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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e15, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been widely adopted in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) to minimise low birthweight infants' (LBWIs) adverse outcomes. However, the burden of neonatal and child mortality remains disproportionately high in LMICs. AIM: Thus, this scoping review sought to map evidence on the barriers, challenges and facilitators of KMC utilisation by parents of LBWIs (parent of low birthweight infant [PLBWI]) in LMICs. METHODS: We searched for studies conducted in LMICs and published in English between January 1990 and August 2020 from SciELO, Google Scholar, JSTOR, LILACS, Academic search complete, PubMed, CINAHL with full text, and Medline databases. We adopted Arksey and O'Malley's framework for conducting scoping reviews. Potential studies were exported to Endnote X7 reference management software for abstract and full article screening. Two independent reviewers did a parallel abstract and full article screening using a standardised form. The results were analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: We generated 22 040 studies and after duplicate removal, 42 studies were eligible for full-text screening and 22 studies, most form sub-Saharan Africa, were included in the content analysis. Eight themes emerged from the analysis: access, buy-in, co-ordination and collaboration, medical issues, motivation, social support-gender obligation and empowerment, time and timing and traditional/cultural norms. CONCLUSION: Identifying factors affecting KMC may optimise KMC utilisation. Additional studies aiming at identifying influencing factors that affect KMC utilisation amongst PLBWIs' in LMICs need to be conducted to provide evidence-based strategies to enhance practice, inform policy and decision-makers in KMC utilisation amongst the PLBWIs in LMICs and beyond.


Assuntos
Método Canguru , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido
2.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 229, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although measures have been put in place, musculoskeletal injuries are noticeable high among the nursing fraternity with low back pain (LBP) being the most prevalent. It is evident that healthcare professionals are in constant exposure to occupational hazards such as musculoskeletal injuries as they discharge their professional duties. Not only does LBP affect the health of the nurses, it also creates a huge burden on the health systems with consequent poor performance at the workplace as well as economic burden. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to map evidence on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This is a scoping review because we want to map the evidence of MSD among nurses in SSA and to identify the scope of body literature in which the findings will be used for planning the intervention study thereafter. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Scoping review will be done to explore, describe, and map literature on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs related to MSD among nurses in SSA. The search will be done using databases such as PubMed, EBSCOHOST, Scopus, Web of Science, Science direct, Sabinet, WorldCat Local (iCatalogue), MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, nursing academic editions, and World Health Organization (WHO) library databases. The search will look for primary studies within peer-reviewed articles as well as gray literature. In addition, the researcher will search for articles using keywords from the included studies as well as the list of references for related studies. The screening will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework which has five steps to be followed: (I) identifying the research question, (II) identifying relevant studies, (III) study selection, (IV) charting the data, and (V) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results, and the scoping review will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. A thematic content analysis will be used to give the narrative account of the review; using NVivo version 11 software, two independent reviewers will follow the three stages outlined by the thematic synthesis theory: (a) coding the findings of the included studies line-by-line, (b) organizing these free codes into related areas to construct descriptive themes, and (c) developing analytical themes. The outcome of coding will be verified and discussed with a third reviewer. The process of cross-checking the outcomes of coding of each included article will be discussed thoroughly. DISCUSSION: At the end, this study anticipates to uncover the relevant literature in SSA in regard to the prevalence, incidence, mortality, risk factors, and economic costs related to MSD among nurses; furthermore, findings from this study will help in identifying research gaps; informing policy, priority in funding, and planning; and guiding future research.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 180, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a non-communicable disease and is the number 2 leading cause of death globally. Among all cancers, cervical cancer is the number 1 killer of women in low-income countries (LICs). Cervical cancer is a well understood preventable cancer. The rates of cervical cancer are very varied and inversely proportional to the effectiveness of disease management policies. Management of cervical cancer includes prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment. The main objective of this scoping review is to map the evidence on cervical cancer management in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to understand the coverage of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services and provide an opportunity to generate knowledge on the risk factors, attitudes and practices extendable globally. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework recommended for conducting scoping review studies. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-Scr) checklist will also be completed to ensure that the review adheres to the sound methodological rigour acceptable for scoping review studies. The following electronic databases will be searched for potentially eligible articles: PubMed, Ebsco Host, Scopus and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Study screening procedures recommended by Higgins and Deeks will be followed. A narrative synthesis will be used, with data synthesised and interpreted using sifting, charting and sorting based on themes and key issues. DISCUSSION: Cervical cancer can become a disease of the past with a proper control strategy in place. It is therefore imperative to map available evidence on the management of cervical cancer to inform policy and advocacy action. More knowledge on the status quo will guide policymakers in ensuring cancer management guiding policies are formulated/updated/revised accordingly. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Not registered with PROSPERO (not needed). PROTOCOL AND REGISTRATION: This scoping review was not registered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pobreza , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
4.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 113, 2021 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-documented information on cancer prevention and management, among noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), globally, cancer continues to be the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality with devastating economic consequences. The burden is disproportionately more among developing countries and the extent of evidence available on the economic consequences (direct and indirect costs) of cancer remains unknown in low-income countries particularly in the sub-Saharan region. Understanding the costs of illness is important to inform decision-making on setting up health care policies and informing economic evaluation of interventions. This study aims to map evidence on the distribution of the economic burden (direct and indirect costs) associated with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of three predominant cancers: prostate, cervix, and female breast in the sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This scoping review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR), and will be conducted following Arksey and O'Malley's framework. We will search PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINHAL (via EBSCOhost platform), Science Direct, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Africa-Wide Information, Google Scholar, and WHO Library. We will perform hand-searching of the reference lists of included studies and other relevant documents. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. We will include primary studies from all study designs reporting costs associated with prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate, cervical, and breast cancers in the sub-Saharan region. Data analysis will involve quantitative (e.g., frequencies) and qualitative (e.g., thematic analysis) methods. A narrative summary of findings will be presented. DISCUSSION: This review will map the extent of information available on the economic burden (direct and indirect costs) of prostate, cervical, and breast cancers in the sub-Saharan region. Further guidance for future research in the subject area will be discussed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero , Neoplasias da Próstata , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , África do Norte , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867001

RESUMO

The risk of recurring coronavirus disease (COVID-19) resurgences that threaten Africa's health care systems, newly opened communities, schools, and businesses looms as communities abandon precautionary measures, such as mask-wearing, physical distancing, and regular handwashing. In this piece, we unpack the handling of both the first wave and subsequent resurgence in the context of 3 countries that are experiencing such a resurgence at the time of writing (December 2020): Israel, France, and the United Kingdom. While it is difficult to extrapolate on what to expect in South Africa, based on experience in these 3 countries, South Africa's preparedness for a COVID-19 resurgence should place emphasis on the role of expanded testing and isolation capacity, strengthening enforcement of adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions, and protection of high-risk populations.

6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912294

RESUMO

Introduction: the phenomenon of unintended adolescent pregnancy continues to be a reproductive and public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare providers play an important role in influencing the use of contraceptives among adolescent girls. This study assessed knowledge and perceptions of healthcare providers regarding the use of modern contraceptives among adolescent girls in Umlazi township, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Methods: this was a descriptive study involving 35 healthcare providers covering all 10 primary healthcare clinics in Umlazi township. Data collected through a structured questionnaire were coded, entered into Epi data manager (version 4.6) and exported to STATA (version 15.0) for analysis. Results: of the thirty-five healthcare providers that participated in this study, professional nurses (54.3%) and enrolled nurses (17.1%) constituted the majority. The mean age of the participants was 42.11 years, with 88.6% being females. More than a third (37.1%) of healthcare providers did not know whether or not modern contraceptives make users promiscuous, while more than half (57%) had negative attitudes towards adolescents exploring contraceptive methods. Healthcare providers viewed health systems challenges, such as poor working conditions, long queues, and contraceptives stock-outs, as deterrents towards the provision of quality sexual behaviour counselling and modern contraceptive education to users. Conclusion: poor health systems and negative behaviours by healthcare providers influences the delivery of family planning services in primary healthcare clinics and serve as barriers to quality family planning services provided to younger women.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 594298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681120

RESUMO

Background: HIV testing is an essential gateway to HIV prevention and treatment services. However, HIV testing uptake remains low among men due to stigma, discrimination, and confidentiality concerns. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an alternative HIV testing method that can address many of these barriers for men. We conducted a systematic review to examine HIVST uptake and intervention strategies among Men in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We used a systematic approach to survey literature published from January 2010 to June 2020 using five electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, CINAHL Complete, PsychINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a manual search. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed, published in English, and examined HIVST willingness, uptake, and/or linkage to care and included men in Sub-Saharan Africa. Results: Sixty-three articles related to HIVST were reviewed. Of the included articles, 37 discussed HIVST uptake/acceptability and 24 discussed intervention strategies. Both oral swab and finger-prick methods had high acceptability with ease of access and availability of the test cited as important by men. Free HIVST kits were preferred by men. Secondary distribution of kits via peers, sexual partners, and female sex workers were successful. Conclusion: HIV self-testing is highly acceptable to men. More efforts are needed to develop policies to implement HIVST programs targeting men in Sub-Saharan Africa, including a focus on linkage to care in sub-Saharan Africa. Future interventions should directly target men independently in tandem with using peers and their romantic partners to promote self-testing among men in sub-Saharan Africa. HIVST kit distribution strategies should be combined with services that can offer confirmatory tests and counseling for men as well as linkage to care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Autoteste , Estigma Social
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282078
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 563, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite several intervention programmes in South Africa, risky sexual behaviours among women of reproductive age remain a public health concern, making them vulnerable to unintended pregnancies and/or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of risky sexual behaviours among women of reproductive age in a high HIV-burden township in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 471 women of reproductive age (18-49 years, mean: 25.83) in 10 public health clinics in Umlazi Township, responded to a structured questionnaire. Data were coded, entered into Epi Data Manager and exported to Stata for analysis. A Pearson Chi-square tests and logistic regression models (bivariate and multivariate) were employed to assess the level of the association between the predictor and outcome variables and the p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: More than half (51.80%) of the women were aged 18-24 years and only a handful (18.26%) had a tertiary qualification. The majority were single (88.96%) and the unemployed accounted for 53.50%. This study found that women who had talked about condoms with their partner in the past 12 months were more likely (p = < 0.0001) to have used condoms during their last sexual intercourse. Older women (p = 0.035) were more likely to have used a condom at last sex, compared to younger women. However, women who were exposed to physical partner violence (hitting and/or slapping), those who had been diagnosed with HIV and those whose sexual partners were diagnosed with HIV, did not show a significant association with condom use at last sex. CONCLUSION: Exposure to physical partner violence and poor partner discussions about condoms are key deterrents to condom usage. Holistic interventions are required in order to address the risky behaviours, and consequently reduce sexually transmitted infections and/or unintended pregnancies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/patologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Delitos Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(1): 13-23, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174231

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV testing among men remains low globally and in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in particular, when compared with their female counterparts. The aim of this study was to synthesise evidence on barriers to HIV testing among men in SSA using a scoping review method.Methods: A scoping review was conducted, guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework. A search was made in PubMed, American Doctoral Dissertations via EBSCOhost, Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations and SA ePublications via SABINET Online and World Cat Dissertations, Theses via OCLC and Google Scholar. The PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) chart was used to document the review process. The PRISMA extension for scoping reviews - PRISMA-ScR: checklist and explanation - was also used. The mixed method appraisal tool version 2018 was used to determine the methodological quality of the included studies. Thematic analyses were conducted using NVivo version 11.Results: Key barriers to HIV testing among men in SSA were knowledge of HIV, fear of testing positive for HIV, stigma associated with HIV, healthcare providers' services, confidentiality, and clinic setting.Conclusion: Structural and individual factors present barriers to HIV testing uptake among men in SSA. Community and home-based initiatives have the potential to improve the uptake of HIV testing among men in SSA, considering the confidentiality concerns posed by clinic settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Estigma Social , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Gatos , Confidencialidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
JBI Evid Synth ; 18(3): 571-575, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to synthesize the best available evidence on men's perspectives on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa. INTRODUCTION: Many factors influence men's poor HIV testing uptake in healthcare facilities, including stigma and confidentiality. Due to men's low engagement with healthcare facilities, there remains a high proportion of HIV-positive men who are unaware of their HIV status. The HIV self-testing models enable individuals to conduct and interpret their own HIV test at their own convenient time and private space, removing some of the barriers associated with accessing healthcare facility-based HIV testing services. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider studies that explore men's perspectives and experiences on the use of HIV self-testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies with men of any age will be considered. The studies must provide evidence on HIV self-testing, present analysis of qualitative data, and be published from January 2005, with no language restrictions. This review will consider studies of qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and action research. METHODS: An initial search of PubMed and CINAHL will be conducted, followed by an analysis of text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the articles. Titles and abstracts will be screened by two independent reviewers for assessment against the inclusion criteria. Retrieval of full-text studies and critical appraisal will be conducted by two independent reviewers. Data will be extracted and pooled for meta-aggregation, and a Summary of Findings will be presented.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por HIV , Homens/psicologia , Autoteste , África ao Sul do Saara , Atenção à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(12): e19490, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contraceptive use and sexual health behavior remain a prominent public health concern in South Africa (SA). Despite many government interventions, unintended pregnancies and termination of pregnancies remain relatively high. This review aimed to map evidence on factors influencing contraceptive use and sexual behavior in SA. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework. We searched for articles from the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, American Doctoral Dissertations via EBSCO host, Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations (UCTD) and SA ePublications via SABINET Online and World Cat Dissertations, Theses via OCLC and Google Scholar. Studies published from January 1990 to March 2018 were included. We used the Population, Concept, and Context (PCC) framework and the PRISMA chart to report the screening of results. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) version 11 and ACCODS tools were used to determine the quality of the included studies. RESULTS: A total of 2030 articles were identified by our search criteria for title screening. Only 21 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in quality assessment stage. We found that knowledge of a contraceptive method, length of a relationship, sexual debut, age difference between partners availability of a contraceptive method, long waiting hours, and nurse's attitudes toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive or younger clients predict whether or not women use a contraceptive method or improve sexual behavior. CONCLUSION: There remains a necessity for improving educational programs aimed at transferring knowledge on contraceptives and sexual behavior to both women and their male counterparts, alongside the public health systems' improvements.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/tendências , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Conhecimento do Paciente sobre a Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 66, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the many HIV testing models implemented in Africa, the level of HIV testing uptake remains relatively poor, especially among men. The HIV self-testing (HIVST) model offers an additional approach for encouraging men to get tested. This study aimed to synthesise evidence on men's perspectives regarding HIVST in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: The databases searched included PubMed/MEDLINE, American Doctoral Dissertations via EBSCO host; Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations; SA ePublications via SABINET Online; World Cat Dissertations; Theses via OCLC; ERIC; CINAH; PsychInfo; Embase, Sociological Abstract, Scopus; and Google Scholar. The World Health Organization (WHO) and The Joint United Nations' Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) websites were further searched. We only extracted qualitative information from the included studies, despite the research method used (qualitative or mixed methods). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA), as well as the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) version 2018, were used to determine the methodological quality of the included studies. NVivo version 11 was used for thematic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 21,184 articles were identified by the initial search criteria, but only 16 articles were included in the data extraction and quality assessment stage. The following key themes emerged: knowledge of HIVST; acceptability of HIVST; need for HIVST counselling; confidentiality of HIVST; convenience of HIVST; and accuracy of HIVST. The study shows that while HIVST provides men with an alternative, confidential and convenient testing model, the potential for psychological and physical harm remains a challenge. CONCLUSION: The introduction of the HIVST strategy has the potential of improving men's uptake in HIV testing services, thereby contributing towards addressing the first cascade of the 90-90-90 strategy. While HIVST has a potential for addressing men's barriers to attending clinic settings, such as confidentiality and convenience, it barely addresses the HIVST counselling and accuracy concerns.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Testes Sorológicos
14.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 1: 100038, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173573

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over nineteen million people globally with over 700 â€‹000 fatalities as of 9 August 2020. To date, Africa has recorded the least amount of COVID-19 confirmed cases. As of 9 August 2020, Africa has 1, 037, 135 cases compared to 10, 615, 855 in Americas and 3, 061, 264 in Europe. In this piece, the authors unpack the low numbers of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases in Africa - is it a case of limited testing capacity due to poor health systems or otherwise?

15.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 240, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food control is defined as a mandatory regulatory activity of enforcement aimed at ensuring that all foods during production, handling, storage, processing, and distribution are safe, wholesome, and fit for human consumption; conform to safety and quality requirements; and are honestly and accurately labeled as prescribed by law. This applies to food served by the conventional food supply chain as well as the charitable food assistance programs (CFAPs). This review sought to map the available evidence on the food control in the CFAPs globally. METHODS: In order to identify the literature, we developed a series of search terms, as well as parameters for including articles to review the literature using African Index Medicus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost (MEDLINE with full text, Academic search complete, MEDLINE) search engines. Articles were also searched through the "Cited by" search as well as citations included in the reference lists of included articles. We included studies reported in all languages and published from inception to 2018. We included studies if they presented evidence of the CFAPs, namely food banks, food charitable organizations (FCOs), pantries, community soup kitchens, and emergency shelters. We presented the results of our search using thematic analysis in order to reveal the emerging themes. RESULTS: Beyond inconsistencies with the classification of the CFAPs, our study found significant knowledge gaps in crucial areas, namely food vulnerability, food traceability, vulnerability of beneficiary populations, and lack of food control. Our search yielded a total of 23 articles, which we included in the analysis. Results show that while food is the critical commodity to saving lives, if not controlled properly, it can have an adverse effect, especially on people it is meant to benefit (the vulnerable). CONCLUSION: With no previous comprehensive review to assess what is known about food control in the CFAPs, we undertook a scoping review, focusing on mapping the key concepts, including the main sources and types of evidence available. By drawing conclusions about the overall state of research activity and identifying research gaps and priorities in the existing literature, this study provides a baseline assessment of the CFAP research published in peer-reviewed journals from inception to 2018.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos/normas , Saúde Pública , Humanos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 496, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV testing serves as a critical gateway for linkage and retention to care services, particularly in sub-Saharan African countries with high burden of HIV infections. However, the current progress towards addressing the first cascade of the 90-90-90 programme is largely contributed by women. This study aimed to map evidence on the intervention strategies to improve HIV uptake among men in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review guided by Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) framework and Levac et al. (2010) recommendation for methodological enhancement for scoping review studies. We searched for eligible articles from electronic databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE; American Doctoral Dissertations via EBSCO host; Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations (UCTD); SA ePublications via SABINET Online; World Cat Dissertations; Theses via OCLC; and Google Scholar. We included studies from January 1990 to August 2018. We used the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool version 2018 was used to determine the methodological quality of the included studies. We further used NVivo version 11 to aid with content thematic analysis. RESULTS: This study revealed that teaching men about HIV; Community-Based HIV testing; Home-Based HIV testing; Antenatal Care HIV testing; HIV testing incentives and HIV Self-testing are important strategies to improving HIV testing among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The need for improving programmes aimed at giving more information to men about HIV that are specifically tailored for men, especially given their poor uptake of HIV testing services was also found. This study further revealed the need for implementing Universal Test and Treat among HIV positive men found through community-based testing strategies, while suggesting the importance of restructuring home-based HIV testing visits to address the gap posed by mobile populations. CONCLUSION: The community HIV testing, as well as, HIV self-testing strategies showed great potential to increase HIV uptake among men in sub-Saharan Africa. However, to address poor linkage to care, ART should be initiated soon after HIV diagnosis is concluded during community testing services. We also recommend more research aimed at addressing the quality of HIV self-testing kits, as well as, improving the monitoring systems of the distributed HIV self-testing kits.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Geografia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Testes Sorológicos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(52): e13774, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contraceptive use and sexual health behavior remain a prominent public health concern in South Africa. Despite many government interventions, unplanned pregnancies, number of abortions, and maternal mortality remain relatively high. Due to high pregnancy levels and the stigma associated with termination of pregnancy, more women turn to unsafe and illegal abortions despite the risks involved. Risky sexual behavior pose a serious risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on factors influencing contraceptive use and sexual behavior in South Africa. METHODS: We will conduct a scoping review guided by framework by Arksey and O'Malley. This study will search for eligible literature from peer-reviewed articles and grey literature. Databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, American Doctoral Dissertations via EBSCO host, Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations (UCTD) and SA ePublications via SABINET Online and World Cat Dissertations, Theses via OCLC, and Google Scholar will be searched. Websites such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and governmental websites and statistics institutions will be explored for policies and guidelines on contraceptive use and sexual behavior. The review will be conducted on studies that were published from January 1990 to 2018. The PCC framework will be employed in this study to determine the eligibility of research question. The PRISMA chart will be utilized to report the screening of results. The MMAT Tool version 11 will be used to determine the quality of the included primary studies. RESULTS: We anticipate finding a considerable number of published articles presenting evidence on contraceptive use and sexual health behavior in South Africa. Findings of this scoping review will be disseminated electronically, in print, and through peer presentation, conferences, and congresses.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Aborto Criminoso/psicologia , Aborto Criminoso/tendências , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Estigma Social , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
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