is difficult because a possible age-dependent spontaneous seizure remission must be considered.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Caderinas/genética , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Farmacogenética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cruz Vermelha , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Neurol ; 79(3): 428-36, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), and their combination-known as infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis (ICCA)-are related autosomal dominant diseases. PRRT2 (proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 gene) has been identified as the major gene in all 3 conditions, found to be mutated in 80 to 90% of familial and 30 to 35% of sporadic cases. METHODS: We searched for the genetic defect in PRRT2-negative, unrelated families with BFIS or ICCA using whole exome or targeted gene panel sequencing, and performed a detailed cliniconeurophysiological workup. RESULTS: In 3 families with a total of 16 affected members, we identified the same, cosegregating heterozygous missense mutation (c.4447G>A; p.E1483K) in SCN8A, encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel. A founder effect was excluded by linkage analysis. All individuals except 1 had normal cognitive and motor milestones, neuroimaging, and interictal neurological status. Fifteen affected members presented with afebrile focal or generalized tonic-clonic seizures during the first to second year of life; 5 of them experienced single unprovoked seizures later on. One patient had seizures only at school age. All patients stayed otherwise seizure-free, most without medication. Interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) was normal in all cases but 2. Five of 16 patients developed additional brief paroxysmal episodes in puberty, either dystonic/dyskinetic or "shivering" attacks, triggered by stretching, motor initiation, or emotional stimuli. In 1 case, we recorded typical PKD spells by video-EEG-polygraphy, documenting a cortical involvement. INTERPRETATION: Our study establishes SCN8A as a novel gene in which a recurrent mutation causes BFIS/ICCA, expanding the clinical-genetic spectrum of combined epileptic and dyskinetic syndromes.


Assuntos
Coreia/genética , Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coreia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética
16.
Epilepsia ; 56(12): e203-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537434

RESUMO

The first mutations identified in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) protein of the blood-brain barrier, were associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. Recently, dominant SLC2A1 mutations were found in rare autosomal dominant families with various forms of epilepsy including early onset absence epilepsy (EOAE), myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), and genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Our study aimed to investigate the possible role of SLC2A1 in various forms of epilepsy including MAE and absence epilepsy with early onset. We also aimed to estimate the frequency of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in the Danish population. One hundred twenty patients with MAE, 50 patients with absence epilepsy, and 37 patients with unselected epilepsies, intellectual disability (ID), and/or various movement disorders were screened for mutations in SLC2A1. Mutations in SLC2A1 were detected in 5 (10%) of 50 patients with absence epilepsy, and in one (2.7%) of 37 patient with unselected epilepsies, ID, and/or various movement disorders. None of the 120 MAE patients harbored SLC2A1 mutations. We estimated the frequency of SLC2A1 mutations in the Danish population to be approximately 1:83,000. Our study confirmed the role of SLC2A1 mutations in absence epilepsy with early onset. However, our study failed to support the notion that SLC2A1 aberrations are a cause of MAE without associated features such as movement disorders.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/epidemiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/deficiência , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Mutação , Síndrome
17.
PLoS Genet ; 11(5): e1005226, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25950944

RESUMO

Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (≥ 400 kb) and rare (< 1%) autosomal microdeletions with high calling confidence (≥ 200 markers) were assessed by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array in European case-control cohorts of 1,366 GGE patients and 5,234 ancestry-matched controls. We aimed to: 1) assess the microdeletion burden in common GGE syndromes, 2) estimate the relative contribution of recurrent microdeletions at genomic rearrangement hotspots and non-recurrent microdeletions, and 3) identify potential candidate genes for GGE. We found a significant excess of microdeletions in 7.3% of GGE patients compared to 4.0% in controls (P = 1.8 x 10-7; OR = 1.9). Recurrent microdeletions at seven known genomic hotspots accounted for 36.9% of all microdeletions identified in the GGE cohort and showed a 7.5-fold increased burden (P = 2.6 x 10-17) relative to controls. Microdeletions affecting either a gene previously implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (P = 8.0 x 10-18, OR = 4.6) or an evolutionarily conserved brain-expressed gene related to autism spectrum disorder (P = 1.3 x 10-12, OR = 4.1) were significantly enriched in the GGE patients. Microdeletions found only in GGE patients harboured a high proportion of genes previously associated with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders (NRXN1, RBFOX1, PCDH7, KCNA2, EPM2A, RORB, PLCB1). Our results demonstrate that the significantly increased burden of large and rare microdeletions in GGE patients is largely confined to recurrent hotspot microdeletions and microdeletions affecting neurodevelopmental genes, suggesting a strong impact of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of common GGE syndromes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Cytogenet ; 8: 24, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25901181

RESUMO

In this study we performed molecular characterization of a patient with an extra ring chromosome derived from chromosome 14, with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, cerebral paresis, tetraplegia, osteoporosis and severe thoraco-lumbal scoliosis. Array CGH analysis did not show any genomic imbalance but conventional karyotyping and FISH analysis revealed the presence of an interstitial 14q12q24.3 deletion and an extra ring chromosome derived from the deleted material. The deletion and ring chromosome breakpoints were identified at base-pair level by mate-pair and Sanger sequencing. Both breakpoints disrupted putative long non-coding RNA genes (TCONS00022561;RP11-148E17.1) of unknown function. However, the proximal breakpoint was 225 kb downstream of the forkhead box G1 gene (FOXG1), within the known regulatory landscape of FOXG1. The patient represents the first case of a r(14) arising from an interstitial excision where the phenotype is compatible with dysregulation of FOXG1. In turn, the phenotypic overlap between the present case, the FOXG1 syndrome and the r(14) syndrome supports that dysregulation of FOXG1 may contribute to the classical r(14)-syndrome, likely mediated by dynamic mosaicism.

19.
Epilepsia ; 56(4): e36-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25778844

RESUMO

Dravet syndrome is a severe infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with mutations in the sodium channel alpha-1 subunit gene SCN1A. We aimed to describe the incidence of Dravet syndrome in the Danish population. Based on a 6-year birth cohort from 2004 to 2009, we propose an incidence of 1:22,000, which is higher than what has been established earlier. We identified 17 cases with SCN1A mutation-positive Dravet syndrome. Fifteen patients were found, by conventional Sanger sequencing. Two additional patients with clinical Dravet syndrome, but without a detectable SCN1A mutation by Sanger sequencing, were diagnosed with a SCN1A mutation after using a targeted next-generation sequencing gene panel.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/epidemiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Vigilância da População , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Neurology ; 84(5): 480-9, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25568300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations. METHODS: We used high-throughput sequence analysis of the SCN8A gene in 683 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies. In addition, we ascertained cases with SCN8A mutations from other centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained together with a review of EEG and imaging data. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with de novo heterozygous mutations of SCN8A were studied. Seizure onset occurred at a mean age of 5 months (range: 1 day to 18 months); in general, seizures were not triggered by fever. Fifteen of 17 patients had multiple seizure types including focal, tonic, clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures, and epileptic spasms; seizures were refractory to antiepileptic therapy. Development was normal in 12 patients and slowed after seizure onset, often with regression; 5 patients had delayed development from birth. All patients developed intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. Motor manifestations were prominent including hypotonia, dystonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia. EEG findings comprised moderate to severe background slowing with focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges. CONCLUSION: SCN8A encephalopathy presents in infancy with multiple seizure types including focal seizures and spasms in some cases. Outcome is often poor and includes hypotonia and movement disorders. The majority of mutations arise de novo, although we observed a single case of somatic mosaicism in an unaffected parent.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Internacionalidade , Masculino
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