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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 29, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal mortality worldwide. We sought to explore the experiences of health care workers in managing foetal distress and birth asphyxia to gain an understanding of the challenges in a low-income setting. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 12 midwives and 4 doctors working in maternity units from different health facilities in Northern Uganda in 2018. We used a semi-structured interview guide which included questions related to; health care workers' experiences of maternity care, care for foetal distress and birth asphyxia, views on possible preventive actions and perspectives of the community. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Four categories emerged: (i) Understanding of and actions for foetal distress and birth asphyxia including knowledge, misconception and interventions; (ii) Challenges of managing foetal distress and birth asphyxia such as complexities of the referral system, refusal of referral, lack of equipment, and human resource problems, (iii) Expectations and blame from the community, and finally (iv) Health care worker' insights into prevention of foetal distress and birth asphyxia. CONCLUSION: Health care workers described management of foetal distress and birth asphyxia as complex and challenging. Thus, guidelines to manage foetal distress and birth asphyxia that are specifically tailored to the different levels of health facilities to ensure high quality of care and reduction of need for referral are called for. Innovative ways to operationalise transportation for referral and community dialogues could lead to improved birth experiences and outcomes.

2.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1711618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955672

RESUMO

Background: In Uganda, perinatal mortality is 38 per 1000 pregnancies. One-third of these deaths are due to birth asphyxia. Adequate fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor may detect birth asphyxia but little is known about monitoring practices in low resource settings.Objective: To explore FHR monitoring practices among health workers at a public hospital in Northern Uganda.Methods: A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted by reviewing 251 maternal records and conducting 11 interviews and two focus group discussions with health workers complemented by observations of 42 women in labor until delivery. Quantitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Content analysis was used for qualitative data.Results: FHR was assessed in 235/251 (93.6%) of records at admission. Health workers documented the FHR at least once in 175/228 (76.8%) of cases during the first stage of labor compared to observed 17/25 (68.0%) cases. Median intervals between FHR monitoring were 30 (IQR 30-120) minutes in patients' records versus 139 (IQR 87-662) minutes according to observations. Observations suggested no monitoring of FHR during the second stage of labor but records indicated monitoring in 3.2% of cases. Reported barriers to adequate FHR monitoring were inadequate number of staff and monitoring devices, institutional challenges such as few beds, documentation problems and perceived non-compliant women not reporting for repeated checks during the first stage of labor. Health workers demonstrated knowledge of national FHR monitoring guidelines and acknowledged that practice was different.Conclusions: When compared to national and international guidelines, FHR monitoring is sub-optimal in the studied setting. Approximately one in four women was not monitored during the first stage of labor. Barriers to appropriate FHR monitoring included shortage of staff and devices, institutional challenges and mother's negative attitudes. These barriers need to be addressed in order to reduce neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fetal/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/fisiologia , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Uganda
3.
Midwifery ; 67: 95-102, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers and enablers to conducting safe uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact (SSC) in the first hour after birth in a low-resource setting and to evaluate how health care professionals coped with the identified barriers after completion of an intervention package. DESIGN AND SETTING: A qualitative method using focus-group and individual interviews with health professionals at a governmental hospital in Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: 81 health professionals. INTERVENTIONS: A 6-step intervention package including, amongst other things, showing a DVD on safe uninterrupted SSC following birth and discussing with the professionals what barriers and possibilities there were to changing practice to allow SSC for one hour. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: The thematic analysis of the intervention interviews yielded the following themes: Perceived barriers including medical events, psychosocial issues and standard midwifery practice; Pragmatic barriers including economic constraints in the hospital and community; Anticipated barriers by staff and families; Enabling events including staff involvement. Most of the barriers involving expenses were not solved. When the mother and infant had to move to the postnatal ward within one hour after birth, there were difficulties in keeping SSC during the transportation, but this obstacle was partly solved. A few mothers (i.e. depressed and/or adolescent) were considered to be unwilling to keep the infant skin-to-skin; this difficulty was not solved. Practising SSC led the participants to find advantages such as reduced work load and positive effects on pain during suturing. CONCLUSIONS: SSC following birth was shown to be applicable and accepted by the health professionals. The involvement of professionals had clinical implications, such as initiatives to broadcast the message of SSC by radio to the community and introduce SSC to women having a Caesarean section.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Barreiras de Comunicação , Parto Obstétrico , Método Canguru , Tocologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Uganda
4.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 97(3): 349-356, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265188

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anti-secretory factor is a protein that regulates secretory and inflammatory processes and preterm birth is associated with inflammation. Therefore, our hypothesis was that anti-secretory factor might play a role in immune reactivity and homeostasis during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following spontaneous onset of labor and preterm or term delivery, placenta biopsies were collected. The levels of anti-secretory factor and markers of inflammation (CD68, CD163) and vascularization (CD34, smooth muscle actin) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The 61 placental biopsies included 31 preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) and 30 term (37-41 weeks) samples. The preterm placentas exhibited lower levels of anti-secretory factor (p = 0.008) and larger numbers of CD68-positive cells (p < 0.001) compared to term. Preterm placentas had blood vessel of smaller diameter (p = 0.036) indicative of immaturity. The level of interleukin-6 in cord blood was higher after very preterm than term birth, suggesting a fetal inflammatory response. The placenta level of anti-secretory factor was positively correlated to the length of gestation (p = 0.025) and negatively correlated to the levels of the inflammatory markers CD68 (p = 0.015) and CD163 (p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Preterm delivery is associated with low levels of anti-secretory factor in placenta. Inflammation, a potential trigger of preterm birth, is more pronounced in the preterm placenta and inversely related to the placental level of anti-secretory factor, suggesting both a link and a potential target for intervention.


Assuntos
Inflamação/etiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 29(10): 1646-51, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26135756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were to investigate risk factors for failed vacuum extraction (VE), and to compare neonatal complications among infants delivered by failed VE with those delivered by successful VE. METHODS: Population-based study including all women (and their newborn infants) with singleton pregnancy who gave birth at term by failed VE (n = 4747) or successful VE (n = 83 671) in Sweden between 1999 and 2010. Failed VE was defined as VE followed by an emergency cesarean section (ECS), forceps, or both forceps and ECS. We used logistic regression to examine the association between failed VE in relation to intracranial hemorrhage, subgaleal hemorrhage, Apgar scores <7 at 5 min, and neonatal convulsions. RESULTS: Risk factors for failed VE included occipito posterior position, mid-pelvic fetal station, high birth weight, short maternal stature, epidural analgesia, and induction of labor. Compared with infants born after a successful VE, those delivered by failed VE had a higher risk of subgaleal hemorrhage OR 7.3 CI (5.5-9.7), convulsions OR 1.9 CI (1.4-2.7), and low Apgar OR 2.6 CI (2.3-3.0), but not of ICH. CONCLUSION: Failed VE is associated with neonatal complications. Fetal head position and station should be carefully assessed prior to the extraction.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nascimento/etiologia , Vácuo-Extração/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Vácuo-Extração/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 6(3): 164-8, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26842640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore fathers' experiences of a birth by vacuum extraction (VE). METHOD: A qualitative interview study with 10 fathers analysed with qualitative content analysis. FINDINGS: The theme 'affected but helpless' refers to the father's role changing when childbirth terminates with a VE. From initially being involved in the delivery, his role switches to being merely an observer at the mercy of the professionals' knowledge and guidance. The VE procedure evoked concerns over the mother's and the child's safety and wellbeing, even if the fathers wanted the birth process to be over. The fathers considered the choice of conducting a VE as an adequate alternative, but they expressed concerns about consequences on future decisions. The theme encompasses all the main categories: wish to be involved, anxious observer, turbulent feelings and thoughts about consequences. CONCLUSIONS: VE delivery has a strong emotional impact on fathers and the procedure is often experienced as a dramatic way to end a birth and an ultimate way to terminate a long birth process. The results indicate that a lack of support and of a genuine opportunity to participate, as well as the mother's pain impair their experience, not the VE delivery, per se.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pai/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Vácuo-Extração/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Papel (figurativo)
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 13: 29, 2013 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23363654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005-2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17-18 of their partner's pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35-39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25-34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65,000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34-39 and fourfold from 40 years and above. CONCLUSIONS: Men who expect their first baby at an advanced or very advanced age constitute a socioeconomically heterogeneous group with more health problems and more risky health behaviour than younger men. Since older men often have their first child with a woman of advanced age, in whom similar characteristics have been reported, their combined risk of adverse perinatal outcomes needs further attention by clinicians and researchers.


Assuntos
Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Idade Paterna , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Comportamento Reprodutivo/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 3(4): 129-34, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23182444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of indications for vacuum extraction (VE) and emergency cesarean section (EMCS) from 1999 to 2010. Furthermore, we investigated the association of induction of labor and epidural analgesia (EA) on the risk of operative delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based register study with data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register during 1999-2010 including all 415230 primiparous women giving birth in gestational week 37+0 to 41+6. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Indication for operative delivery as well as VE and EMCS. RESULTS: Among the VE deliveries the indication "signs of fetal distress" increased while "multiple indications" decreased. For EMCS, "prolonged labor" increased steadily while "multiple indications" decreased. The total rate of induction of labor increased from 8.2% in 1999 to 11.9% in 2010, and was associated with an increased risk of both EMCS (OR 3.37) and VE (OR 1.5). The total rate of EA increased from 43.7% in 1999 to 49.8% in 2010, and was associated with a double risk for VE (OR=2.23) and with an increased risk of EMCS (OR=1.64). CONCLUSION: There have been changes in the distribution of indications for VE and EMCS during the study period. A growing number of mothers are being induced and more mothers receive EA. These factors seem to have influenced the rate of operative deliveries. Our findings underline the importance of carefully considering the advantages, disadvantages and risks with EA and induction of labor.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Cesárea , Sofrimento Fetal/cirurgia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto , Vácuo-Extração/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Paridade , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
9.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 67(6): 506-14, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22017458

RESUMO

PROBLEM: This study investigates whether affectivity differs between mothers delivering preterm and term and whether maternal and umbilical cord serum cytokines differ between these groups. Further, whether there are associations between mothers' emotions and maternal and cord cytokines at preterm and term birth. METHOD OF STUDY: Twenty-seven mothers delivering preterm and 37 mothers delivering at term reported positive/negative affect and previous depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Blood samples from mothers in labor and cord samples (23 preterm and 33 term) were analyzed for cytokines. RESULTS: Maternal IL-8 was lower at preterm delivery compared with term. In the preterm group only, associations were found between negative emotions and maternal IL-6, IL-8 and cord IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-18. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate associations in preterm delivery between negative emotions and both maternal and neonate immune activity. Future studies should investigate whether such associations are part of the etiology of preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Depressão/imunologia , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Nascimento Prematuro/imunologia , Adulto , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 91(3): 353-362x, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22150020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the background characteristics of women who gave birth to their first child at an advanced and very advanced maternal age, including their sociodemographic background, social relationships, health behavior, physical and mental health, and reproductive history. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. SETTING: Norway. Sample. 41 236 Norwegian-speaking nulliparous women. METHODS: Data were collected by the first questionnaire distributed in week 17 of pregnancy during the recruitment period 1999-2008. The distribution of descriptive variables in relation to age was investigated, by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Advanced (33-37 years) and very advanced (≥38 years) maternal age. RESULTS: Women who had their first baby at an advanced or very advanced age differed from the younger women with regard to a wide range of background characteristics, and this difference was most pronounced for the very advanced group. Problems related to physical aging were more common (infertility, physical health problems, sleep problems, depression and fatigue). Of the sociodemographic factors; high annual income and low level of education were most strongly correlated with high maternal age, followed by single status, unemployment, unsatisfactory relationship with partner and unplanned pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Besides having more age-related reproductive and physical health problems, women who had their first baby at an advanced or very advanced age constituted a heterogeneous group characterized by either socioeconomic prosperity or vulnerability.


Assuntos
Idade Materna , Paridade , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Saúde Mental , Análise Multivariada , Noruega , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
11.
Birth ; 38(1): 10-6, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21332769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the principal risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antenatal depressive symptoms and preterm birth. METHODS: The study included a national sample of 2,904 pregnant women who were recruited at their first booked visit to antenatal clinics in Sweden. Data on depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic and reproductive background were collected by questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The average length of gestation at the time for completion of the questionnaire was 16 weeks. Data on gestational length were extracted from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the risk of preterm birth associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The presence of antenatal depressive symptoms above a cutoff score of 12 or higher on the EPDS increased the risk for preterm birth (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.03-2.35). Being of age 35 years and over, being a primipara, and having experienced a previous miscarriage were also shown to be significant predictors in a multivariate model. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women reporting antenatal depressive symptoms are at elevated risk of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Bem-Estar Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Comorbidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Bem-Estar Materno/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 89(11): 1453-9, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20822474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of acupressure administered during the active phase of labor on nulliparous women's ratings of labor pain. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Public hospital in India. SAMPLE: Seventy-one women randomized to receive acupressure at acupuncture point spleen 6 (SP6) on both legs during contractions over a 30-minute period (acupressure group), 71 women to receive light touch at SP6 on both legs during the same period of time (touch group) and 70 women to receive standard care (standard care group). METHODS: Experience of in-labor pain was assessed by visual analog scale at baseline before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Labor pain intensity at different time intervals after treatment compared with before treatment. RESULTS: A reduction of in-labor pain was found in the acupressure group and was most noticeable immediately after treatment (acupressure group vs. standard care group p < 0.001; acupressure group vs. touch group p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Acupressure seems to reduce pain during the active phase of labor in nulliparous women giving birth in a context in which social support and epidural analgesia are not available. However, the treatment effect is small which suggests that acupressure may be most effective during the initial phase of labor.


Assuntos
Acupressão/métodos , Dor do Parto/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Dor do Parto/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 88(4): 397-401, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19247841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between use of epidural analgesia (EDA) and maternal and fetal characteristics. DESIGN: Population-based register study. SETTING: Nationwide study in Sweden. POPULATION: All 106,775 primiparous women who in 2002-2005 delivered a singleton infant vaginally at term. METHODS: Register study with data from the Medical Birth Registry and the Swedish Register of Education. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of EDA during vaginal delivery. RESULTS: A total of 47,810 women (45%) received EDA during labor. EDA was used more often in women who were either young or short, had a high body mass index or a short education, or gave birth to an infant with high birthweight. After adjustment, the positive correlation with birthweight persisted. The use of EDA was twice as high in women with infant birthweight >4,500 g, 60% higher in those with infants weighing between 4,000 and 4,500 g and 25% lower when infants weighed <3,000 g, when compared to those with newborns weighing between 3,000 and 3,500 g. CONCLUSION: The woman's need for EDA is strongly related to birthweight. Prolonged duration of labor and instrumental delivery usually ascribed to EDA may be due to large infants.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Macrossomia Fetal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paridade , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
14.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 22(1): 72-8, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18269425

RESUMO

The psychological functioning of fathers with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) has received little attention. Among men in general, little is known about predictors of early father-infant relationship (here also defined as attachment). The first aim was to compare IVF fathers and control fathers regarding personality traits, state anxiety, depressive symptoms and early father-infant attachment. The second aim was to assess whether early father-infant relationship is explained by the father's prenatal relationship with the unborn infant, his personality traits, state anxiety and symptoms of depression. Fifty-three IVF fathers and 36 controls filled in self-rating scales measuring father-infant attachment, personality, anxiety and symptoms of depression at 2 months postpartum. At gestational week 26 their prenatal relationship to the unborn infant was assessed. It was found that IVF fathers rated more somatic and psychic anxiety, indirect aggression and less assertiveness. They were as strongly attached to their infant as the controls. Fathers, who had rated higher attachment to their unborn infant during pregnancy, who were less anxious, more assertive and less irritable, were more attached to their infants than men who had been less attached to their unborn infants and who were more anxious, less assertive and more irritable. In conclusion, although IVF fathers are as strongly attached to their infants as other fathers, they may benefit from emotional support as they have elevated levels of anxiety proneness and indirect aggression. It is important to pay attention during pregnancy to fathers who have a less optimal attachment to their unborn infant and who have high levels of anxiety and irritability, as those three factors are related to a weak emotional father-infant relationship.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Relações Pai-Filho , Pai/psicologia , Fertilização In Vitro/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Assertividade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Humor Irritável , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Personalidade , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suécia
15.
Birth ; 33(4): 303-10, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17150069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigators have pointed out that long-awaited pregnancies, such as those after in vitro fertilization (IVF), are emotionally vulnerable. In addition, higher pregnancy-related distress has been found among women pregnant after in vitro fertilization compared with women with "naturally" achieved pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare prenatal attachment among IVF mothers and control mothers (women who conceived naturally), and to study relationships between prenatal attachment and psychosocial variables. METHODS: Fifty-six IVF women from IVF clinics and 41 control women from antenatal clinics in Stockholm were assessed in gestational weeks 26 and 36. They completed self-rating scales measuring prenatal attachment, personality, marital relationship, anxiety, and depression. RESULTS: Prenatal attachment increased as the pregnancy progressed in both groups. Prenatal attachment rated in gestational week 26 was significantly associated with that in gestational week 36. Multiple regression analyses showed that, in gestational week 26, prenatal attachment was explained by satisfaction with the partner relationship, whereas in gestational week 36 the factors contributing to high prenatal attachment were low scores of the personality trait detachment, low ambivalence, and younger age. Method of conception was unrelated to prenatal attachment at either assessment time point. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro fertilization mothers are attached to their unborn children to the same extent as other mothers. Prenatal attachment increases during pregnancy. At the same time, however, individual scores on prenatal attachment seem to be relatively stable. Significant contributors to prenatal attachment are marital satisfaction, age, ambivalence, and detachment.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro/psicologia , Infertilidade/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Gravidez/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Estado Civil , Personalidade , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
16.
Fertil Steril ; 81(5): 1254-64, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15136086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the emotional impact of infertility after successful IVF and to compare parents who have undergone IVF (IVF parents) and parents who have not undergone IVF (non-IVF parents) regarding parental stress and the marital relationship during the transition to parenthood. DESIGN: A study with qualitative and longitudinal quantitative assessments. SETTING: University IVF clinics and antenatal clinics in Stockholm. PATIENT(S): Fifty-five IVF mothers, 53 IVF fathers, 40 non-IVF mothers, and 36 non-IVF fathers. INTERVENTION(S): IVF parents were interviewed. All subjects completed self-rating scales in early pregnancy and at 2 and 6 months postpartum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Interviews about perception of infertility and scalar measurement of parental stress and the marital relationship. RESULT(S): Negative feelings related to infertility were not easily overcome among the IVF parents. Their levels of stress related to parenthood were similar to those of non-IVF parents, and both groups reported decreased satisfaction with the marital relationship during the transition to parenthood. CONCLUSION(S): The inability to conceive naturally continues to affect the current lives of a proportion of IVF parents. The results suggest that IVF parents may benefit from counseling with regard to the potential long-term impacts of infertility, disclosure issues, and decisions regarding future children. However, levels of parental stress and patterns of partner satisfaction are similar to those of parents with children conceived "naturally."


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Fertilização In Vitro/psicologia , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Familiar
17.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 82(2): 152-61, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12648178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known as to whether negative experiences associated with infertility and IVF treatment persist after successful treatment. The aim of the study was to compare couples who have conceived after IVF and couples who have conceived naturally regarding personality factors and emotional responses to pregnancy. METHODS: Fifty-seven women pregnant after IVF and 55 male partners and 43 women who had conceived naturally and 39 male partners were recruited from university IVF clinics and antenatal clinics in Stockholm. The subjects were interviewed about their socio-demographic background. They completed scales of personality traits, anxiety, emotional responses to pregnancy, marital adjustment and reactions to recalled infertility while in pregnancy week 13 (range 11-17). RESULTS: The results showed that the IVF women had more muscular tension and were more anxious about loosing the pregnancy than the control women. The IVF women with high infertility distress were more anxious about loosing the pregnancy and less ambivalent than the women with lower distress. The IVF men had more somatic anxiety, indirect aggression, guilt, and were more detached and more anxious about loosing the pregnancy and less ambivalent than the control men. The IVF men with high infertility distress were more anxious about the baby not being normal than the men with lower infertility distress. CONCLUSIONS: The women and men who had conceived after IVF differed on a number of personality dimensions and emotional responses to the pregnancy from that of the women and the men who had conceived naturally. The results suggest that IVF couples may need additional emotional support in early pregnancy.


Assuntos
Emoções , Fertilização In Vitro/psicologia , Infertilidade/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/terapia , Masculino , Personalidade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cônjuges/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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