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1.
Blood Adv ; 2(13): 1572-1579, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980572

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood (PB) cells of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been shown to correlate with disease stage, prognostic scores, response to therapy, and disease progression. However, due to considerable genetic interindividual variability, TL varies substantially between individuals, limiting its use as a robust prognostic marker in individual patients. Here, we compared TL of BCR-ABL-, nonleukemic CD34+CD38- hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the bone marrow of CML patients at diagnosis to their individual BCR-ABL+ leukemic stem cell (LSC) counterparts. We observed significantly accelerated telomere shortening in LSC compared with nonleukemic HSC. Interestingly, the degree of LSC telomere shortening was found to correlate significantly with the leukemic clone size. To validate the diagnostic value of nonleukemic cells as internal controls and to rule out effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment on these nontarget cells, we prospectively assessed TL in 134 PB samples collected in deep molecular remission after TKI treatment within the EURO-SKI study (NCT01596114). Here, no significant telomere shortening was observed in granulocytes compared with an age-adjusted control cohort. In conclusion, this study provides proof of principle for accelerated telomere shortening in LSC as opposed to HSC in CML patients at diagnosis. The fact that the degree of telomere shortening correlates with leukemic clone's size supports the use of TL in leukemic cells as a prognostic parameter pending prospective validation. TL in nonleukemic myeloid cells seems unaffected even by long-term TKI treatment arguing against a reduction of telomere-mediated replicative reserve in normal hematopoiesis under TKI treatment.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(6): 747-757, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Many patients have deep molecular responses, a prerequisite for TKI therapy discontinuation. We aimed to define precise conditions for stopping treatment. METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomised trial, we enrolled patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia at 61 European centres in 11 countries. Eligible patients had chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia, had received any TKI for at least 3 years (without treatment failure according to European LeukemiaNet [ELN] recommendations), and had a confirmed deep molecular response for at least 1 year. The primary endpoint was molecular relapse-free survival, defined by loss of major molecular response (MMR; >0·1% BCR-ABL1 on the International Scale) and assessed in all patients with at least one molecular result. Secondary endpoints were a prognostic analysis of factors affecting maintenance of MMR at 6 months in learning and validation samples and the cost impact of stopping TKI therapy. We considered loss of haematological response, progress to accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia, or blast crisis as serious adverse events. This study presents the results of the prespecified interim analysis, which was done after the 6-month molecular relapse-free survival status was known for 200 patients. The study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01596114. FINDINGS: Between May 30, 2012, and Dec 3, 2014, we assessed 868 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia for eligibility, of whom 758 were enrolled. Median follow-up of the 755 patients evaluable for molecular response was 27 months (IQR 21-34). Molecular relapse-free survival for these patients was 61% (95% CI 57-64) at 6 months and 50% (46-54) at 24 months. Of these 755 patients, 371 (49%) lost MMR after TKI discontinuation, four (1%) died while in MMR for reasons unrelated to chronic myeloid leukaemia (myocardial infarction, lung cancer, renal cancer, and heart failure), and 13 (2%) restarted TKI therapy while in MMR. A further six (1%) patients died in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia after loss of MMR and re-initiation of TKI therapy for reasons unrelated to chronic myeloid leukaemia, and two (<1%) patients lost MMR despite restarting TKI therapy. In the prognostic analysis in 405 patients who received imatinib as first-line treatment (learning sample), longer treatment duration (odds ratio [OR] per year 1·14 [95% CI 1·05-1·23]; p=0·0010) and longer deep molecular response durations (1·13 [1·04-1·23]; p=0·0032) were associated with increasing probability of MMR maintenance at 6 months. The OR for deep molecular response duration was replicated in the validation sample consisting of 171 patients treated with any TKI as first-line treatment, although the association was not significant (1·13 [0·98-1·29]; p=0·08). TKI discontinuation was associated with substantial cost savings (an estimated €22 million). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who have achieved deep molecular responses have good molecular relapse-free survival. Such patients should be considered for TKI discontinuation, particularly those who have been in deep molecular response for a long time. Stopping treatment could spare patients from treatment-induced side-effects and reduce health expenditure. FUNDING: ELN Foundation and France National Cancer Institute.

3.
Haematologica ; 103(3): 447-455, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284680

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly effective for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but very few patients are cured. The major drawbacks regarding TKIs are their low efficacy in eradicating the leukemic stem cells responsible for disease maintenance and relapse upon drug cessation. Herein, we performed ribonucleic acid sequencing of flow-sorted primitive (CD34+CD38low) and progenitor (CD34+ CD38+) chronic phase CML cells, and identified transcriptional upregulation of 32 cell surface molecules relative to corresponding normal bone marrow cells. Focusing on novel markers with increased expression on primitive CML cells, we confirmed upregulation of the scavenger receptor CD36 and the leptin receptor by flow cytometry. We also delineate a subpopulation of primitive CML cells expressing CD36 that is less sensitive to imatinib treatment. Using CD36 targeting antibodies, we show that the CD36 positive cells can be targeted and killed by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In summary, CD36 defines a subpopulation of primitive CML cells with decreased imatinib sensitivity that can be effectively targeted and killed using an anti-CD36 antibody.

4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 120: 52-59, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198338

RESUMO

Five tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently approved in the European Union for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and all have considerable overlap in their indications. While disease-specific factors such as CML phase, mutational status, and line of treatment are key to TKI selection, other important features must be considered, such as patient-specific comorbidities and TKI safety profiles. Ponatinib, the TKI most recently approved, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with refractory CML, but is associated with an increased risk of arterial hypertension, sometimes severe, and serious arterial occlusive and venous thromboembolic events. A panel of European experts convened to discuss their clinical experience in managing patients with CML. Based on the panel discussions, scenarios in which a CML patient may be an appropriate candidate for ponatinib therapy are described, including presence of the T315I mutation, resistance to other TKIs without the T315I mutation, and intolerance to other TKIs.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
5.
Haematologica ; 102(8): 1361-1367, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522574

RESUMO

Monitoring of single cell signal transduction in leukemic cellular subsets has been proposed to provide deeper understanding of disease biology and prognosis, but has so far not been tested in a clinical trial of targeted therapy. We developed a complete mass cytometry analysis pipeline for characterization of intracellular signal transduction patterns in the major leukocyte subsets of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Changes in phosphorylated Bcr-Abl1 and the signaling pathways involved were readily identifiable in peripheral blood single cells already within three hours of the patient receiving oral nilotinib. The signal transduction profiles of healthy donors were clearly distinct from those of the patients at diagnosis. Furthermore, using principal component analysis, we could show that phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 (Y705) and CREB (S133) within seven days reflected BCR-ABL1IS at three and six months. Analyses of peripheral blood cells longitudinally collected from patients in the ENEST1st clinical trial showed that single cell mass cytometry appears to be highly suitable for future investigations addressing tyrosine kinase inhibitor dosing and effect. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01061177).


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/patologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
6.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 143(8): 1543-1554, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have well-characterized immunomodulatory effects on T and NK cells, but the effects on the humoral immunity are less well known. In this project, we studied TKI-induced changes in B cell-mediated immunity. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients before and during first-line imatinib (n = 20), dasatinib (n = 16), nilotinib (n = 8), and bosutinib (n = 12) treatment. Plasma immunoglobulin levels were measured, and different B cell populations in PB and BM were analyzed with flow cytometry. RESULTS: Imatinib treatment decreased plasma IgA and IgG levels, while dasatinib reduced IgM levels. At diagnosis, the proportion of patients with IgA, IgG, and IgM levels below the lower limit of normal (LLN) was 0, 11, and 6% of all CML patients, respectively, whereas at 12 months timepoint the proportions were 6% (p = 0.13), 31% (p = 0.042) and 28% (p = 0.0078). Lower initial Ig levels predisposed to the development of hypogammaglobulinemia during TKI therapy. Decreased Ig levels in imatinib-treated patients were associated with higher percentages of immature BM B cells. The patients, who had low Ig levels during the TKI therapy, had significantly more frequent minor infections during the follow-up compared with the patients with normal Ig values (33% vs. 3%, p = 0.0016). No severe infections were reported, except recurrent upper respiratory tract infections in one imatinib-treated patient, who developed severe hypogammaglobulinemia. CONCLUSIONS: TKI treatment decreases plasma Ig levels, which should be measured in patients with recurrent infections.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/sangue , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Dasatinibe/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Oncotarget ; 8(14): 22606-22615, 2017 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186983

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are the mainstay treatment of BCR-ABL1-positive leukemia and virtually all patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CP CML) respond to TKI therapy. However, there is limited information on the cellular mechanisms of response and particularly on the effect of cell differentiation state to TKI sensitivity in vivo and ex vivo/in vitro. We used multiple, independent high-throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing platforms that collectively evaluated 295 oncology compounds to characterize ex vivo drug response profiles of primary cells freshly collected from newly-diagnosed patients with BCR-ABL1-positive leukemia (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 12). In contrast to the highly TKI-sensitive cells from blast phase CML and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, primary CP CML cells were insensitive to TKI therapy ex vivo. Despite maintaining potent BCR-ABL1 inhibitory activity, ex vivo viability of cells was unaffected by TKIs. These findings were validated in two independent patient cohorts and analysis platforms. All CP CML patients under study responded to TKI therapy in vivo. When CP CML cells were sorted based on CD34 expression, the CD34-positive progenitor cells showed good sensitivity to TKIs, whereas the more mature CD34-negative cells were markedly less sensitive. Thus in CP CML, TKIs predominantly target the progenitor cell population while the differentiated leukemic cells (mostly cells from granulocytic series) are insensitive to BCR-ABL1 inhibition. These findings have implications for drug discovery in CP CML and indicate a fundamental biological difference between CP CML and advanced forms of BCR-ABL1-positive leukemia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/classificação , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0171041, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28135325

RESUMO

In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), early treatment prediction is important to identify patients with inferior overall outcomes. We examined the feasibility of using reductions in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment to predict therapy response. Fifty-two first-line TKI-treated CML patients were included (imatinib n = 26, dasatinib n = 21, nilotinib n = 5), and BCR-ABL1 transcript levels were measured at diagnosis (dg) and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. The fold change of the BCR-ABL1 transcripts at 1 month compared to initial BCR-ABL1 transcript levels was used to indicate early therapy response. In our cohort, 21% of patients had no decrease in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month and were classified as poor responders. Surprisingly, these patients had lower BCR-ABL1 transcript levels at dg compared to responders (31% vs. 48%, p = 0.0083). Poor responders also significantly more often had enlarged spleen (55% vs. 15%; p<0.01) and a higher percentage of Ph+ CD34+CD38- cells in the bone marrow (91% vs. 75%, p<0.05). The major molecular response rates were inferior in the poor responders (at 12m 18% vs. 64%, p<0.01; 18m 27% vs. 75%, p<0.01; 24m 55% vs. 87%, p<0.01). In conclusion, early treatment response analysis defines a biologically distinct patient subgroup with inferior long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Blood ; 129(17): 2384-2394, 2017 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122740

RESUMO

Understanding leukemia heterogeneity is critical for the development of curative treatments as the failure to eliminate therapy-persistent leukemic stem cells (LSCs) may result in disease relapse. Here we have combined high-throughput immunophenotypic screens with large-scale single-cell gene expression analysis to define the heterogeneity within the LSC population in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis and following conventional tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. Our results reveal substantial heterogeneity within the putative LSC population in CML at diagnosis and demonstrate differences in response to subsequent TKI treatment between distinct subpopulations. Importantly, LSC subpopulations with myeloid and proliferative molecular signatures are proportionally reduced at a higher extent in response to TKI therapy compared with subfractions displaying primitive and quiescent signatures. Additionally, cell surface expression of the CML stem cell markers CD25, CD26, and IL1RAP is high in all subpopulations at diagnosis but downregulated and unevenly distributed across subpopulations in response to TKI treatment. The most TKI-insensitive cells of the LSC compartment can be captured within the CD45RA- fraction and further defined as positive for CD26 in combination with an aberrant lack of cKIT expression. Together, our results expose a considerable heterogeneity of the CML stem cell population and propose a Lin-CD34+CD38-/lowCD45RA-cKIT-CD26+ population as a potential therapeutic target for improved therapy response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/deficiência , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Antígenos CD34/genética , Antígenos CD34/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/deficiência , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 232-245, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders thus far associated with mutations in more than 300 genes. The clinical phenotypes derived from distinct genotypes can overlap. Genetic etiology can be a prognostic indicator of disease severity and can influence treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the ability of whole-exome screening methods to detect disease-causing variants in patients with PIDDs. METHODS: Patients with PIDDs from 278 families from 22 countries were investigated by using whole-exome sequencing. Computational copy number variant (CNV) prediction pipelines and an exome-tiling chromosomal microarray were also applied to identify intragenic CNVs. Analytic approaches initially focused on 475 known or candidate PIDD genes but were nonexclusive and further tailored based on clinical data, family history, and immunophenotyping. RESULTS: A likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in 110 (40%) unrelated probands. Clinical diagnosis was revised in about half (60/110) and management was directly altered in nearly a quarter (26/110) of families based on molecular findings. Twelve PIDD-causing CNVs were detected, including 7 smaller than 30 Kb that would not have been detected with conventional diagnostic CNV arrays. CONCLUSION: This high-throughput genomic approach enabled detection of disease-related variants in unexpected genes; permitted detection of low-grade constitutional, somatic, and revertant mosaicism; and provided evidence of a mutational burden in mixed PIDD immunophenotypes.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Leuk Res ; 50: 95-103, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27710869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The simultaneous measurement of many proteins is now possible using multiplex assays. In this pilot study we investigated a total of 124 proteins in plasma from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with the purpose of identifying proteins that are differently expressed at diagnosis and after tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment initiation. METHODS: Samples were taken from 14 CML patients at diagnosis and after three months of TKI treatment (imatinib or dasatinib). Samples were analyzed by Mesoscale Discovery, Myriad RBM MAP technology and Olink Proseek. RESULTS: Multiple plasma proteins were differentially expressed before and after initiation of TKI therapy. Protein patterns demonstrated a possible shift towards Th1-immunity and reduced angiogenic stimuli. Further, some plasma proteins were identified that can be of potential interest to study further for biologic, prognostic or therapeutic significance such as E-selectin, uPAR, growth hormone and carbonic anhydrase IX. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma proteomics seems feasible and useful in CML patients, both for studying patterns of protein expression and for identifying single proteins differentially expressed before and after treatment. Plasma proteomics may be useful to map disease activity and biological processes. Hence, plasma proteomics can be used to understand drug mechanisms and treatment responses in CML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 142(5): 1041-50, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26746653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia have been reported to induce immunomodulatory effects. We aimed to assess peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) lymphocyte status at the diagnosis and during different TKI therapies and correlate it with treatment responses. METHODS: BM and PB samples were acquired from 105 first-line TKI-treated patients. Relative number of BM lymphocytes was evaluated from MGG-stained BM aspirates, and immunophenotypic analyses were performed with multicolour flow cytometry. RESULTS: Early 3-month expansion of BM lymphocytes was found during all different TKIs (imatinib n = 71, 20 %; dasatinib n = 25, 21 %; nilotinib n = 9, 22 %; healthy controls n = 14, 12 %, p < 0.0001). Increased PB lymphocyte count was only observed during dasatinib therapy. The BM lymphocyte expansion was associated with early molecular response; patients with 3-month BCR-ABL1 <10 % showed higher lymphocyte counts than patients with BCR-ABL1 >10 % (23 vs. 17 %, p < 0.05). Detailed phenotypic analysis showed that BM lymphocyte expansion consisted of various lymphocyte subclasses, but especially the proportion of CD19+ B cells and CD3negCD16/56+ NK cells increased from diagnostic values. During dasatinib treatment, the lymphocyte balance in both BM and PB was shifted more to cytotoxic direction (increased CD8+CD57+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells, and low T regulatory cells), whereas no major immunophenotypic differences were observed between imatinib and nilotinib patients. CONCLUSIONS: Early BM lymphocytosis occurs with all current first-line TKIs and is associated with better treatment responses. PB and BM immunoprofile during dasatinib treatment markedly differs from both imatinib- and nilotinib-treated patients.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Análise Citogenética , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
13.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 14(5): 1181-91, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25761894

RESUMO

Immune escape mechanisms promote tumor progression and are hurdles of cancer immunotherapy. Removing immunosuppressive cells before treatment can enhance efficacy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) may be of interest to combine with immunotherapy, as it has been shown that the inhibitor sunitinib reduces myeloid suppressor cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma and dasatinib promotes expansion of natural killer-like lymphocytes in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, the capacity of dasatinib and imatinib to reduce myeloid suppressor cells and to induce immunomodulation in vivo was investigated ex vivo. Samples from CML patients treated with imatinib (n = 18) or dasatinib (n = 14) within a Nordic clinical trial (clinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00852566) were investigated for the presence of CD11b(+)CD14(-)CD33(+) myeloid cells and inhibitory molecules (arginase I, myeloperoxidase, IL10) as well as the presence of natural killer cells, T cells (naïve/memory), and stimulatory cytokines (IL12, IFNγ, MIG, IP10). Both imatinib and dasatinib decreased the presence of CD11b(+)CD14(-)CD33(+) myeloid cells as well as the inhibitory molecules and the remaining myeloid suppressor cells had an increased CD40 expression. Monocytes also increased CD40 after therapy. Moreover, increased levels of CD40, IL12, natural killer cells, and experienced T cells were noted after TKI initiation. The presence of experienced T cells was correlated to a higher IFNγ and MIG plasma concentration. Taken together, the results demonstrate that both imatinib and dasatinib tilted the immunosuppressive CML tumor milieu towards promoting immune stimulation. Hence, imatinib and dasatinib may be of interest to combine with cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Eur J Haematol ; 94(3): 243-50, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25082346

RESUMO

We randomised 46 newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (median age 56) to receive dasatinib 100 mg QD or imatinib 400 mg QD and report outcome as an intention-to-treat analysis with 36 months follow-up. Early cytogenetic and molecular responses were superior in the dasatinib group, with a tendency that imatinib patients caught up with time. For instance, MR(3.0) was reached at 3 months in 36% vs. 8% (P = 0.02), at 12 months in 81% vs. 46% (P = 0.02) and at 18 months in 73% vs. 65% (n.s.) of the patients in the two groups. In contrast, MR(4.5) was consistently superior in the dasatinib group at all time points from 6 months onwards, reaching 61% vs. 21% (P < 0.05) at 36 months. Sixty-four vs. 71% of the patients in the dasatinib and imatinib arms, respectively, remained on assigned drug. Dasatinib dose was frequently reduced, but with maintained excellent effect. One imatinib patient progressed to blastic phase, but no CML-related deaths occurred. In conclusion, our data compare favourably with those of the dasatinib registration study, DASISION. The fast and deep molecular responses induced by dasatinib compared with imatinib may be exploited to increase the proportion of patients who can achieve a treatment-free remission after treatment discontinuation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Dasatinibe , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Eur J Haematol ; 92(5): 413-20, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24372965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicate that 40-50% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in prolonged complete molecular remission may discontinue imatinib therapy without imminent relapse. The combination of pegylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α2b) and imatinib may increase the rate of successful discontinuation. METHODS: In this pilot study, we prospectively stopped imatinib from patients (n = 12) who had achieved major molecular response (MMR) after ≥12 months of treatment with either imatinib or imatinib+Peg-IFN-α2b. Molecular monitoring was carried out monthly for BCR-ABL1. In addition, analyses of lymphocyte immunophenotype, function, and plasma cytokines were performed. RESULTS: In the monotherapy group, 5/6 patients lost MMR within 4 months. One patient remains to date in MR(4.0) 61 months after discontinuation. In the combination therapy group, 2/6 patients relapsed within 4 months while still receiving Peg-IFN-α2b. Four of six patients were able to discontinue both treatments, but three of these patients relapsed after 3 months. One patient is still in sustained MR(4.0) at 58 months off all treatment. All relapsed patients re-responded to imatinib. The two successfully discontinued patients had either an increased number of NK-cells or functionally active T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: A higher frequency of relapsed patients in our study in comparison with other studies may be due to the shorter duration of imatinib treatment prior to discontinuation. However, in selected patients with an active immune system, even a short duration of TKI therapy (<2 yr) may allow for therapy discontinuation but this needs to be confirmed in larger prospective studies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Interferon alfa-2 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Blood ; 122(6): 872-84, 2013 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23803709

RESUMO

Advances in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, particularly regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mandate regular updating of concepts and management. A European LeukemiaNet expert panel reviewed prior and new studies to update recommendations made in 2009. We recommend as initial treatment imatinib, nilotinib, or dasatinib. Response is assessed with standardized real quantitative polymerase chain reaction and/or cytogenetics at 3, 6, and 12 months. BCR-ABL1 transcript levels ≤10% at 3 months, <1% at 6 months, and ≤0.1% from 12 months onward define optimal response, whereas >10% at 6 months and >1% from 12 months onward define failure, mandating a change in treatment. Similarly, partial cytogenetic response (PCyR) at 3 months and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) from 6 months onward define optimal response, whereas no CyR (Philadelphia chromosome-positive [Ph+] >95%) at 3 months, less than PCyR at 6 months, and less than CCyR from 12 months onward define failure. Between optimal and failure, there is an intermediate warning zone requiring more frequent monitoring. Similar definitions are provided for response to second-line therapy. Specific recommendations are made for patients in the accelerated and blastic phases, and for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Optimal responders should continue therapy indefinitely, with careful surveillance, or they can be enrolled in controlled studies of treatment discontinuation once a deeper molecular response is achieved.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/terapia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe , Europa (Continente) , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med ; 2013: 525439, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23533841

RESUMO

Primary (AL) amyloidosis of the gastrointestinal tract is relatively rare, and symptomatic amyloidosis of the stomach is even more seldom. We present the case of a patient who was referred to upper endoscopy because of weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Large areas of intramucosal hemorrhages were seen, and biopsies resulted in profuse bleeding stopped with endoscopic clips. The biopsies showed amyloid depositions and further workup revealed that the patient also had cardiac and neuropathic involvements. The patient started treatment with dexamethasone, melphalan and bortezomib. After treatment was started the nausea and epigastric discomfort improved, and a reduction in the biochemical markers troponin T, NT-proBNP, and M-component was observed. Gastric amyloidosis is rarely seen at upper endoscopy in patients without a previously established diagnosis, but the unusual endoscopic findings and bleeding tendency after biopsy should be kept in mind by gastroenterologists.

18.
Exp Hematol ; 40(11): 906-913.e1, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22842045

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have greatly improved the prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In addition to direct kinase inhibition, their effects can also be mediated through immune modulation, such as expansion of cytotoxic T and natural-killer cells observed during dasatinib therapy. As natural-killer cell and partially CD8(+) T-cell function are regulated by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), we studied whether the KIR gene profile is associated with clinical therapy response in dasatinib-treated CML patients (n = 191). In first-line patients, the absence of the inhibitory KIR2DL5A (p = 0.0489), 2DL5B (p = 0.030), and 2DL5all (p = 0.0272) genes were associated with improved molecular response at the 12-month time point. In addition, the same trend was seen with two activating KIR genes, 2DS1 (p = 0.061) and 2DS2 (p = 0.071). Furthermore, when patients were clustered into two groups by their KIR gene profile, the BCR-ABL1 transcript levels differed significantly between the groups (p = 0.047), showing that patients who lacked several KIR genes had better response. The comparison of first-line and second-line patients did not show any significant differences in either KIR or human leukocyte antigen genotypes. Our results show that immunogenetic factors, such as the KIR gene profile, can play a role in tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy response. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the functional significance of KIR genes associated with treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores KIR/genética , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética
19.
Med Oncol ; 29(1): 219-26, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21221851

RESUMO

Imatinib, a small molecule inhibitor of ABL, PDGFR and C-KIT, has revolutionized treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). However, resistance to treatment is of increasing importance and often is due to point mutations in the Abl kinase domain (Abl KD). Here, we analysed clinical outcome and mutation status in two independent Nordic populations (n = 77) of imatinib-resistant CML patients. We detected BCR-ABL transcripts containing point mutations of residues in the P-loop, A-loop and other kinase domain residues in 32 patients (42%). In contrast to previous data, mutations in BCR-ABL were as frequently found in patients with primary resistance (56%) as with secondary resistance (53%). No T315I mutations were found in the study cohort. BCR-ABL splice variants were identified in a significant number of our cases (19%): BCR-ABL transcripts of variable length; a variant fusion transcript joining BCR exon 14 sequences to ABL exon 4; partial, in-frame-deletion of exon 4 due to induction of a cryptic splice site by the L248V and finally, alternative splicing of ABL exon 7 sequences. Though the majority of splice variants observed in this study do not encode functional proteins, alternative splicing appears to represent a common phenomenon in the biology of CML. We conclude that Abl KD point mutations represent a major mechanism of imatinib resistance. Other sequence irregularities were also detected, but their significance in conferring resistance is unclear. Diagnostic strategies looking for imatinib-resistant clones should be designed to detect a broader profile of BCR-ABL variants than just point mutations.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Mutação Puntual , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 30(1): 119-23, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21993629

RESUMO

Altered bone metabolism has been reported in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Several studies have shown that imatinib inhibits the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts in vitro, whereas the effects of imatinib on osteoblast differentiation are less clear. In this study osteoblast differentiation was induced in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 2 in vitro. Imatinib inhibited proliferation of hMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Even though imatinib promoted early osteoblast differentiation assessed by alkaline phosphate activity, mineralization measured by Alizarin Red staining (ARS) was reduced by imatinib. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of imatinib on mineralization was most prominent at low concentrations of imatinib. When we measured the relative mRNA expression levels of Runx2, we found that Runx2 expression was higher in imatinib-treated (5 µM) cultures at early time points during differentiation. On the other hand, the expression of Osterix late during differentiation was lower in imatinib-treated (5 µM) cultures, corresponding to the ARS results. Thus, the effect of imatinib on osteoblast differentiation is not only dependent on the drug concentration, but indeed also on the maturation stage of the cells. This finding might partly explain why previous studies on the effects of imatinib osteoblast differentiation have shown different results.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Benzamidas , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib
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